Foreign Military Training and DoD
Engagement Activities of Interest, Volume I
Joint Report to Congress, March 1, 2000
II. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS
FUNDED BY DEPARTMENT OF STATE
International Military Education and Training (IMET)
The International Military Education and Training (IMET) program is a low-cost, highly effective component of U.S. security assistance that provides training on a grant basis to students from over 125 allied and friendly nations. The overall objectives of the program are to:
- further the goal of regional stability through effective, mutually beneficial military-to-military relations which culminate in increased understanding and defense cooperation between the U.S. and foreign countries;
- provide training to augment the capabilities of the military forces of participant nations to support combined operations and interoperability with U.S. forces; and
- increase the ability of foreign military and civilian personnel to instill and maintain basic democratic values and protect internationally recognized human rights.
Training provided under the IMET program is professional and non-political, exposing foreign students to U.S. professional military organizations and procedures and the manner in which military organizations function under civilian control. IMET's mandatory English language proficiency requirement establishes an essential baseline of communication skills necessary for students to attend courses. It also facilitates the development of important professional and personal relationships that have provided U.S. access and influence in a critical sector of society that often plays a pivotal role in supporting, or transitioning to, democratic governments. A less formal, but still significant, part of IMET is the Information Program, which exposes students to the American way of life, including regard for democratic values, respect for individual civil and human rights, and belief in the rule of law. These are the key elements of the Expanded IMET (E-IMET) program, which fosters greater respect for and understanding of the principle of civilian control of the military, exposes students to military justice systems and procedures, and promotes the development of strong civil-military relations by showing key military and civilian leaders how to overcome barriers that can exist between armed forces, civilian officials, and legislators. Finally, the IMET program introduces military and civilian participants to elements of American democracy: the U.S. judicial system, legislative oversight, free speech, equality issues, and U.S. commitment to the basic principles of internationally recognized human rights.
IMET objectives are achieved through a variety of military education and training activities conducted by the DoD for foreign military and civilian officials. These include formal instruction that involves over 2000 courses taught at approximately 150 military schools and installations for roughly 8000 foreign students annually.
The IMET program assists U.S. friends and allies in the professionalization of their militaries through participation in U.S. military educational programs. U.S. friends and allies have long recognized such training as essential for the progression of their own military leaders. IMET also strengthens regional friendships and enhances self-defense capabilities. Finally, IMET and E-IMET effect institutional changes intended to culminate in professional, apolitical militaries under civilian control.
The resulting military competence and self-sufficiency provides a wide range of benefits to the U.S. in terms of collective security, stability and peace. As foreign militaries improve their knowledge of U.S. military principles, military cooperation is strengthened. Similarly, opportunities for military-to-military interaction, information sharing, joint planning, and combined force exercises, as well as essential requirements for access to foreign military bases and facilities, are notably expanded. IMET fosters important military linkages essential to advancing global security interests of the United States and improving the capabilities of U.S. friends and allies.
Foreign Military Financing (FMF)
The Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program supplies grants and loans to finance purchases under the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) system. By enabling select allies and others to purchase U.S. defense articles and services, including training, FMF provides the U.S. flexibility to promote government-to-government relationships as dictated by U.S. interests. Some examples of FMF activities include: Warsaw Initiative/Partnership for Peace (supporting conversion to Western military standards, doctrine and oversight through training, exercises and other activities); and the Caribbean Regional Fund (promoting multilateral peacekeeping, disaster response, counter-drug and coalition capabilities of Caribbean nations).
International Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INL)
The International Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INL) program wages one of the most aggressive and effective attacks ever by the U.S. against the foreign crime and drug threat. It delivers one of the largest returns of any Federal anti-drug program against the overall problem of international crime, including drug trafficking, which poses serious threats to the security of Americans. INL has two strategic goals: minimize the impact of international crime on the U.S. and its citizens, and significantly reduce the entry of illegal drugs into the U.S. These two goals include supporting policies and programs to stimulate more effective foreign political will and financial commitment, to strengthen foreign criminal justice sectors, and to promote concrete international cooperation.
Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC)
The United States has an interest in encouraging other countries to develop greater willingness and capability to contribute to international peace operations. By enhancing international peacekeeping capabilities we can increase burden sharing, promote operational efficiency, strengthen regional conflict prevention and resolution initiatives, and reduce the costs of international peace operations.
The primary objective of the EIPC initiative is to assist selected foreign countries in developing their institutional capacities to field more efficient and well-led peacekeeping units, capable of taking on the toughest assignments. EIPC aims to enhance military interoperability, leadership performance, use of common peacekeeping doctrine, and English language proficiency -- at the institutional level -- to help promote effective combined peacekeeping operations (PKOs) when battalion-level or larger units from diverse countries deploy together. In doing so, EIPC seeks not only to promote burdensharing, but also to enhance national and regional capability to support peace.
- Since its inception, EIPC funds have been allocated to: Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Chile, Czech Republic, Fiji, Hungary, Jordan, Lithuania, Mongolia, Nepal, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Ukraine and Uruguay.
- All of the countries that have received EIPC funds have taken decisive steps to increase their international PKO role. To cite a few examples: Argentina has developed the pre-eminent PKO training center in Latin America; Nepal has volunteered to participate in operations in both East Timor and Sierra Leone, significantly increasing this country's international participation in peacekeeping; and Mongolia, a new PKO participant, has engaged with U.S. Pacific Command to participate in joint peacekeeping exercises and is actively developing PKO training capabilities for its military.
- EIPC funds are used to develop core curriculum for PKO education and training, and to procure non-lethal defense-related training equipment. EIPC funds events with an emphasis on "train-the-trainer" in order to maximize the benefits of the expenditures. It also funds workshops tailored to a country's peacekeeping training needs. The program provides for visits to U.S. peacekeeping training centers and installations for senior-level officers and trainers that are directly involved in national PKO training programs. Additionally, EIPC funds help to procure peacekeeping training and doctrine-related manuals and other library resources, and for limited construction of facilities dedicated to PK training. Finally, EIPC enables countries to obtain and employ peacekeeping software training simulations rather than relying on more costly field exercises. The EIPC program is complemented by non-FMF resources, including IMET, Excess Defense Articles programs, and Unified Command peacekeeping exercises.
Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) Section 506 -- FAA Drawdown relating to Narcotics Education and Training
If the President determines and reports to Congress that an unforeseen emergency exists and that such emergency requirement cannot be met under the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) or any other authority, the President may direct the drawdown of defense articles, services, or "military education and training" from DoD. The authorized purposes include: counternarcotics, disaster relief, migration and refugee assistance, and support of Vietnam War era MIA/POW location and repatriation efforts. Drawdowns do not provide additional budget authority to DoD. The Military Services are required to use currently allocated O&M funds to provide training services.
FUNDED BY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
Section 1004 Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities
Counter Drug Training Support (CDTS)
Counter Drug Training Support includes deployments for training of foreign forces at the request of an appropriate law enforcement agency official as defined in Section 1004 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 1991. The purpose of the CDTS is to conduct counternarcotics related training of foreign military and law enforcement personnel. Special Operations Forces (SOF) conduct this counter-drug training of light infantry, aviation, coastal, riverine, rotary wing operations, and staffs associated with counter-drug operations.
Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities
Humanitarian Demining Programs
Humanitarian Demining Programs must enhance the readiness of participating U.S. forces, must benefit the civilian population in the intended country and cannot normally be used for the military or police forces. The result is the Unified Commands are actively engaged and exercise leadership in Humanitarian Demining throughout their areas of responsibility. The Humanitarian Demining Programs allow the Unified Commanders to work closely with Country Teams to show developing countries how military forces can support the civilian population. By participating in these activities, the Unified Commands and the Country Teams demonstrate U.S. commitment, shape the environment, promote regional stability, support democratic ideas, and relieve suffering.
Academy Exchanges/Service Academy Foreign Student Program.
The Service Academies have conducted traditional academic exchange programs of varying length and content. As with civilian exchanges, cadets and/or midshipmen may spend a portion of the academic year or summer training period at a comparable foreign institution while counterpart students participate in the U.S. program. In addition, up to 40 foreign students may attend each Service Academy at any one time as actual members of an Academy class (i.e., as full-time, four-year degree candidates). The foreign and security policy justification for these activities centers on the inestimable value of exposing future foreign leaders, at the beginning of their careers, to their U.S. peers in an environment that is designed to promote military professionalization in every respect. The presence of foreign students in U.S. institutions also serves our foreign and security policy interests by exposing future U.S. military leaders to individuals from the many parts of the globe to which they may deploy. The cost reflected in the report represents the cost to the DoD. Some countries reimburse all or a portion of the cost of the program to the service academies.
Aviation Leadership Program
The Aviation Leadership Program (ALP) provides Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training (SUPT) to a small number (15-20 per year) of select international students fromfriendly, less-developed countries. ALP is an USAF-funded program authorized under 10 U.S.C. Sections 9381-9383. ALP consists of English language training, SUPT and necessary related training, as well as programs to promote better awareness and understanding of the democratic institutions and social framework of the United States. The duration of the ALP program is 1-2 years, depending on the amount of English language training required to bring the student up to entry level and the student's progression through the SUPT program. The cost of the ALP program is approximately $370K per student. Nineteen international officers entered the program in FY 1998. Countries participating in the program for FY 1998 are: Bangladesh, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Hungary, Mali, Paraguay, Peru, Romania, South Africa, Suriname, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. The ALP program was suspended for FY 1999 and FY 2000 due to a shortfall of SUPT quotas for overall Air Force requirements. Students reflected in this report are FY 1998 entries completing the SUPT program. USAF plans to restart the program in FY 2001.
Professional military education (PME) exchanges are authorized by Section 544 (Exchange Training) of the Foreign Assistance Act. This section authorizes the President to provide for the attendance of foreign military personnel at PME institutions in the United States (other than Service Academies) without charge, if such attendance is part of an international agreement. These international agreements provide for the exchange of students on a one-for-one reciprocal basis each fiscal year between the two military Services participating in the exchange.
The Arms Export Control Act (Section 30A - Exchange of Training and Related Support) authorizes the President to provide training and related support to military and civilian defense personnel of a friendly foreign country or international organization. Such training and related support are provided through the Military Services (as opposed to the Unified Commands). Unit exchanges conducted under this authority are arranged under international agreements negotiated for such purposes, and are integrated into the theater engagement strategies of the relevant Unified Commander. Recipient countries provide, on a reciprocal basis, comparable training and related support.
C. REGIONAL PROGRAMS
African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) -- DoS
The African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) is a training and equipping initiative intended to enhance the capacity of various African states to create highly effective, rapidly-deployable peacekeeping units, which can operate with common equipment and training in the event of humanitarian crises or a traditional peacekeeping operation. To date, more than 6,000 African troops have completed initial training under the program. As DoD Executive Agent for ACRI, U.S. European Command is responsible for the development of the military aspects involved in establishing and maintaining the concept. ACRI training is conducted by soldiers deployed from the Third and Fifth Special Forces Groups, other appropriate military resources, and contractors from MPRI and LOGICON.
Asia-Pacific Center -- DoD
The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies is one of four regional centers designed to enhance regional cooperation and security confidence. The Asia-Pacific Center seeks to serve as a vehicle for lowering regional tension through improved understanding of intentions, doctrines, and other security issues pertaining to countries in the region. The Center accepts both civilian defense professionals and military officers for its programs, which seek to compensate for the regional absence of longstanding institutions such as NATO and the OSCE. The activities focus on preserving stability in the Asia-Pacific region in order that security, human rights, economic development, free trade and other goals can be pursued.
Marshall Center -- DoD
The George C. Marshall Center for Security Studies is designed to promote defense reform among our European and other regional partners through advancement of democratic institutions, improved civilian expertise in national defense matters and strengthening of civil-military relations. The Marshall Center seeks to facilitate the transformation and integration of former communist militaries into Western-style democracies. The activities center on securing for the long-term the benefits that have resulted from the downfall of the Soviet Union.
Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) -- DoD
The CHDS is designed to promote civilian specialization in defense and military matters and to promote civil-military relations. CHDS is attempting to build on the trend of democratic elections in the Latin American region by strengthening civilian capacity to oversee military institutions, while promoting political restraint among military establishments. These activities center on our interest in civilian institutionalization of reforms that led to (or resulted from) democratic elections throughout the region.
Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS)-- DoD
The fourth and newest DOD regional center is the ACSS. The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. DoD launched its flagship engagement program for Africa, the ACSS, in November 1999 with an inaugural seminar in Senegal. The Center's pilot seminar brought together 115 senior military and civilian leaders from more than 40 countries in Africa to examine and evaluate the principles of democratic defense. This seminar marked the first time such a diverse group of senior African leaders have come together to address substantive issues in an apolitical forum. Additional seminars and academic forums are being planned.
D. MISCELLANEOUS DOD-DOS ACTIVITIES
Joint Combined Exchange Training (JCET) events -- DoD
The JCET program, authorized under 10 USC Section 2011, permits U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) to train through interaction with foreign military forces. The particular value of this training is that it enhances those SOF skills--such as instructor skills, language proficiency, and cultural immersion--critical to required missions generated by either existing plans or unforeseen contingencies. The primary purpose of JCET activities is always the training of U.S. SOF personnel, although incidental training benefits may accrue to the foreign friendly forces.
United States Coast Guard -- DoD and DoS
The Coast Guard has no general independent authority to provide training and assistance to foreign nationals. However, 14 USCS 141(a) provides the Coast Guard with the authority to assist federal agencies that do have authority to train or assist foreign nationals by performing activities/training for which the Coast Guard is "especially qualified." DoS and DoD as well as other federal agencies frequently request the Coast Guard to provide training in maritime law enforcement, search and rescue, marine environmental protection, as well as the operational assets and personnel resources to support those missions through programs such as the Expanded Threat Reduction Initiative (ETRI); Non-Proliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related Activities (NADR); Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR); Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), U.S. Customs Service (USCS), and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The Coast Guard training is also provided under other categories of fund sources including IMET, INL, 506 Drawdown, country funds, and Foreign Military Financing (FMF) through Foreign Military Sales (FMS) cases.
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