Department Seal Foreign Military Training and DoD
Engagement Activities of Interest, Volume I

Joint Report to Congress, March 1, 2000
Flag Bar
  III. DOS FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES

Near East Region

ALGERIA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

12

$107,631

12

$219,108

ACSS

0

0

4

$64,360

TOTAL

12

$107,631

16

$283,468

The U.S. has a clear interest in increasing regional stability by promoting an open democracy, economic reform, and peace and security in Algeria. Algeria's military, the second largest in Africa, is emerging from eight years of conflict with armed insurgents. The proposed plan is a cautious, measured approach intended to encourage reform within an Algerian military establishment gradually moving along a path toward greater pluralism and respect for civilian authority.

The IMET program helps Algerian military officers understand and increase their support for U.S. policy. These activities, as well as participation at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, increase awareness of international norms of human rights and fosters greater respect for the principle of civilian control of the military. In FY 2000, IMET funds are being used for officer training and will finance the participation of Algerian officers in our Naval Staff College, Air Command and Staff College, and Army Command and General Staff College. These officers will establish essential contacts with U.S. counterparts whose influence can encourage reform within the Algerian military. IMET-funded English language training also improves the Algerian military's interoperability with U.S. forces and their participation in future peacekeeping missions.

BAHRAIN
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

34

$227,671

34

$330,572

Service Academy

1

$74,237

0

0

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

2

0

0

0

TOTAL

37

$301,908

34

$330,572

The United States has a demonstrable and enduring national security interest in maintaining its access to Bahraini military facilities in order to maintain our influence in the Persian Gulf region. Bahrain has been a steadfast supporter of our foreign policy objectives in Iraq and Libya not only as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council in 1997 but as a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Bahrain has also been a critical supporter of our containment of Iranian ambitions in the region and our efforts to combat international terrorism.

The political and military relationship with Bahrain has continued to be strong and flexible. Bahrain has hosted an Air Expeditionary Force at Sheikh Isa Air Base (SIAB) and has hosted the U.S. Navy for more than 50 years. The relatively open access to facilities, land, and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including Joint Task Force and fleet operations are critical to the U.S. presence in the region and ongoing Multinational Interception Force operations. Bahrain annually hosts four major exercises that involve U.S. forces. We have a strong security relationship that rests on the Defense Cooperation Agreement signed in 1991.

Training activities under IMET, the continuation of Excess Defense Article (EDA) transfers and the approval of selected commercial arms sales will enable the Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF) to assume greater responsibility for regional defense, while promoting interoperability with existing U.S. and GCC forces in the region. Service academy continued military-to-military contacts, joint military exercises, and the continuation of the U.S./Bahrain Military Consultative Commission (MCC) will recognize Bahrain's invaluable support for U.S. force deployments and encourage the development of professional military command committed to the principle of civilian control. Bahrain has a robust security assistance program with the U.S. and views grant EDA as an appropriate U.S. gesture of recognition and thanks for the longstanding relationship and the support Bahrain has generally provided the U.S. military.

EGYPT
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

82

$391,656

79

$673,668

Foreign Military Financing (FMF) Program

2145

$24,550,764

1044

$5,507,718

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

132

$187,000

155

$64,047

TOTAL

2359

$25,129,420

1278

$6,245,433

Egypt is a pivotal country in the Arab world and a key U.S. ally in the Middle East. The U.S. seeks to promote regional peace and security by encouraging Egypt's continued participation and leadership in the Middle East peace process. Egypt has been at peace with Israel for two decades, but has potentially hostile rivals in Sudan and Libya. Egypt also faces challenges to maintaining sea lines of communication, the protection of its territorial waters, and the headwaters of the Nile.

As our principal Middle East coalition partner, Egypt participates in a number of annual joint military exercises. Egypt also hosts the biannual Bright Star exercise, which is the largest joint exercise in the world. Egypt is well into the process of replacing its outmoded Soviet-era equipment with smaller quantities of more capable and sustainable U.S. equipment. Increasing the amount of U.S.-origin equipment in the Egyptian inventory augments U.S. interoperability with Egypt, thereby enhancing their value as a coalition partner. Egypt's strategic location and control of the Suez Canal make it a critical transit point for petroleum and for U.S. forces in the Persian Gulf region. Egypt has readily granted U.S. forces transit through the Suez and over-flight of its territory.

Egypt's U.S.-funded training program is exceptionally robust and vital to our relationship. Specifically, Egyptian training funded under the IMET and FMF programs enhance counter-terrorism training and improve Egypt's maintenance and supply capabilities. These funds have also been instrumental in improving the English language skills of the Egyptian officer corps, training military police, providing logistics instruction and teaching hostage negotiation techniques. FMF-funded training has improved the proficiency of Egyptian pilots and provides advanced leadership skill, logistics, maintenance and operational training and for members of each of its four services. FMF funds tuition for Egyptian students attending U.S. military staff colleges and academies, thereby improving understanding between our militaries. All of these programs directly enhance joint training, as well as Egypt's value as a key coalition partner.

IRAQ
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

0

0

3

$16,000

TOTAL

0

0

3

$16,000

The Iraq Liberation Act (ILA), P.L. 105-338, Section 4 (a) (2) provides the President authority "to direct the drawdown of defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense, defense services of the Department of Defense, and military education and training for [Iraqi opposition] organizations."

Such training will focus on helping the Iraqi opposition improve its ability to function as a democratic opposition and demonstrate to Iraqis that a credible alternative to Saddam Hussein's brutal regime exists. Training will be offered in such areas as public affairs, strategic planning, the provision of humanitarian assistance, international law, and civil reconstruction.

To date, three students have received training in civil-military relations in November 1999. The Administration is working with the Iraqi National Congress, the primary umbrella organization for the Iraqi opposition, on the development of a comprehensive requirements-based training plan. It is difficult to specify how many more people we expect to train in FY2000, as the provision of training depends in large part on the ability of the opposition to identify qualified students. The Administration notified Congress in October 1999 (Presidential Determination 2000-05) that $5 million of the $97 million authorized by the ILA would be allocated for a first tranche of assistance, $3M of which will cover training expenses.

ISRAEL
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

10

$243,942

0

0

Foreign Military Financing Program (FMF)

533

$16,997,395

172

$3,871,877

TOTAL

543

$17,241,327

172

$3,871,877

It is in the United States' national interest to promote the existence of a stable, democratic and militarily strong Israel at peace with its neighbors. President Clinton has reiterated the steadfast U.S. commitment to Israel's security, to the maintenance of its qualitative edge, and to strengthening Israel's ability to deter aggressors and defend itself. Maintaining the qualitative edge of the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) in the regional balance of power enhances Israel's security, helps prevent regional conflict, and builds the confidence necessary for Israel to take calculated risks for peace. The latter remains particularly important at a time when the Middle East Peace Process with both the Palestinians and the Syrians are the focus of strong bilateral and regional attention. Israel remains one of the U.S. government's most important allies in maintaining regional stability in the Middle East and in countering the threat of weapons of mass destruction in the region.

The U.S. has provided Israel with over $70 billion in economic and military assistance since 1949, and Israel continues to receive the largest share of U.S. Security Assistance worldwide. Foreign military training spending both as a portion of U.S.-provided FMF and as DOD-funded non-security assistance, is an important element in maintaining Israel's qualitative edge. Training for Israeli personnel during FY-99 included Air War College courses, International Officers School training, English language training, flight simulator training, avionic systems and armament maintenance training, among others. By providing both technical expertise and exposure to U.S. military culture and personnel, these training programs promote interoperability and contribute significantly to the strengthening of U.S.-Israel military ties.

JORDAN
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

196

$675,466

190

$683,872

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

327

$58,000

10

0

Service Academy

3

$222,711

0

0

TOTAL

526

$956,177

200

$683,872

U.S. national security rests on peace and economic prosperity in the Middle East. Regional stability demands political stability and economic development in Jordan, a pivotal country that has signed a peace treaty of its own with Israel and has long urged the Palestinians to make their peace with Israel as well.

Jordan strongly supports the peace process and is in a position to contribute to collective regional defense goals. The U.S. Government encourages Jordan to further its own interests by more effective engagement of its peace process partners, particularly Israel and the Palestinians. The U.S. works with Jordan to assure adherence to the UN sanctions regime in Iraq, as well as strengthened border security.

Jordan has been designated a major non-NATO ally. U.S. FMF helps the Jordanian armed forces modernize and address readiness and sustainment requirements, while IMET programs continue to promote interoperability and regional, collective security. Jordanian participation in military-to-military training activities with the U.S. and other countries such as "Blue Flag OO" will promote team building and establish a baseline of knowledge of USCENTAF operations.

KUWAIT
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

0

0

10

0

TOTAL

0

0

10

0

The United States has a demonstrable and enduring national security interest in maintaining its access to Kuwait. Located on the Southern border of Iraq, Kuwait faces the difficult task of securing its borders from the principal threats in the region -- Iran and Iraq -- both of which have the capability and have demonstrated the willingness to use military forces against their neighbors. A critical part of their national security posture in the region is their military relationship with the United States.

Our political and military relationship with Kuwait has continued to be strong and flexible. Kuwait hosts the forward headquarters of CENTCOM's ground forces (operation Desert Spring) and a large contingent of air forces in support of Operation Southern Watch. It has steadfastly supported every U.S. initiative in the region. Kuwait has been especially supportive of the Multinational Interception Force (MIF) and all efforts aimed at enforcing UNSC declared sanctions against the Saddam led Iraqi government. The relatively open access to facilities, land, and airspace needed to support contingency operations, including Joint Task Force and fleet operations are critical to the U.S. presence in the region and ongoing Multinational Interception Force operations.

The participation of Kuwaitis in military to military training initiatives will enable Kuwait to assume greater responsibility for regional defense, while promoting interoperability with existing U.S. and GCC forces in the region. Continued military-to-military contacts and joint military exercises will recognize Kuwait's invaluable support for U.S. force deployments and encourage the development of professional military command committed to the principle of civilian control.

LEBANON
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

163

$472,115

162

$267,772

INL

0

0

30

0

Unified Command Engagement Activities

35

$535,000

1

0

TOTAL

198

$1,007,115

193

$267,772

Lebanon continues to emerge from its 16-year civil war. It is making slow uneven progress toward rebuilding its civil institutions and reestablishing the rule of law. U.S. interests lie in a free and independent Lebanon at peace with its neighbors, particularly Israel. A secure and independent Lebanon will seriously weaken terrorism and contribute to the fight against illegal drugs and counterfeiting.

A comprehensive Middle East peace cannot be achieved absent peace between Lebanon and Israel. Although tied to the Syrian track, we continue to use every effort to support Lebanon in efforts to reach peace with Israel, including the Israel Lebanon Monitoring Group (ILMG) and to support the development of independent institutions minimizing Syrian influence.

IMET funding was reinstated for Lebanon in 1993. The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have taken full advantage of the opportunity for professional military education and technical training. The country team reports that IMET graduates are employed in positions of command and responsibility and achieve proportionally higher rank and influence than their non-IMET peers. In addition, USG assistance to the LAF reinforces progress towards deconfessionalization (that is, reduction of the tendency to break down society along strictly sectarian/confessional lines) in one of the country's major institutions. IMET training for the LAF in FY 1999 included courses at the Air Command & Staff College, the Army War College, English language training, Maritime officer training, and acquisition courses, among others. Lebanon also benefited from non-security assistance humanitarian demining training, and will be trained in port security and waterways management by a DoD funded mobile training team in FY 2000.

MOROCCO
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

50

$350,661

49

$444,777

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

2

0

0

0

TOTAL

52

$350,661

49

$444,777

Morocco is the United States' oldest treaty ally. A strategic anchor at the cusp of Africa, Europe, and the Arab world, Morocco sits on the south side of the Straits of Gibraltar. Last July, a new king, 36-year old Mohammed VI, acceded to the throne. From the start, King Mohammed has shown he is one of the world's most progressive monarchs. He has voiced strong support for human rights and economic and political reform. However, he has inherited a kingdom that is poor -- a middle-ranked developing country -- and a political system whose reform is real but new. The United States seeks to support this democratic and free-market opening to encourage a Morocco that is stable, prosperous, and free.

Morocco's traditionally pro-U.S. international orientation and moderate policies on the Arab-Israeli conflict provide us with a key stake in the stability and continuance of Morocco's international orientation. As the dialogue between NATO and several Middle East states affirms, stability in Morocco and the Maghreb is of vital importance to our Southern European NATO allies. Moreover, U.S. military transit rights and facilities in Morocco are important to a variety of U.S. worldwide operations.

The IMET program helps Moroccan military officers understand and increases their support for U.S. policy. IMET funds basic and advanced English language training for Moroccan military officers. Moroccan officers also receive training at U.S. service academies and staff colleges. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of stability and democracy, and increase the Moroccan officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Also, IMET-funded maintenance, logistics and specialist training enhance Morocco's value as a peacekeeper and a training and potential future coalition partner.

OMAN
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

40

$118,837

39

$256,237

Service Academy

1

$74,237

0

0

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

276

$124,000

10

0

FMF

1

$2,250

0

0

TOTAL

318

$389,324

49

$256,637

Oman's location on the southern shore of the Strait of Hormuz makes our relationship with the Sultanate critical to U.S. commitments to defend national, regional, and global interests in the Gulf. Access to Oman's military bases through a bilateral agreement provides an important anchor for our regional political-military strategy. Security cooperation has been the bedrock upon which our bilateral relationship with Oman rests. Since 1980, Oman has provided access to the U.S. for bases (the first GCC state to do so) and permitted propositioning of military assets. The U.S. should actively support the Omanization of the Sultan's Armed forces through professional military training (IMET) and Excess Defense Articles (EDA) transfers. Additionally, for the past twenty years, we have been able to count on Oman's support for U.S. regional policy initiatives, including the Middle East Peace Process and U.S. Iraq policy. Oman's long-term domestic political stability improves prospects for continued policy support and military access. The U.S. government is providing technical assistance for the Sultan's political and legal reform program, and the U.S. government is working closely with Oman, both bilaterally and through the World Trade Organization accession process, to encourage a more transparent regulatory environment that will attract increased investment and trade.

Training provided to Oman covers a broad range of areas, including PME, English language, technical and logistics training, medical corps development, and maritime operations. Oman also participated in joint military exercises to improve team-building and establish baseline knowledge of U.S. operations.

QATAR
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

56

$136,000

0

0

TOTAL

56

$136,000

0

0

Our military relationship with Qatar is strong and vital. Emir Hamad is pursuing democratic principals and working to strengthen the U.S. relationship, particularly military ties. In 1992 the U.S.-Qatar Defense Cooperation Agreement was signed which established the basis for our growing military to military relationship. Over the last several years, Qatar has hosted a number of Air Expeditionary Forces (AEF) and P-3 deployments as well as the bed-down of tanker assets. Qatar has, without question, the most impressive preposition infrastructure in the Middle East, if not the world, and has agreed to provide land for the pre-positioning of combat equipment that supports a heavy Army brigade, AEF and various munitions.

Strategically located in the Gulf, it is vital that the U.S. continue to support military to military initiatives to include joint training exercises. The relationships, principles and doctrine future leaders of Qatar's military develop in these training institutions will enhance future coalition warfare and interoperability.

SAUDI ARABIA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

0

0

10

0

TOTAL

0

0

10

0

Saudi Arabia has been a staunch ally of the United States. It has funded and supported a strong U.S. presence on their soil thereby allowing us to exert a significant security influence in the Gulf. The Saudis face the difficult task of securing their borders from the principal threats in the region who have demonstrated a willingness to use military forces against their neighbors in the Gulf.

The participation in military to military training initiatives by Saudi Arabian officers will enable the Kingdom to assume greater responsibility for regional defense, while promoting interoperability with existing U.S. and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) forces in the region. Continued military to military initiatives will also contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States improving the security of a friendly country that has been, and continues to be, an important force for political stability and economic progress in the Middle East. Continued military-to-military contacts and joint military exercises will recognize Saudi Arabia's invaluable support for U.S. force deployments and encourage the development of professional military command committed to the principle of civilian control. Finally, it will enhance the capability of a key ally, further interoperability with U.S. and coalition forces, and support our efforts to promote security cooperation among the GCC members.

TUNISIA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

118

$337,170

113

$303,066

Foreign Military Financing Program (FMF)

30

$70,000

0

0

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

120

$91,000

0

0

ACSS

0

0

4

$64,360

Service Academy

2

$148,474

0

0

TOTAL

270

$646,644

117

$367,426

Tunisia is a stable democratic country in the troubled Middle East region, where a U.S. national interest in maintaining access to crucial energy supplies remains high. Located on the southern Mediterranean coast one hour from Italy, it is also a natural economic and strategic bridge from Europe to Africa. Tunisia has long been well disposed to U.S. presence in the region, and looks to U.S. leadership in the political and economic sphere, despite its colonial ties to France. Our interest is to continue and, in some areas, intensify our efforts to ensure a strong, durable fabric of bilateral relations. Finally, as the dialogue between NATO and several Middle East states affirms, stability in the Maghreb is of vital importance to our Southern European NATO allies.

Our goal is to ensure active Tunisian participation in efforts to promote regional stability, particularly in the Middle East Peace Process, bilateral military cooperation, peacekeeping operations, and continued access of U.S. forces to Tunisian facilities. Joint training exercises are an important feature of our relationship, as Tunisian troops typically engage in 16-18 combined exercises with U.S. forces annually. Tunisian training with U.S. forces enhances their value as a potential coalition partner and recently proved instrumental to Tunisia's participation in Kosovo in support of UN humanitarian efforts.

IMET funds basic and advanced English language training for Tunisian military officers. Tunisian officers have also received training at U.S. service academies, staff colleges and participated at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) programs in civil-military affairs. These opportunities promote the U.S. goals of stability and democracy, and increase the Tunisian officer corps' familiarity with U.S. values and military practices. Also, IMET-funded maintenance, logistics and specialist training will enhance Tunisia's value as a training partner and potential future coalition partner.

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

0

0

10

0

TOTAL

0

0

10

0

The United States has an excellent security relationship with the United Arab Emirates. The UAE is a strong U.S. ally in the Gulf region and has supported U.S. policy initiatives in the Gulf. They are a major procurer of advanced U.S. military technology and strive toward interoperability with U.S. forces. Therefore, military-to-military education opportunities are a top priority for the UAE. At the same time, attendance at these schools by UAE officers supports the Central Command's objective of forward engagement and interoperability. Finally, the officers who attend these schools are the future leaders of the UAE military. It is to our utmost advantage if they understand U.S. military doctrine and policy perspectives.

In FY 2000, the UAE will participate with the U.S. and other countries in "Blue Flag 00", designed to familiarize participants with roles and duties in the Air Operations Center. Participation promotes team building and establishes baseline knowledge for future USCENTAF AOC operations.

YEMEN
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

5

$71,798

5

$32,050

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

400

$81,000

0

0

TOTAL

405

$152,798

5

$32,050

Yemen, the most populous and poorest nation on the Arabian Peninsula, faces serious challenges from rapid growth and commensurate natural resource depletion, low economic growth rates, and domestic political instability. Because of Yemen's location adjacent to the Bab-al-Mandab, one of the world's most important shipping routes, and U.S. allies Saudi Arabia and Oman, Yemen can affect U.S. interests in the region. Poverty could produce an ideologically hostile state capable of becoming an unacceptable destabilizing factor in the region. Support for Yemen's democratic and economic reform programs, professional military training and a humanitarian demining program not only promote our national values in Yemen but also protect our national interests. Expanded U.S.-Yemen military cooperation through the IMET program and exercises and visits help promote a professional military that respects democracy, increases internal stability, and does not threaten its neighbors. Yemen is now eligible to receive grant Excess Defense Articles (EDA) under section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act. EDA would be provided to the Yemeni Armed Forces to help meet basic military needs and support U.S. origin equipment already in their inventory.

[end of file]

Back to Top
Next
Table of Contents


FAS Home | ASMP Home | Search | About ASMP
Publications | Sales Data | Issues | Resources