Afghan War Theatre: 2001-02
CCHF is a viral disease of both animals and humans transmitted through the bite of at
least 29 species of ticks and through exposure to infected animals,their carcasses or tothe blood and bodily fluids
of infected persons. In humans, it appears suddenly with symptoms similar to those of influenza, followed by a rash. Hemorrhage, which does not occur in all cases and can be more severe in some and less in others, begins on or about the fourth day and continues for about two weeks. The fatality rate is, in the aggregate of all outbreaks, 30%.
In animals, the disease takes the form of mild fever and viremia in sheep, cattle and small mammals such as hares. A vaccine exists, but the most widespread form of control is the use of anti-tick solutions into which animals are literally dipped – a practice that can cause extreme trauma and must be repeated regularly to be effective. The causal agent is a Nairovirus of the Bunyaviridae family. Active disease occurs in many parts of the eastern hemisphere: southern China, southeastern Europe (in particular, the Caucasian countries), India, the Near East and throughout Africa. Antibodies, indicating immunity achieved through past mild infection, have been found widely. The name of the disease indicates the chronology of the first detections of the disease.