Department Seal Foreign Military Training and DoD
Engagement Activities of Interest, Volume I

Joint Report to Congress, March 1, 2000
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  III. DOS FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES

Africa Region

ANGOLA

 

FY 1999 Actual

FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

IMET

0

0

2

$24,000

ACSS

0

0

4

$64,360

TOTAL

0

0

6

$88,360

United States goals in Angola emphasize efforts to address the humanitarian repercussions of the country's long-running civil war (including the effects of up to eight million landmines in Angolan soil) and to lay the foundations for an eventual peace. Modest military training activities are a part of this program.

A small IMET program to begin in FY 2000 will allow initiation of efforts to improve the professionalism of the Angolan military--especially in the areas of civil-military relations and respect for the rule of law--and will foster ongoing contacts with U.S. military personnel by which the training will be reinforced. DoD funding will also allow Angola to participate in conferences sponsored by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, recently established to foster in Africa the exchanges of military thinking that have been carried on for years in Europe by the Marshall Center.

BENIN

 

FY 1999 Actual

FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

IMET

80

$149,199

75

$179,485

ACRI

679

$1,836,156

824

$2,760,640

Misc. DoD or DoS Activities

1

0

0

0

ACSS

0

0

5

$80,450

TOTAL

760

$1,985,355

904

$5,005,930

Since the transition from a Marxist military regime in 1990, Benin has shown itself to be a model of democracy in the region. Free and fair presidential elections have led to the peaceful hand-over of government and the country has a lively and crowded political landscape. The Beninese military has returned to a lesser role in Beninese society, although President Kerekou, as a former military man, remains attentive to the military's needs. At present, Benin faces no external threat to its stability and the Armed Forces have increasingly looked to international peacekeeping as a potential future mission.

The Beninese have been enthusiastic participants in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI). However, to date, Benin's Armed Forces (BAF) have played only a limited role in regional peacekeeping. We continue to encourage the Beninese to be more engaged in the region, both on a political and military/peacekeeping level. We seek to strengthen the capabilities of the BAF to provide international humanitarian relief. Programs such as IMET, ACSS, and ACRI will aid in increasing both the BAF's readiness and participation in international peacekeeping as well as buttressing democratic government and good governance.

BOTSWANA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

56

$201,827

45

$331,179

Misc. DoD or DoS Activities

32

$113,000

0

0

ACSS

0

 

4

$64,360

TOTAL

88

$314,827

49

$395,539

Botswana has one of the longest-running democracies and most fiscally prudent economic regimes on the continent. Our efforts focus on supporting Botswana's stable democracy, expanding U.S. business opportunities and advocating Botswana's leadership in the region. On the security side, Botswana has one of the region's most professional and responsible military establishments and offers a model for civilian-military relations for the rest of southern Africa.

Botswana has provided a venue for regional military exchanges that have been well-received and that have fostered a spirit of regional cooperation. Through IMET program and other regional initiatives, we seek to expand our connections with Botswana's military leaders and support their interest in contributing to efforts to strengthen both regional civil-military ties and regional military-military relations. The IMET program will train approximately 30 Botswana Defense Force (BDF) officers. These officers will continue taking courses in senior military leadership (officer and enlisted), financial management, combat and combat support arms, medical specialties and military justice. These courses not only support individual professional development but prepare the BDF to better execute PKO and humanitarian support operations on the continent. At the same time, modest counternarcotics training assistance will help combat use of Botswana as a transit point for drug trafficking.

BURKINA FASO
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

ACSS

0

0

4

$64,360

TOTAL

0

0

4

$64,360

The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

BURUNDI
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

ACSS

0

0

2

$32,180

TOTAL

0

0

2

$32,180

The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

CAMEROON
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

38

$75,589

31

$264,808

Service Academy

4

$296,948

2

$35,000

ACSS

0

0

5

$80,450

TOTAL

42

$372,537

38

$380,258

U.S. goals in Cameroon include the successful transformation of Cameroonian society into a democratic, law-based, non-corrupt, pluralistic community, functioning on market principles and integrated into the world economy. As a relatively peaceful island of stability in central Africa, Cameroon is being encouraged to use its role as the leading sub-regional economic power to promote regional stability and reduce environmental degradation.

Cameroon's military has an important role to play in terms of supporting regional peacekeeping initiatives and promoting peaceful resolution of border disputes with neighboring countries, particularly in the case of the Bakassi peninsula and the Equatoguinean/Nigerian maritime border. Moreover, it is crucial to have military participation and cooperation in enforcing international covenants on refugees and war criminals, and to have the support of the armed forces as Cameroon undertakes additional political and economic reforms.

Most of the military training provided to Cameroon is designed to encourage good military-to-military relationships and increased understanding of the constructive role the military can play in promoting civilian programs. For example, in FY 1999 four Cameroonian students attended U.S. military academies where they are being exposed to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures and mechanisms for civilian control. Similarly, an IMET seminar was held in Cameroon on the subject of civilian control of defense resources.

Other IMET funds target building professionalism within the Cameroonian armed forces through English language and technical training for junior- to mid-level military officers. As part of this training, U.S.-Cameroonian military-to-military contacts increase, and the U.S. is assured greater access to Cameroonian air and port facilities. Cameroon's political stability, strategic location and excellent airport facilities make it ideal as a staging area for humanitarian interventions in the region and thereby make this increased U.S. access an important asset.

CAPE VERDE
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

2

$26,056

3

$52,167

ACSS

0

0

4

$64,360

TOTAL

2

$26,056

7

$116,527

In its twenty-five years of independence, Cape Verde has been free of internal and external conflict, and its military has consistently played a constructive role in civil society. The country's physical isolation and limited number of educational institutions make it heavily reliant on training from other countries to develop appropriate technical proficiencies. In view of these limitations, the country's small IMET program is focused on providing complementary training to the Cape Verdean military to enhance English language capabilities, necessary for effective international cooperation on maritime patrols and other military activities. In addition, IMET officer training and participation in the ACSS provide a low-cost investment to help ensure the continued professionalism of Cape Verde's military under civilian, democratic leadership.

Through greater English-language proficiency, the Cape Verdean military could make use of other training opportunities in future to increase its capabilities to patrol territorial waters, which would allow them to reduce unauthorized fishing and thereby combat the twin environmental threats of overfishing and reduced biodiversity. In addition, effective coastal patrols would improve the country's ability to interdict drug transshipments.

CENTRAL AFRICA REPUBLIC
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

2

$51,885

2

$51,923

ACSS

0

0

4

$64,360

TOTAL

2

$51,885

6

$116,283

The Central African Republic (CAR) has suffered great upheaval in the last four years, caused largely by government mismanagement and serious arrears in military and civil service salaries. These salary arrears, as well as inequities in treatment among the various parts of the armed forces, provoked a series of mutinies in CAR in 1996 and 1997. International peacekeepers have guaranteed security in the CAR since 1997, but are scheduled to depart by February 2000, at which time local military and police forces will take on their security responsibilities. The principal U.S. interests in the CAR are to support international efforts to maintain peace in the CAR, and hence the region, while encouraging the implementation of economic, political and military reforms that will prevent a recurrence of the military mutinies and civil strife of 1996 and 1997. Restructuring and demobilization of some of the CAR armed forces are crucial to these efforts. The ability of armed forces personnel to accept and understand the military's role under a civilian government and to promote respect for human rights and democratic principles will be key to the success of the post-peacekeeping transition.

IMET funds for English language training and mid-level professional development for CAR military personnel laid the groundwork for further exposure of CAR military officers to the U.S. system for civilian control of the military. The importance of democratic values, rule of law, and respect for individuals' civil and human rights are reinforced in these courses, while U.S. and CAR military personnel develop important professional and personal relationships. An added benefit of IMET training is the chance for U.S. officials to encourage the CAR military to promote regional stability by maintaining CAR neutrality with regard to conflicts in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo, also a key element of CAR participation in the ACSS. These results constitute substantial returns on a modest investment.

CHAD
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

53

$4,092

30

$55,952

FMF (1996)

48

$78,400

0

0

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command

129

$2,683,000

0

0

Misc. DoD or DoS Activities

35

$167,000

0

0

ACSS

0

 

4

$64,360

TOTAL

265

$2,932,492

34

$120,312

Occupying a strategic position at a historic crossroads, Chad is particularly vulnerable to rogue state neighbors like Libya and Sudan; U.S. assistance provides a counter-balance by promoting a stable and democratic society able to constructively contribute to regional conflict resolution and full participation within the global economy. Restructured within the last five years, the Chadian armed forces have a key role to play in resolving armed conflicts within Chad as well as in the region, where they have participated in several peacekeeping operations. Their support for democratic rule and civilian control and direction of the armed forces is crucial to Chad's (and the region's) future stability.

U.S. IMET training on rule of law and human rights not only addresses key objectives of promoting democracy and appropriate civilian management of the armed forces, but also enables U.S. trainers to build important military-to-military contacts that help combat anti-U.S. influence in Chad and serve as a basis for future international peacekeeping efforts in the region. Specifically, FY 1999 IMET funds paid for travel to Chad by a Military Education Team to promote improved military justice systems and procedures for protection of internationally recognized human rights. FMF funds were used to train 48 students in Defense Resource Management, furthering the Chadians' understanding of the civilian role in determining military budget priorities and oversight of military expenditures. This course also provides valuable assistance in developing better relations between key military and civilian leaders.

U.S. humanitarian demining training assistance has also significantly strengthened the Chadians' abilities to resolve the serious problem of mines throughout Chad; injuries, deaths and the inability to use large areas of land have a direct impact on the country's stability and economic development. The U.S. has trained over 125 personnel in humanitarian demining operations and supported establishment of national and regional headquarters for these operations.

As this background indicates, U.S. military training assistance to Chad both serves important U.S. policy goals and contributes to resolving problems caused by mines that are of great importance to the Chadians themselves.

COMOROS

  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

1

$10,821

0

0

A small island nation in the Indian Ocean, the Comoros has a history of military involvement in politics. This background has given particular importance to U.S. efforts to promote democracy and stability in the Comoros and to strengthen the professionalism of the Comorian Defense Force, including respect for civilian control. The modest IMET program for the Comoros in the past has been an important element in U.S. policy toward and bilateral relations with the Comorian government. In addition, increased professionalism on the part of the Comorian Defense Forces has improved their ability to protect coastal waters against overfishing and ecological degradation -- another important U.S. goal.

In April 1999, however, the Comoros experienced a military coup that overthrew the civilian government elected in March 1996. Under Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act for FY 2000, bilateral assistance to Comoros has been suspended. Although some regional humanitarian programs will continue, all military cooperation is presently discontinued. This includes IMET, E-IMET, ACRI, JCET and any other military-to-military contact. These sanctions will remain in place until the President certifies that a democratically elected government has taken office.

CONGO (BRAZZAVILLE)
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

ACSS

0

0

2

$32,180

TOTAL

0

0

2

$32,180

The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (DROC)
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

0

0

2

$20,000

ACSS

0

0

4

$64,300

TOTAL

0

0

6

$84,300

The key U.S. interest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC) is a negotiated end to the conflict which began in August 1998 and has become the widest war in modern African history. The Congo war has involved troops from at least eight countries, various insurgent groups, arms trafficking with rogue states, and smuggling of diamonds and other precious commodities. The war has decimated the economy and halted any prospect for the nation's embryonic democratic transition process. A prolongation of the conflict could spark a humanitarian crisis of epic proportions with massive flows of refugees and internally displaced persons.

Diplomatic efforts focus on achieving a negotiated settlement of the conflict, including a cease-fire and progress on resolving both the internal (governance) and external (border security) problems underlying the conflict. When a settlement is reached and Congress grants a waiver allowing the resumption of security assistance to the Congo, an IMET program will help to promote professionalism within a new Congolese military in accordance with the Lusaka Cease-Fire Agreement, enhance the capability of the government to protect its territorial integrity, and enhance the prospects for stable, democratic governance. Given a small budget and several years since the U.S. government has had an IMET program with the country, we anticipate using the first budget allocations to purchase English language labs or to train English instructors and to provide courses on military justice and civil-military relations. Participation at the ACSS will reinforce these latter areas through its programs with senior African civilian and military leaders.

COTE D'IVOIRE
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

7

$82,098

0

0

ACRI

0

0

0

0

ACSS

0

0

6

$96,540

TOTAL

7

$82,098

6

$96,540

With the third largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa, Cote d'Ivoire plays an influential role in West Africa. The country had deservedly obtained a reputation for political stability and economic growth that made it a model for its neighbors. The Ivorian Armed Forces have been an important element in developing the African Crisis Response Initiative, and Cote d'Ivoire has been a key center for regional training.

However, on December 24, 1999, a military coup ousted the duly elected government of President Henri Konan Bedie. Former General Robert Guei assumed the Presidency and the Defense Ministry while a transitional government explores the mechanisms for a return to democracy. Under Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act for FY 2000, bilateral assistance to Cote d'Ivoire has been suspended. Although some regional humanitarian programs will continue, all military cooperation is presently suspended. This includes IMET, E-IMET, ACRI, JCET and any other military-to-military contact. These sanctions will remain in place until the President certifies that a democratically elected government has taken office.

DJIBOUTI
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

6

$43,685

4

$105,758

Misc. DoD or DoS Activities

54

$87,000

45

$1,500,000

ACSS

0

0

3

$48,270

TOTAL

60

$130,685

52

$1,654,028

Djibouti is strategically located between Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia, and borders the critical strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the past, the government of Djibouti has assisted the deployment of U.S. forces in the region by allowing military units to stage from the country. This fact was demonstrated when U.S. military aircraft utilized the Djibouti international airport from January 25 to February 23, 1999, to support a potential non-combatant evacuation of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Additionally, the capital city possesses port and fuel storage facilities capable of receiving various U.S. naval vessels. Both facilities, air and sea, have proven their value to U.S. military force projections and operations in and around the region.

IMET training assistance makes up the single largest military engagement program for Djibouti. The program has been successful. The Djiboutian junior and mid-grade officers who have attended U.S. officer development courses such as Command and General Staff College (CGSC) or officer advance courses have risen to key positions in the Djiboutian military. By allowing officers to attend courses that promote civilian/military relations and human rights training, we further Djibouti's democratic process while maintaining good military-to-military relations.

In order to maintain continued access to this vital location on the Horn of Africa, it is imperative we maintain or increase IMET spending. The benefit received from Djibouti's access far exceeds the small price we pay through IMET spending. As the Horn of Africa continues to be in turmoil, a stable, more democratic Djibouti will remain a vital recipient of U.S. military training assistance programs.

ERITREA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

10

$97,969

7

$298,904

Misc. DoD or DoS Activities

0

0

45

$2,000,000

ACSS

0

 

4

$64,360

TOTAL

10

$97,969

56

$2,363,264

Eritrea only became a sovereign nation in 1993, following an internationally monitored referendum on independence from Ethiopia. The referendum was organized after the 1991 victory by the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) over the previous Ethiopian Government (the Derg). The thirty-year independence struggle waged by the EPLF was primarily a guerrilla war. After winning independence, the Eritrean Government demobilized most freedom fighters. However, a border conflict with Ethiopia that broke out in May 1998 has brought about nation-wide mobilization.

Eritrea is still setting up its democratic institutions, including a professional armed force. This effort has been slowed down by the border conflict. Once there is a peaceful solution to that conflict, U.S. assistance will be critical to building a professional Eritrean military sensitive to the separation between civilian and military authority.

The primary U.S. national interest in Eritrea is its national security. The U.S. and Eritrea enjoy an expanding bilateral relationship that is critical to maintaining access to the Red Sea, via the longest sea coast on the Horn, and to protecting U.S. power projection capability into the Arabian peninsula. Eritrea is also a key player in maintaining regional stability in the Horn of Africa, particularly in our efforts to stem the influence of terrorism supported by Sudan and anarchy in Somalia. A modern, well-trained Eritrean armed force will assist us in accomplishing our national security goals in the region.

U.S. IMET and other training activities are key to supporting Eritrea's efforts to professionalize its force, downsize military personnel, and ensure it remains under civilian control. Prior to the outbreak of conflict with Ethiopia, Eritrea had demobilized most of its force, downsizing the military to under 48,000 troops. It benefited from U.S. training programs. After the current conflict, we will seek to work with Eritrea to promote downsizing and professionalization of its forces.

ETHIOPIA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

7

$99,487

5

$220,609

ACSS

0

0

2

$32,180

Misc. DoD or DoS Activities

0

0

30

$2,000,000

TOTAL

7

$99,487

37

$2,252,789

Ethiopia is key to U.S. security interests in the Horn of Africa, a turbulent region threatened by Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism supported by Sudan and terrorism thriving in the anarchy of Somalia. Ethiopia's internal stability and its role as a salient regional and international leader remain critical for the stability of the Horn as a whole. The long-term goal of transforming the Ethiopian military into a professional, apolitical modern force remains important, despite the constraints imposed by Ethiopia's still-unresolved conflict with Eritrea. When a peace accord is reached, Ethiopia is expected to resume its full partnership in the Africa Crisis Response Initiative and the East Africa Regional Security Initiative.

IMET assistance will assist in increasing the professionalism of the Ethiopian military and in strengthening the U.S.-Ethiopian military relationship. Participation at the ACSS will provide academic and practical programs in civil-military relations. These programs will be important in our future relationship with an Ethiopia where defense considerations are likely to be of great importance.

[end of file]

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