Department Seal Foreign Military Training and DoD
Engagement Activities of Interest, Volume I

Joint Report to Congress, March 1, 2000
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  III. DOS FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES

Western Hemisphere Region

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

5

$43,072

12

$74,563

INL

90

0

0

0

Section 1004

0

0

35

$200,000

Misc DoD-Dos Activities

61

$185,000

0

0

CHDS

2

$14,284

0

0

TOTAL

158

$242,356

47

$274,563

Antigua and Barbuda is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the U.S. We have been encouraging the Government of Antigua and Barbuda to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. IMET training in civil affairs and crisis management, and participation in the Center for Hemispheric Studies, assists in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. Participating in joint exercises, training in maritime search and rescue, and the training of international maritime officers increase Antigua and Barbuda's ability to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotic operations, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral operations. A U.S. government provided 82-foot patrol boat, delivered in 1998, has been used extensively for coastal patrolling and maritime counternarcotics missions.

ARGENTINA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

197

$380,430

125

$444,131

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

241

$143,797

0

0

CHDS

12

$85,704

0

0

TOTAL

450

$609,928

125

$444,131

Argentina is a democratic nation and a close ally in the strategically important Southern Cone region. We have a close relationship with the GOA, and the Argentine military actively participates in international peacekeeping and other multilateral efforts. The U.S. has also designated Argentina as a major non-NATO ally (MNNA). To promote interoperability and knowledge of U.S. operations, the Argentine military participated in a number of U.S. exercises.

IMET courses in Civil-military Operations, Command and General Staff Officer Training, and Non-commissioned Officer Training, and participation at the CHDS, assist Argentina's efforts to modernize and professionalize its armed forces, and helps reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military. Other training in aircraft and helicopter maintenance, and other courses in logistics management also increase Argentina's ability to maintain U.S. equipment in its inventory, thus improve Argentine interoperability with U.S. forces in bilateral and multilateral activities. As the largest contributor of troops to international peacekeeping operations, training in peacekeeping and humanitarian demining further encourages Argentina's participation in these activities.

BAHAMAS
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

17

$50,742

13

$82,092

CHDS

1

0

0

0

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

24

$56,000

0

0

TOTAL

42

$106,742

13

$82,092

The Bahamas is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the U.S. IMET courses in basic military officers training, civil affairs, and access to the Naval Staff College assists the Bahamas in the development of a more professional and efficient security force.

The Bahamas is instrumental in assisting the U.S. in counternarcotics operations in the region. Training activities therefore included instruction in operations planning and exercises with U.S. forces. Training in ship management and boarding team operations greatly enhances the Bahamas' ability to assist in the counternarcotics efforts. IMET training on legal issues involving military and peacekeeping operations will encourage continued Bahamian participation in other bilateral and multilateral activities. One result has been the close cooperation with the U.S. government on a combined counterdrug law enforcement effort, Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT) along with increased emphasis by the Bahamas on money laundering and asset forfeiture investigations and prosecutions.

BARBADOS
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

7

$31,273

9

$33,096

Section 1004

35

$249,000

0

0

Service Academy

1

$17,500

0

0

CHDS

4

$28,568

0

0

TOTAL

47

$326,341

9

$33,096

Barbados is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the U.S. IMET courses in basic military officers training, civil affairs, and access to the Naval Staff College and Center for Hemispheric Studies assists Barbados in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. Training in ship management and boarding team operations greatly enhances Barbados' ability to assist in the counternarcotics efforts. Barbados has continued its leadership role in the Eastern Caribbean in passing domestic legislation to enable it to implement maritime law enforcement agreements. U. S. government training and support has facilitated execution of cooperative bilateral law enforcement efforts in the region.

BELIZE
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

33

$120,934

47

$127,957

INL

30

0

30

0

Section 1004

30

$146,200

0

0

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

343

$188,000

0

0

TOTAL

436

$455,134

77

$127,957

Belize is a democratic nation that has a good bilateral relationship with the U.S. We have encouraged the military of Belize to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral efforts. Because of its proximity to the United States and its position linking vulnerable Central American and Caribbean states, Belize is an ideal transit point for illicit drugs headed for the United States. Easy access to the United States and Mexico makes Belize an attractive staging area for other international crimes as well. It is a market for vehicles stolen in the United States, a potential site for money laundering, and a point of origin for smuggled wildlife and artifacts.

IMET and other programs provide training and equipment to maintain a small but disciplined Belize Defense Force (BDF). BDF troops served with the CARICOM Battalion during peacekeeping operations in Haiti, and participate in regional training exercises with U.S. and Caribbean forces. IMET training in mid-level officers training, equipment maintenance, as well as the rule of law and discipline in military operations, greatly improves the professionalism and competence of the BDF. A number of activities were conducted to help make the BDF a more effective partner when operating with U.S. forces in joint exercises and operations, particularly in the counterdrug area.

BOLIVIA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

76

$151,234

78

$276,243

FMF

67

$17,253

60

$19,303

Section 1004

1016

$897,046

60

$1,287,000

Sec.506 FAA Drawdown -- Narc Education & Trng

21

$328,870

7

$5,884

Unified Command Engagement Activities

1

$0

0

0

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

1,820

$1,178,000

0

0

Aviation Leadership Program

1

$858

0

0

CHDS

10

$71,420

0

0

TOTAL

2152

$2,644,681

205

$1,588,430

Bolivia is a democratic nation and has a strong bilateral relationship with the United States. Bolivia is heavily engaged in major counternarcotic efforts with significant support and partial funding from the U.S. Bolivia's counternarcotic efforts are hampered by persistent resistance from certain segments of the population, which has at times led to violent confrontations. Bolivian special counternarcotics forces and certain select units of the military are active participants in the drug war. Bolivia has been certified as cooperating with U.S. counternarcotics policy. Human rights advocates had been urging the government to complete its investigations into the deaths of several illicit coca-growers who died during confrontations with security forces in the spring of 1998. The government recently announced it has completed the investigations, although the results have not yet been made public.

IMET funds provides professional military education and NCO training to enhance the professionalism of Bolivia's armed forces. Also emphasis on programs in civil-military relations, resources management and democratic sustainment helps reinforce principles of civilian control of the military and democracy. Prior year FMF funds were used to improve technical training for counterdrug operations.

The Bolivian government implemented its five-year counternarcotics plan early in 1998. U.S. government training and participation in joint exercises have enabled Bolivia to phase out individual compensation for eradication, achieve record levels of eradication, substantially reduce the amount of cocoa under cultivation, and increase the number of arrests and chemical seizures.

BRAZIL
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

30

$185,024

33

$218,665

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

12

$96,000

0

0

Exchanges

1

$54,591

0

0

CHDS

6

$42,852

0

0

TOTAL

49

$378,467

33

$218,665

Brazil is a democratic nation and a close ally in the strategically important Southern Cone region. We have a close relationship with Brazil, and the Brazilian military actively participates in international peacekeeping and other multilateral efforts. Brazil has also recently created a civilian-led Ministry of Defense, and is attempting to assert greater civilian control over the military.

The activities listed above have multiple benefits. IMET training courses for NCOs, mid-level officers, and senior officers, and participation at the CHDS, assist Brazil's efforts to modernize and professionalize its armed forces, and help reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military. Other training in equipment maintenance and logistics also increases Brazil's ability to maintain its inventory, and further encourages Brazil's participation in international peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. Finally, participation in joint exercises improves interoperability with U.S. forces.

CHILE
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

174

$285,364

164

$464,852

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

54

$102,000

0

0

Service Academy

0

0

2

$10,000

Exchanges

96

$494,621

0

0

Unified Command Engagement Activities

1

0

0

0

CHDS

11

$78,562

0

0

TOTAL

336

$960,547

166

$474,852

Chile is a democratic nation and a strategically important, close friend and ally of the United States in both regional and global contexts. Our relationship with the GOC includes support for increased Chilean participation in international peacekeeping and other multilateral efforts, and a generally more prominent role on the international stage. Training activities have had multiple benefits.

IMET management training courses for NCOs, mid-level officers, and senior officers assists in Chile's efforts to modernize and professionalize its armed forces. Other courses, such as field artillery training for mid-level officers, help enhance the technical proficiencies of the Chilean military, while courses on the rule of law in military operations and CHDS participation, help reinforce Chile's successful return to civilian control of the military.

Other training in equipment maintenance, logistics, and resource management also increases Chile's ability to maintain U.S. equipment in its inventory. Chilean participation in joint training exercises enhance interoperability with U.S. forces in counterdrug operations, and support Chilean engagement in international peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. Continued IMET support will also help foster long-term military-to-military relationships in the post-Pinochet era.

COLOMBIA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

611

$592,668

600

$525,474

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

131

$255,000

23

$391,866

FMF

74

$440,788

78

$801,033

INL

105

$309,332

305

$347,855

Section 1004

1548

$5,960,828

4080

$14,648,691

Service Academy

1

$74,237

0

0

CHDS

6

$42,852

0

0

TOTAL

2476

$7,446,205

5086

$16,714,919

Colombia is Latin America's oldest formal democracy and a major ally of the United States in its fight against international narcotics trafficking. As the source of most of the cocaine and much of the heroin consumed in the United States, Colombia is the focus of much of the U.S. government's international counterdrug effort. The largest share of the training provided to the Colombian military is in direct support of the U.S. counterdrug strategy.

Section 1004 counterdrug training in Colombia represents a variety of United States Marine Corps and Special Operations Forces (SOF) efforts including aviation aircrew training, Colombian Marine riverine training, and light infantry training of Colombian police and military units. All training is provided in support of counterdrug interdiction efforts. Additionally, in FY 1999, SOF units provided training for the 1st Counterdrug Battalion of approximately 1,000 Colombian Army personnel. In FY 2000, DoD will continue its baseline counterdrug training program and, pending congressional passage of the Emergency Supplemental for Colombia, training will be provided for the 2nd and 3rd Counterdrug Battalion, a Support Battalion and Brigade Headquarters. The FY 2000 effort will include training of approximately 2,000 Colombian Army personnel.

The IMET program adds to these counternarcotics training efforts, and funds a broad range of courses for the Colombian military at all levels that promote mutually beneficial military-to-military relations, and increase understanding and defense cooperation between the U.S. and Colombia. Participation at the CHDS, and IMET courses include a strong emphasis on human rights, including courses on democratic sustainment. IMET also provides technical training for NCOs and field-grade officers, as well as training in maintenance, logistics, and resource management. These courses assist the Colombian military by increasing its abilities to better care for and maintain U.S.-provided equipment, thus increasing Colombia's ability to pursue its counterdrug efforts.

COSTA RICA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

53

$50,102

44

$73,594

INL

0

0

23

$55,003

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

286

$223,000

0

0

Service Academy

1

$74,237

2

$35,000

Section 1004

54

$250,000

94

$870,000

CHDS

8

$57,136

0

0

TOTAL

402

$654,475

163

$1,033,597

Costa Rica is a democratic nation, a major ally in Central America, and the only Central American nation to have signed and ratified a Maritime Counternarcotics Agreement with the United States. Costa Rica actively participates in efforts to reduce illegal migration, drug trafficking, and poaching of marine fisheries in the region and has become a staunch U.S. partner in the fight against international crime, greatly expanding and complementing our law enforcement efforts in the region.

Costa Rica is one of two countries in Latin America that does not have a military, relying on its Public Security Forces for defense. Participation in the CHDS and IMET training serves to further professionalize of the coast guard and law enforcement services through courses such as patrol craft commander training, rule of law and discipline in military operations, and NCO professional development training. Likewise, as the GOCR assumes an increasingly sophisticated counternarcotics role, other training provides access to modern, state-of-the-art law enforcement methods, as well as assistance in equipment maintenance, logistics, and resource management. Counternarcotics training focused on operational skills, as well as joint exercises to improve interoperability with U.S. forces.

DOMINICA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

6

$16,658

7

$30,939

Misc DoD-Dos Activities

22

$40,000

0

0

TOTAL

28

$56,658

7

$30,939

Dominica is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the U.S. We have been encouraging the Government of Dominica to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. IMET training courses in areas such as defense management and NCO development assists in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. Training in civil-military relations and legal considerations in military and peacekeeping operations will enhance Dominica's adherence to human rights. Joint exercises and additional training of maritime officers, in peacekeeping operations, and in maritime search and rescue, enable Dominica to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotic activities search and rescue operations, international peacekeeping efforts, and other bilateral and multilateral operations.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

47

$213,689

43

$218,579

FMF

26

$26,961

0

0

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

161

$247,000

0

0

Section 1004

120

$150,000

80

$100,000

INL

60

0

0

0

CHDS

7

$49,994

0

0

TOTAL

421

$687,644

123

$318,579

The Dominican Republic is a democratic nation and a close ally of the United States. We have encouraged the Dominican Republic military to participate more actively in counternarcotics operations and other multilateral efforts.

IMET training in areas such as civil-military operations and democratic sustainment will contribute to the Dominican Republic's support for the principles of human rights, democracy, and civilian control of the military. Professional training and education at all levels (including NCO training and command and staff colleges) improves the professionalism of the Dominican Republic armed forces. Other training included technical and counternarcotics training to increase the Dominican Republic's ability to operate with U.S. forces; joint exercises promoted team building and established baseline knowledge of U.S. operations.

ECUADOR
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

162

$222,393

142

$231,964

FMF

60

$79,068

30

$107,781

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

100

$300,000

1

$300,000

Unified Command Engagement Activities

1

0

0

0

Section 1004

353

$1,093,142

0

$1,904,000

CHDS

5

$35,710

0

0

TOTAL

681

$1,785,313

173

$2,615,745

The U.S. has strong and friendly bilateral relations with Ecuador. Ecuador's democracy has been struggling in recent years under various pressures, including a severe financial crisis, rivalries between domestic regions, high-profile corruption, and lack of support for the president. Ecuador's military has a great deal of independence and political influence, and they have some funding sources of their own which reduce their dependence on the budget process. Though Ecuador fought a brief, but hotly contested, border war with Peru in February 1995, this conflict was settled by a bilateral agreement in October 1998, with the help of the United States and other guarantors of the Rio Protocol.

Training in civil-military relations and the rule of law and discipline in military operations and participation at the CHDS help reinforce the principles of civilian control of the military and reinforces the principles of human rights. Ecuador is designated as a major drug-transiting country, and many of the activities listed above in counternarcotic operations, officer training, resource management, logistics, and equipment maintenance provide training needed to professionalize and modernize Ecuador's military. Significant training efforts in counterdrug operations were conducted with prior year FMF funds. Joint exercises with U.S. forces contributed to continued cooperation with U.S. counternarcotics efforts. In November 1999, Ecuador and the United States concluded a ten-year agreement for the access and use of Manta Air Force Base, Ecuador, as a Forward Operating Location for U.S. aircraft monitoring drug trafficking flights through the region. IMET training also assists in the demining efforts along Peru's border with Ecuador.

EL SALVADOR
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

181

$201,223

184

$261,475

FMF

37

$42,999

32

$156,042

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

125

$81,000

0

0

Service Academy

2

$148,474

0

0

Section 1004

4

$12,000

3

$15,000

CHDS

6

$42,852

0

0

TOTAL

355

$528,548

219

$432,517

El Salvador is a democratic country which has had a historically close relationship with the United States. Bilateral military assistance has been appropriately reduced since the end of the civil war in 1992, and overall relations have flourished with the civilian government. The principal U.S. interests in El Salvador are supporting democracy, fighting international crime and illegal drugs, encouraging economic development, deterring illegal immigration to the U.S., and promoting U.S. exports.

Training is geared towards professional training programs that will sustain the dramatic improvement in civil-military relations and consequent improvement in the democratic climate and regional stability seen in recent years. Officer training at all levels, including command and staff colleges, and courses in civil-military relations and democratic sustainment helps reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military and reinforces the principles of human rights. Training provided, through IMET and with prior year FMF funds, in counternarcotic operations, resource management, logistics, and equipment maintenance provided assistance needed to professionalize and modernize the Salvadoran military and encourages its continued cooperation with U.S. counternarcotics efforts. Joint training exercises with the U.S. forces contributed to team building and exposure to U.S. counterdrug operations.

GRENADA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

26

$41,203

26

$24,960

Misc DoD-DoS Activities

35

$39,700

0

0

CHDS

2

$14,284

0

0

TOTAL

63

$95,187

26

$24,960

Grenada is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the U.S. We have been encouraging the Government of Grenada to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. Training activities assist in the development of a more professional and efficient security force which will be able to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotic operations, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral operations. Joint training and exercises with the U.S. forces contributed to greater interoperability and baseline understanding of U.S. counterdrug operations.

GUATEMALA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

103

$156,561

92

$70,788

Section 1004

80

$125,392

40

$82,000

Service Academy

1

$74,237

1

$17,500

CHDS

6

$42,852

0

0

TOTAL

190

$399,042

133

$170,288

Guatemala is a democratic nation with a traditionally cooperative relationship with the United States. This relationship, however, has been strained by revelations of human rights abuses which occurred during Guatemala's 36-year civil conflict involving leftist guerrillas.

Participation in CHDS activities, and training in civil-military relations, rule of law and discipline in military operations, and democratic sustainment helps reinforce the goal of civilian control of the military and the principles of human rights. Also, training in Officer Company-Grade and Command and General Staff College assists Guatemala's efforts to professionalize its armed forces. Other training activities help Guatemalan forces strengthen their drug enforcement capabilities, conduct interdiction and eradication activities, and improve their ability to integrate their planning and execution with U.S. entities in regional counternarcotics operations.

GUYANA
  FY 1999 Actual FY 2000 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained Dollar Value Number of Students Trained Dollar Value

IMET

20

$62,422

16

$56,086

Service Academy

2

$148,474

0

0

CHDS

1

$7,142

0

0

TOTAL

23

218,038

16

$56,086

The United States has friendly relations with Guyana, a small nascent democracy. Guyana made a significant contribution to the multinational force which intervened in Haiti in 1994, and it is hoped it will continue to contribute to regional peacekeeping. Emerging from 25 years of military rule in 1992, Guyana is still dealing with the authoritarian legacy of its recent past. Human rights and civilian control of the military remain significant concerns. Guyana has unresolved border disputes with its neighbors Venezuela and Surinam. However, overall relations with its neighbors are good, and the chance of armed conflict in the immediate future is low. The mission of the small Guyana Defense Force is focused primarily on internal security. Although Guyana has not been identified as a major drug-transiting or producing country, narcotics trafficking is still a concern.

Participation at the CHDS and funding for NCO and officer training and civil-military relations assists Guyana's efforts to professionalize its armed forces, help reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military, reinforce principles of human rights. In FY 1999, two students attended the Air Force Academy. Training in maritime operations, helicopter repairs, and military operations other than war increase Guyana's ability to cooperate in U.S. counternarcotic efforts, countering illegal migrant activities, and other bilateral and multilateral operations.

[end of file]

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