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Theileria, Scotland, UK
Theileria annulata (tropical Theilerosis, Egyptian fever or Mediterranean coast fever) has killed two head of cattle on a farm run by the now famous Roslin Institute (the cloning of Dolly) near Edinburgh, Scotland. Twenty-two cattle have been destroyed after tests indicated Theileria infection. And an additional 400 cattle, previously sold to commercial farmers, are being tracked down to see if they, too, are carrying the disease.
Theileria, which poses a persistent threat to cattle in Africa, India, China and some southern European countries, it is extremely rare in northern Europe. It is surmised that the outbreak in Scotland occurred when animals on the Institute's farm came in contact with cattle that had been deliberately infected several years ago as part of a research program to develop a new vaccine against the disease. It is unclear how many cattle that were a part of the experiment were released from the institute's farm. The director of Roslin, Grahame Bulfield, said that cross-contamination during blood sampling of the experimental animals is likely responsible. Normally, the disease is transmitted by ticks, and develops through the formation of sporozoietes. Symptoms include fever, lymph node swelling, anorexia – all of which lead to emaciation. Pregnant cows usually abort their fetuses. There is also a high mortality rate among animals acutely infected. Recovery in lesser infections is long and uncertain.
All milk from the institute's farm has been withdrawn from the market.
Source: The Daily Telegraph, London, 12 June 2000Outbreak Outbreak
Pseudorabies, swine, Iowa USA
Pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease or "mad itch pig disease"), has infected swine herds in Iowa to the point that neighboring Wisconsin has ordered that all pigs brought into its boundaries be tested. There are at least infected 600 swine herds in Iowa. Animals from these herds can be sent only to slaughter in a sealed vehicle, and cannot be sold or transported for other purposes.
The disease is spread through a herpes virus that can kill cats and dogs, as well as pigs, goats, cattle and sheep. Clinical symptoms in swine usually begin with sneezing and coughing, progressing through anorexia and lassitude to lack of coordination, convulsions and coma. Cattle, on the other hand, become aggressive.
Outbreaks of pseudorabies are not unusual; it is only the number of swine herds infected in Iowa that is alarming.
Source: Wisconsin State Journal, 7 June 2000