Department Seal Foreign Military Training and DoD
Engagement Activities of Interest, Volume I

Joint Report to Congress, March 1, 2000
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  III. DOS FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES

New Independent States Region

BELARUS
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

Marshall Center

12

$181,632

5

$75,680

TOTAL

12

$181,632

5

$75,680

The U.S. has an interest in seeing Belarus evolve into a state characterized by democratic rule and respect for human rights. With significant progress in these areas, the U.S. also would like Belarus to reinvigorate its participation in NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP), as well as to improve its bilateral and multilateral foreign policy cooperation in non-proliferation and other areas. As part of the U.S. policy of selective engagement, adopted after the illegal electoral referendum in Belarus in 1996, the U.S. has strictly focused its aid to Belarus on humanitarian and health assistance and on non-governmental groups that work for democratic and market reform in the country. Accordingly, the Belarusian military does not receive training under the U.S.'s International Military Education and Training (IMET) or Foreign Military Financing (FMF) programs.

However, certain Belarusian civilians, including professors, post-graduate students, journalists, and opposition politicians, have received Department of Defense-funded training through conferences and classes on security issues at the Marshall Center in Germany. In particular, Marshall Center courses for Belarusian opposition figures have centered on leadership and executive training. This instruction has complemented our strategy of promoting the development of Belarusian civil society and supporting those who are struggling for Belarusian democracy and the emergence of a more cooperative foreign policy outlook from Belarus.

Accordingly, in recent years, Marshall Center conferences and courses with Belarusian attendance have been sharply focused to fit with that strategy. For instance, in FY 2000, three Belarusians are attending a Marshall Center conference on the Partnership for Peace. The conference provides a concrete illustration that NATO is not a threat to Belarus and that PfP participation is in Minsk's interest. In another example, in FY 1998, Belarusians attended seminars on the roles of the media and parliament in foreign and security policy-making in democratizing states.

GEORGIA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

57

$199,707

58

$163,909

FMF Program

55

$156,173

121

$1,400,674

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

251

$90,000

40

0

Marshall Center

18

$272,448

11

$166,496

Aviation Leadership

1

$968

0

0

TOTAL

382

$719,296

230

Georgia is a reform leader among the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union, occupying a strategic position in the South Caucasus astride the Trans-Caspian energy corridor and bordering Chechnya. It is in the U.S.'s national security interest to support the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Georgia, as well as its continued democratic, free-market, and military reforms. U.S. support for the continuation of a stable, independent Georgia will reduce the chances of the spread of military conflict, international crime, and weapons of mass destruction in a region that lies at the crossroads of Russia, Turkey, and Iran.

U.S. military training efforts have been a very important part of this overall approach. In FY 1999 and FY 2000, Georgia has participated in in-country training via the Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program and has received instruction in the U.S. through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program. Both have helped Georgian soldiers to develop the skills necessary to augment Georgia's participation in the Partnership for Peace and its interoperability with NATO. U.S.-funded training also has improved Georgia's ability to control its borders and provide for its self-defense.

A significant portion of training purchased by Georgia with its FMF grant funds has gone to support Georgia's nascent UH-1H helicopter program, which was initiated by the U.S. to augment Georgia's patrol and transportation capability in response to a personal request by President Shevardnadze for an operational U.S. helicopter capability. For instance, Georgian air force personnel will undergo UH-1H pilot and maintenance training. Also, a mobile training team will be dispatched to Georgia to assist the Georgian air force in establishing an in-country logistics infrastructure for UH-1H operations. Georgia also has purchased additional FMF-funded training in rotary-wing maintenance.

To advance the goal of augmenting Georgia's self-defense capability by maximizing its ability to make use of its terrain, FMF-funded U.S. training efforts also have included high-altitude mountain training. Georgia also has used FMF for English-language training, critical for enhancing Georgia's ability to participate in PfP activities and operate alongside NATO forces.

English language and language instructor training also has been an important part of Georgia's IMET curriculum in FY 1999 and FY 2000. Other Georgian IMET classes on subjects essential for the implementation of broad defense reform efforts have included legal training, civil-military relations, and defense resource management. Not surprisingly, however, given Georgia's challenging regional security situation, many Georgian soldiers' IMET classes have had more of an operational bent to them. Georgian troops have taken infantry, ranger, signal officer, and maritime courses, among others.

The U.S. also has funded the attendance of 29 Georgian civilian and uniformed defense officials at conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany in FY 1999 and FY 2000. The Marshall Center instructs representatives from throughout the former Soviet Union and Central Europe in the undertakings necessary for defense reform in states undergoing democratic transition.

KAZAKHSTAN
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

107

$272,288

54

$203,769

Miscellaneous DoD-funded, Non-Security Assistance

1

0

0

0

Marshall Center

7

$105,952

21

$317,856

TOTAL

115

75

U.S. national security interests in Kazakhstan include pursuing further dismantling of Kazakhstan's weapons of mass destruction infrastructure, a peaceful role for its weapons scientists, the safe and secure storage of nuclear materials and spent fuels, and nonproliferation cooperation; promoting Kazakhstan's long-term political stability by developing democratic institutions and respect for human rights, and promoting Kazakhstan's long-term political stability through the development of democratic institutions and respect for human rights; and encouraging the development of the Caspian basin's hydrocarbon resources and means for their secure access to international markets.

Kazakhstan plays a key role in Central Asia because of its size and geographic location between Russia, China, and the remainder of formerly Soviet Central Asia, Iran and Afghanistan. Deepening Kazakhstan's participation in the Partnership for Peace and enhancing the capabilities of Kazakhstan's peacekeeping battalion (KAZBAT) as well as the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalions (CENTRASBAT) are key goals. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and IMET will enhance regional cooperation by deepening Kazakhstan's cooperation in PfP, supporting KAZBAT and CENTRASBAT, and enhancing Kazakhstan's military interoperability with NATO forces in the context of PfP exercises. They will also facilitate armed forces reform and help Kazakhstani officials better understand the role of the military in developing democracies and the development of appropriate civil-military relations and human rights practices.

Military training with Kazakhstan has focused in particular on leadership and professional military education and civil-military relations, two subjects that contribute to development of a professional Kazakhstani military that adheres to basic standards of human rights and appropriate civil-military relations. Courses related to international staff officer training contribute both to PFP goals as well as to the development of the Central Asia Battalions (which also contributes to PFP interoperability efforts). Operational leadership courses such as in mountain and winter survival and airborne training further the U.S. goal of developing interoperable forces capable of coalition undertakings thus easing the operational requirements that might otherwise fall to U.S. forces.

Medical and geographic/map courses contribute directly to Kazakhstan's ability to meet specified PFP and coalition interoperability goals, as do English language training courses.

KYRGYZSTAN
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

13

$94,521

12

$210,719

Marshall Center

12

$181,632

22

$332,992

TOTAL

25

34

U.S. national interests are furthered by the continued development of a stable, prosperous, and independent Kyrgyzstan. Our bilateral relations, including those related to military training, aim at helping Kyrgyzstan contribute to security and regional cooperation in Central Asia, a region that borders on Russia, China, Iran, and Afghanistan. We also seek to encourage Kyrgyzstan to continue to take steps to reform its military along democratic models, including the areas of civil-military relations and defense management. To further these goals, the U.S. also has sought to encourage and facilitate more active cooperation by Kyrgyzstan in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities.

U.S. training, therefore, has focused on helping provide the basics to enable members of the Kyrgyz military to participate effectively in IMET and PFP programs and to expose Kyrgyz officers to U.S. and other democratic military processes. These include such courses as English language training, courses on civil-military relations, joint planning, military operations other than war, and Marshall Center seminars. These courses allow members of the Kyrgyz military to interact with U.S., NATO, and PfP counterparts, including others from Central Asia.

In order to provide basic officer training that would allow greater interoperability within PFP, efforts also have focused on the summer and winter mountain leaders courses, infantry officer basic training, and training officers as leaders of airborne and related units. Military medical and dental training courses also contribute to interoperability with the U.S. and NATO.

MOLDOVA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

46

$250,212

46

$172,238

Marshall Center

10

$151,360

15

$227,040

TOTAL

56

61

Moldova is a leader in democratic reform among the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. Chisinau has developed a very cooperative security relationship with the U.S., both bilaterally in such areas as non-proliferation and multilaterally through such avenues as NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Moldova's military is active in Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities, despite being short on resources as the country's economy continues to struggle in the aftermath of the Russian financial crisis, in spite of an overarching reform course. Finally, the Moldovan government has made a good-faith effort to settle its dispute with the Transnistrian separatists in eastern Moldova.

The U.S.'s fundamental goal in Moldova is to support the continued development of Chisinau's reformist political and economic leanings and its pragmatic, westward-looking foreign and security policy. U.S.-funded military training efforts are an important part of the strategy employed to meet that goal. In particular, U.S. military training through IMET program helps Moldovan soldiers to be able to operate alongside NATO forces and to participate increasingly actively in PfP activities.

Moldova has concentrated much of its IMET training in FY 1999 and FY 2000 on developing the operational skills of a wide range of types of officers. For instance, Moldovan signal officers, engineering officers, field artillery captains, mapping officers, and infantry captains all have received specialized training under the IMET program. Moldovan IMET attendees also have taken more universally applicable classes in such areas as English language and language instruction, civil-military relations, and defense management.

Chisinau has chosen to use its FY 1999 and, so far, its FY 2000 FMF grants to purchase and refurbish supplies and equipment, as opposed to buying additional U.S. military training. However, 25 Moldovan civilian and uniformed defense officials have attended the Marshall Center in Germany in FY 1999 and FY 2000 for U.S.-funded training. The Marshall Center instructs defense officials from throughout Central Europe and the former Soviet Union in various aspects of the implementation of defense reforms in states undergoing democratic transition.

RUSSIA
FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

11

$101,135

39

$447,725

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

0

0

20

0

Marshall Center

20

$302,720

15

$227,040

Asia Pacific Center

6

$73,126

5

$74,952

TOTAL

37

$476,981

79

$749,717

The U.S. has an overriding national security interest in furthering Russia's development of a democratic civil society ruled by law with respect for human rights -- particularly in the context of military affairs and civil-military relations. The benefits to the United States of a non-threatening and reforming Russia are direct and tangible in terms of maintaining a reduced level of defense spending. We also have strong interests in preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, protecting Americans from the threat of international crime originating in Russia and cleaning up the environmental degradation from the Soviet period.

Russia plays a significant role in Europe, Asia and the Middle East, as well as in the UN Security Council. In 1999, events in Kosovo tested Russia-NATO relations. Russia suspended all contacts with NATO, including consultations in the Permanent Joint Council and participation in the EAPC, PFP, and related activities. There were several IMET course starts from January to March, but in response to Kosovo, Russia withdrew its seven IMET students. In July 1999, Russia resumed consultations in the PJC on KFOR and Kosovo issues but has not resumed participation in the EAPC or PfP. The war in Chechnya also has strained Russia's relations with the U.S. and NATO, but through active diplomacy we have been able to manage our differences on the issue.

Despite those differences, continuing Warsaw Initiative funding for Partnership for Peace exercises and International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs, even at a reduced level, provides opportunities for Russian officers to interact with U.S. and NATO counterparts. Russian soldiers can develop greater understanding of NATO doctrine and concepts of coalition contingency operations and the role of the military in a democracy, which aims to reduce Russian fears that the admission of new members to NATO threatens Russian security. It also furthers the goal of interoperability with NATO, which has significance given the Russian participation in SFOR operations in Bosnia and in KFOR operations in Kosovo. Furthermore, given our concerns over Chechnya, it is our aim that the skills and doctrine learned through IMET and other training programs will help Russian soldiers to become more responsible in their military conduct.

Military training with Russia, though limited, has focussed on several key areas, particularly Professional Military Education (PME), which consists of leadership training and courses aimed at developing expertise in the tasks of international military staff officers. PME-type training (War Colleges, Defense Management, Marshall Center, Asia Pacific Center) helps reinforce our efforts to ensure that the Russian military contributes to the development of civil society by reinforcing concepts of appropriate civil-military relations, defense management in democratic societies, and the need to maintain professionalism in the conduct of military affairs.

Courses aimed at international military activities, including legal considerations in peace operations, international staff officer preparation, international maritime officer issues, and English-language training, contribute to our efforts to encourage the Russian military to participate in NATO/PfP activities, to professionalize Russian participation in NATO-led efforts in the Balkans and expose Russian officers to NATO and U.S. civil-military relations standards and practices. Similarly, Russian officer participation in the command aspects of operational subjects, such as airborne and air assault operations, contribute to our efforts to increase interoperability of Russian and Allied forces in coalition contingency operations. This type of exposure is also aimed at demonstrating to Russia that an enlarged NATO is no threat to it.

Russian participation in several military medical-related courses is aimed at increasing international interoperability, including in the contexts of PfP as well as coalition contingency operations.

Maritime and environmental security training furthers USG efforts to assure that Russia effectively and responsibly handles environmental clean-up related to former Soviet military activities. It also contributes to Russian participation in Baltic Sea cooperation efforts, which in turn furthers the U.S. goal of easing relations between Russia and its Baltic and Nordic neighbors.

In 1999, DoD funded training related to staffing the joint Year 2000 Strategic Stability Center to monitor ballistic missile warning data. This center proved to be an effective demonstration of the value of cooperation between Russia and the U.S. and provided a foundation for the establishment of a joint early warning center in the future.

TAJIKISTAN
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

Marshall Center

10

$151,360

23

$348,128

TOTAL

10

$151,360

23

$348,128

The U.S.'s overarching goals in Tajikistan are to encourage societal reconciliation in the wake of the civil war that ended in 1997 and to promote the development of a stable civil society, a market economy, and democratic rule with full respect for human rights. The U.S. also would like to see Dushanbe be able to play a more active, constructive role in Euro-Atlantic security affairs, including by taking such steps as joining NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP).

Still, Dushanbe has taken only initial steps toward meeting these goals. Accordingly, U.S. aid to Tajikistan has been sharply focused on areas such s democracy-building, humanitarian relief, and economic development. Tajikistan is still in the process of developing a national military, as United Tajik Opposition units are being blended in with the Tajik government's forces. The U.S. wants to see this integration process develop further before taking such steps as initiating an International Military Education and Training (IMET) program with Tajikistan. For the same reason and because of Tajikistan's lack of PfP membership, to this point, Tajikistan has not received grants to purchase U.S. training (or equipment) under the Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program.

However, select Tajik officials have received specialized training at the Marshall Center for Security Studies in Germany. In FY 1999, the Department of Defense's Military Contact Program used OMA funding to pay for the participation of 10 Tajik students in courses at the Marshall Center. Additionally, DoD paid for the participation of 20 Tajiks in Marshall Center conferences in FY 1999 on topics including security in Central Asia, the contributions of small states in the Euro-Atlantic security architecture, and the roles of parliament and the legal system in national security decision-making in a democracy. The Department of Defense also funded a seminar in Tajikistan in FY 1999 on cooperation and competition among political parties in a democracy.

DoD-funded Marshall Center conferences that are scheduled to include Tajik participation in FY 2000 are focusing on subjects including the effect of world economic trends on defense planning as well as the role of the Partnership for Peace in the Euro-Atlantic security architecture. The PfP seminar clearly is an important vehicle for encouraging Tajikistan to consider joining the organization.

TURKMENISTAN
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

6

$87,911

7

$229,161

Section 1004

132

$390,000

100

$250,000

Marshall Center

2

$30,272

14

$211,904

TOTAL

140

$508,183

121

$691,065

U.S. national security is enhanced by an increasingly stable, independent Turkmenistan that contributes to regional stability and prosperity. The U.S. also has an interest in the delivery of Turkmenistan's significant energy resources to key markets in Turkey and in ensuring that those resources do not pass through Iran. There is still a great deal that needs to be done in Turkmenistan on both democratic and economic reform. At the same time, U.S. interest in regional stability benefits from Turkmenistan's ability to cooperate with its neighbors militarily and to participate further in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities. We seek Turkmen assistance in counterdrug efforts and preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies, and expertise.

Warsaw Initiative Funding for participation in PfP activities furthers on the ground experience, including regional cooperation, interoperability with NATO forces, and reform of the Turkmen military along Western, democratic lines. These activities also increase Turkmenistan's engagement with Euro-Atlantic security institutions.

Military training has aimed at developing officers exposed to NATO's international military staff -- an important component of participation in PfP and any future Turkmen participation in coalition contingency operations. English language training has also been an important focus for Turkmenistan, as this training provides capabilities for Turkmen officers to participate in PfP and related activities, as well as to increase basic interoperability with NATO.

IMET-funded professional military education and other courses, particularly in the area of civil-military relations, have aimed at supporting Turkmen military reform by exposing officers to democratic standards and values. The course on the legal aspects of military and peace operations provides basic doctrinal interoperability with the U.S. and NATO/PfP. Several basic operational courses, such as signals officer and engineering infantry mortar leader, increase Turkmenistan's military professionalization and enhance the ability of Turkmen forces to participate in PfP activities and/or any future coalition contingencies.

UKRAINE
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

347

$377,620

346

$747,994

FMF Program

48

$178,112

51

$229,384

Aviation Leadership Program

2

$1,100

0

0

Service Academy

2

$148,474

0

0

Marshall Center

20

$302,720

64

$968,704

TOTAL

419

$1,008,026

461

$1,946,082

Ukraine is an increasingly important partner in Euro-Atlantic security affairs whose relationships with the U.S. and NATO continue to grow. The bilateral commission co-chaired by Vice President Gore and Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma is emblematic of the deepening of U.S.-Ukrainian relations, as the commission has developed practical strategies for dealing with issues in the security realm as well as in the economic and political arenas. Ukraine and NATO also have strengthened their relationship through the continued development of the NATO-Ukraine Commission established in 1997 on the basis of the NATO-Ukraine Charter. Ukraine also plays a valuable peacekeeping role in the U.S. sector of the KFOR mission in Kosovo, was a valued participant in SFOR in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is active in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP), and has occupied a seat on the UN Security Council since January 1, 2000. In addition, the 1999 re-election of President Kuchma helped to reaffirm a Western outlook and provided impetus toward a pro-reform course for Ukraine, including the naming of a reformist Prime Minister.

Accordingly, the U.S. continues to work for the development of an independent, democratic, and non-nuclear Ukraine with a market-oriented economy. Along those lines, the U.S. seeks for Ukraine's military to remain under firm civilian control, undergo reform and restructuring, and to be increasingly integrated into the security institutions of the larger Euro-Atlantic community. U.S.-funded military training efforts are a crucial part of this effort. Training received under both the IMET, FMF, and other U.S. military assistance programs has contributed to that goal by continuing to augment Ukraine's ability to participate alongside NATO forces in crisis response operations and in PfP exercises and other activities.

Ukraine has made extensive use of the IMET program in FY 1999 and FY 2000 in an effort to improve Ukrainian military readiness in a broad range of functional areas, leading Ukrainian soldiers to have taken a wide array of IMET courses. Areas of concentration have included military legal training, English language instruction, supply officer training, classes in civil-military relations and defense resources management, military engineering and military police instruction, and military air traffic control training. Ukrainians also have received specialized officer training in courses for signal officers, field artillery captains, and intelligence officers. In addition, top Ukrainian officers also have been trained at the air and naval command and staff colleges, air and army war colleges, and the U.S. Marines' amphibious warfare school.

In addition, the Expanded IMET (E-IMET) program has trained Ukrainian military and civilian officials, including civilian personnel from non-defense ministries and the legislative branch who work on military-related issues. E-IMET training has focused on managing and administering military establishments and budgets, promoting civilian control of the military, and creating and maintaining effective military justice systems and military codes of conduct.

As mentioned above, Ukraine also has purchased U.S. military training using its FMF grant funds, in order to advance its NATO interoperability and PfP participation. English language again has been a focus, as have health and medical training and vehicle maintenance. FMF also has helped to fund Ukraine's participation in KFOR, which has led to critical, practical training through real-world peacekeeping experience for Ukrainian troops. Furthermore, U.S. funding in FY 1999 and FY 2000 has paid for Ukrainians to attend eighty-four conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center concentrates on training Central and Eastern European militaries on various aspects of civil-military relations and democratic control of the military. Finally, two Ukrainian cadets were receiving top-level instruction at the U.S. Air Force Academy in FY 1999.

Also, in FY 1999, Ukraine received $900,000 under the Enhanced International Peacekeeping Initiative (EIPC), for the purpose of providing additional training (and equipment) to improve the effectiveness of Ukraine's peacekeeping forces. EIPC-funded training will focus on the development, standardization, and employment of peacekeeping doctrine, training, tactics, techniques, and procedures.

UZBEKISTAN
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

14

$187,951

13

$195,877

Section 1004

0

0

0

$30,000

Marshall Center

14

$211,904

25

$378,400

Aviation Leadership Program

2

$1,210

0

0

TOTAL

30

38

$604,277

The U.S. looks for Uzbekistan to play an increasingly stabilizing and cooperative role among its neighbors and to assist in bringing about a solution, under UN leadership, to the conflict in Afghanistan. Uzbekistan remains an authoritarian state; U.S. interests are to see it evolve democratically, with respect for human rights and democratic values. We seek Uzbek assistance in preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies, and expertise.

Uzbekistan sees itself in a leading role in the Central Asian region, which borders Russia and Iran. The U.S. seeks to orient Uzbekistan's sizeable military further toward cooperation with NATO, the U.S., and its own neighbors. This cooperation will be furthered by Uzbekistan's active participation in PfP and the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalions (CENTRASBAT). Training has focused on international staff officer and defense management capabilities, English language, and operational subjects such as basic infantry officer, air traffic control, airborne, and personnel officer courses, which foster interoperability both in operations and in tactics.

Other programs, and participation in Marshall Center activities, focus on civil-military relations, improving military justice systems, and defense resource management contribute to the U.S. effort to foster greater respect in Uzbekistan for all aspects of the principle of effective civilian control of the military.

[end of file]

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