Published by the Federation of American Scientists Fund No. 43 (April 2000)

ARMS SALES MONITOR

Highlighting U.S. government policies on arms exports and conventional weapons proliferation.

 

Christmas in April:

Weapons Wish Lists from Around the World

Israel and Syria: Weapons for Peace?

What does it take to support a peace deal in the Middle East? Weapons, of course! Israel has said that in exchange for reaching a peace accord with Syria and withdrawing from the Golan Heights, it wants massive amounts of U.S. weaponry. Israel has reportedly presented the Pentagon with a $17 billion shopping list, including AWACS and Hercules aircraft, Tomahawk cruise missiles, Black Hawk helicopters, and Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) kits to make "smart" satellite-guided missiles. Israel already got $1.2 billion last year for signing the Wye River Agreement with Jordan and continues to receive almost $2 billion of military aid a year for its 1978 peace accords with Egypt.

Taiwan: Weapons or Peace?

Washington recently approved a package of high-tech weapons for Taiwan, including sophisticated air-to-air and anti-ship missiles and a "Pave Paws" long-range radar system. The Pave Paws system could eventually be linked to a theater missile defense system, still in development, increasing the intensity of the ongoing arms race with China. Yet Taiwan didn't get everything on its wish-list; Taipei really wanted four destroyers with the powerful Aegis battle management system, capable of tracking over 100 land, sea, and air targets. Most independent observers believe that the Taiwanese military isn't ready to handle the Aegis warships, and the State Department feared the sale would provoke an angry response by Beijing.

This "compromise" arms deal was an attempt to balance a U.S. commitment to China not to increase arms sales to Taiwan and a Congressional mandate to provide Taiwan with a "sufficient self-defense capability." Yet this sale, like past arms sales to Taiwan, is guaranteed to displease both sides: China feels threatened by sophisticated additions to Taiwan's arsenal, and Congress and Taiwan's elastic interpretation of "self-defense" ensures that Taiwan's need for arms will never be satiated.

Philippines: Weapons for Peacekeeping?

The United States is slowly welcoming the Philippines back into its security assistance net. The Philippines became somewhat estranged from the U.S. militarily in 1992 when it shut down its U.S. bases. U.S. arms sales dropped significantly, and military aid eventually stopped. But the Philippines are once again asking for arms and military aid, and the U.S. appears happy to oblige. The administration's budget includes $2 million in Foreign Military Financing for the Philippines so it can buy spare parts for its aging U.S. arms, including F-5 aircraft, vehicles, and maritime equipment.

Spare parts are likely to be just the beginning. At a press conference with Defense Secretary Cohen in October 1999, Philippine Defense Secretary Mercado said it had "pressing needs" for light, medium, and heavy lift capability for peacekeeping and search and rescue operations. But these aren't the only operations in which the Philippine military is engaged. The government maintains what the U.S. State Department's 1999 Human Rights Report describes as an "uneasy truce" with Muslim separatists, and violence between the two groups has led to "a variety of human rights abuses by both sides."

 

Your Tax Dollars at Work:

The FY2001 Military Aid Budget

For every dollar of the Clinton administration's proposed budget for fiscal year 2001, just over a penny will be spent on international affairs. This international pot must pay for U.S. diplomacy, the Peace Corps, humanitarian aid, debt relief, the United Nations—and shiny new weapons for countries like Israel and Egypt. In fact, military aid for these two recipients alone consumes a fifth of the entire $22.8 billion foreign affairs budget.

The State Department uses the same twisted logic to justify large sums of military aid as it does to support U.S. arms sales. Secretary Albright testified to the House International Relations Committee on February 16 that security assistance programs "contribute to the health of America's defense industrial base, take advantage of opportunities to promote democratic practices, and help friends and allies to develop armed forces that are more capable and better able to operate with our own." The rationale is not particularly convincing, but it doesn't need to be: Congress passes most military aid requests easily, even as the rest of the State Department's budget is strapped for cash.

The section below highlights the President's $6.6 billion budget request for foreign military aid programs funded by the State Dept. in FY01. FY00 figures - official estimates of spending based on the budget passed last fall, including any supplemental appropriations - are also listed for comparison. The source for this information is the State Department's Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations, Fiscal Year 2001, online at http://www.state.gov/www/budget/fy2001/fn150/forops_full/index.html. All dollar figures are in thousands unless otherwise indicated.

Total Security Assistance ($ in thousands)

 

FY2000

(Estimated)

FY2001 (Requested)

Foreign Military Financing

$4,788,994

$3,538,200

Economic Support Fund

2,792,187

2,313,000

International Narcotics and Crime

303,841

312,000

Nonproliferation, Demining and Anti-Terrorism

215,780

311,500

Int. Military Education and Training

49,810

55,000

Peacekeeping Operations

152,418

134,000

Total

$8,303,030

$6,663,700

Foreign Military Financing

Foreign Military Financing (FMF) is the largest U.S. security assistance program and is explicitly targeted towards underwriting sales of American arms to foreign countries. While the $3.5 billion in proposed FY01 FMF funding appears to be a decrease from FY00 levels, if the FY00 funds for the Wye River peace accord supplemental are excluded, the President's 2001 request actually increases FMF spending by about $100 million.

As usual, Israel and Egypt are apportioned the lion's share (about 93%) of FMF (though Israel is usually allowed to spend a percentage on domestically-produced arms). This is euphemistically referred to as "supporting Middle East peace" (see p. 7 for more nifty euphemisms).

The new NATO members (Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland) are slated to receive $30.3 million to help "modernize and meet NATO standards for interoperability." An additional $81.9 million would help other countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union "obtain training and equipment in support of participation in NATO's Partnership for Peace." A new "Africa Regional Stability" line item was added to allow for flexible spending on different crisis areas in Africa. The planned funding for Nigeria is supposed to go towards assisting the Nigerian military "to support democracy building efforts" by learning the principles of civilian control of the military.

Foreign Military Financing ($ in millions)

 

FY00

(Estimated)

FY01

(Requested)

Near East

$4,674,215

$3,360,000

Israel

1,920,000

1,980,000

Wye Supplemental

1,200,000

-

Egypt

1,300,000

1,300,000

Supplemental

25,000

-

Jordan

74,715

75,000

Wye Supplemental

150,000

-

Morocco

1,500

2,500

Tunisia

3,000

2,500

E. Europe and CIS

65,750

112,200

New NATO States

20,000

30,300

Partnership for Peace

45,750

78,900

Bosnia

-

3,000

East Asia

1,000

4,000

Mongolia

 

2,000

Philippines

1,000

2,000

Sub-Saharan Africa

12,034

18,000

East Africa Regional

2,034

-

Africa Regional Stability

-

18,000

Nigeria

10,000

-

Western Hemisphere

3,000

5,000

Other

32,995

39,000

Enhanced Int. Peacekeeping Initiative

2,500

6,000

Administrative Costs

30,495

33,000

Rescission

6,006

 

Total FMF

$4,795,000

$3,538,200

Economic Support Fund

This category of bilateral aid is a mixed bag: the proposed $2.3 billion would fund a variety of programs designed to promote democracy and economic development. Yet funds to states like Israel and Egypt essentially enable them to allocate more resources to buying arms. In a telling sign of the link between ESF and military aid, a planned decrease in ESF funds to Israel (to whom "economic" aid is increasingly hard to justify) will be offset by increased FMF.

International Narcotics and Law Enforcement

The State Department's $312 million request to combat international narcotics trafficking and crime is a modest increase over the $304 million appropriated for FY00. The bulk of this funding goes toward counternarcotics aid for Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru, slated to receive $52, $35, and $48 million in FY01, respectively. Two new initiatives are proposed for 2001: $10 million each for a "law enforcement strategy for Africa" and a "civilian police contingent" composed of volunteer U.S. police officers who would participate in "internationally authorized missions."

In addition, President Clinton is requesting $318 million in FY01 for both State and Defense budgets in support of "Plan Colombia," a counternarcotics/insurgency military aid package. This amount is in addition to the $954 million requested in supplemental State and Defense spending for FY00 (see p. 3 for details).

Non-Proliferation, Demining, and Related Programs

This is another broad budget line, ranging from humanitarian de-mining to support for North Korea's energy sector. The largest single funding category would appropriate $68 million for anti-terrorism assistance, including creation of a dedicated "Center for Antiterrorism and Security Training" for training foreign security personnel. Especially welcome is the new $2 million contribution towards destruction of stockpiled small arms in Eastern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa.

International Military Education and Training

The administration proposes boosting funding for international military training across the board by more than $5 million, increasing the number of foreign students trained this year by 823. This free training would be provided to 128 different countries. A number of African and Asian countries that did not participate in training in FY99 or 00 are slated to receive IMET assistance in 2001, including: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Congo, Liberia, Mauritania, Niger, Togo, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. IMET funds are supplemented by foreign military training conducted under the Pentagonís budget authority.

Peacekeeping Operations

The President's proposed $134 million for peacekeeping will go to a variety of global hot spots, including Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, East Timor, Haiti, and southern Lebanon. The money may be used for non-lethal military equipment for peacekeeping organizations such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Additionally, $20 million would be earmarked for the African Crisis Response Initiative to train and equip African militaries for peacekeeping missions.

 

Aid to Colombia: Counter-Narcotics or Counter-Insurgency?

Colombian President Pastrana has requested billions of dollars in U.S. economic and military aid to help Colombia crack down on its flourishing drug trade. Yet most of the coca cultivation in Colombia takes place in the southern territory controlled by leftist guerillas, who have been fighting the Colombian government for the past thirty years in a devastating civil war. Pastrana's "Plan Colombia" involves beefing up the Colombian military in order to vanquish simultaneously the drug traffickers and the rebels who help protect their trade.

The Clinton administration, unfazed by the prospect of crossing the fine line into counter-insurgency, has offered most of the military aid called for in Plan Colombia. Military and police aid account for 81 percent of the administration's proposed aid package, compared to a meager 3 percent for human rights and judicial reform. For the first time, large quantities of U.S. military equipment and training would go the Colombian army, which has committed serious human rights abuses in the past and is known to have ties with the right-wing paramilitaries responsible for the vast majority of current human rights abuses (as well as a significant amount of drug trafficking).

If approved by Congress, the U.S. aid package would provide the Colombian security forces with 30 Black Hawk helicopters, 15 UH-1N Huey helicopters, and funds to sustain Colombia's existing 18 Hueys. It would also support the creation and training of two new counter-narcotics battalions, plus provide construction of a radar command center, aircraft upgrades, small arms and ammunition, and material and operational assistance for intelligence and early-warning activities.

On March 30, 2000, the House passed, 263 to 146, a supplemental appropriations bill for FY00 (H.R. 3908) that includes the Colombia aid package. The bill would appropriate $1.701 billion for counter-narcotics activities, including $1.07 billion for Colombia. This is in addition to the $330 million in assistance already planned for 2000 and 2001, bringing the total two-year aid package for Colombia to $1.337 billion. The House rejected an amendment offered by Rep. Obey (D-WI) to remove $500 million intended to support the Colombian military's "push" into southern, guerrilla-controlled territory. It did, however, approve a minimum of $50 million for the large number of persons expected to be displaced by this offensive. Congress also failed to pass an amendment offered by Rep. Pelosi (D-CA) to provide funding for drug treatment programs in the United States, a counter-drug method shown to be much more cost-effective than interdiction. Fairly weak human rights criteria were also attached to the aid.

The package is now being held up in the Senate by Majority Leader Trent Lott (R-MI), who favors the aid package to Colombia but opposes any extra "emergency" appropriations for 2000. It is likely that Congress will consider aid to Colombia as part of the 2001 foreign aid budget bill, which is normally debated during spring and summer and approved in late summer or early fall.

 

Aid for Colombia: Clinton Administration Proposal vs. Aid Passed by House Appropriations Committee on March 9, 2000 ($ in millions)

Administration House of Representatives
Military assistance  $         761.6 56.2%  $         700.7 52.4%
Police assistance 349.2 25.8% 386.7 28.9%
Alternative development 116.5 8.6% 118.0 8.8%
Aid to the displaced* 39.5 2.9%

39.5*

3.0%
Law enforcement / rule of law 46.5 3.4% 45.5 3.4%
Judicial reform 24.0 1.8% 26.5 2.0%
Human rights 17.0 1.3% 19.0 1.4%
Peace 1.0 0.1% 1.0 0.1%
Total  $   1,355.3 100%  $   1,336.9 100%
* Amended in House floor vote to at least $50 million    

 

U.S. Arms Exports: FY1999 and FY2000

Below is a list of new Foreign Military Sales (FMS), or government-to-government, contracts for fiscal year 1999 and predicted new agreements for fiscal year 2000. Also listed are initial figures on shipments of State Department-licensed Direct Commercial Sales (DCS) for FY1999. The DCS numbers are likely to be significantly revised upwards as more information on arms shipments becomes available to the State Department. DCS deliveries for FY2000 are estimates based on current export licenses (Source: Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations FY2001).

Listed below is the State Department's FY01 budget request for International Military Education and Training (IMET), raised this year from $50 to $55 million. Also listed are the estimated budget for FY00 and the number of students expected to be trained in both years. In FY01, the U.S. plans to provide training to 128 countries, including all but seven states of the African continent!

FMS Agreements and DSC Deliveries ($ in thousands)
FMS Agreements    DCS Deliveries
Country FY99 FY00 (est.)    FY99  FY00 (est.)
Africa (sub-Saharan)    
Angola  $                    -    $             1,000    $               -    $                 1
Benin 300    
Botswana 365 650                    10              1,390
Burundi    
Cameroon 8                      1              1,319
Cape Verde 45 100    
Central African Republic 160    
Chad 500 1,150    
Congo                        5
Cote díIvoire 1,200 500    
Djibouti    
Eritrea 2,428    
Ethiopia 1,500    
Gabon 68                        5
Ghana 2,155 3,540                        4
Guinea 58 30    
Guinea-Bissau    
Kenya 71 4,000                      5                   62
Lesotho    
Madagascar    
Malawi 1,150    
Mali 680    
Mauritania                        1
Mauritius                        5
Mozambique 500    
Namibia 30 350                   100
Nigeria 231 2,300                     64
Reunion                        2
Rwanda 350    
Sao Tome & Principe 150    
Senegal 1,276 13,030                     25
Seychelles    
Sierra Leone 180    
South Africa 388 575                  176              6,342
Tanzania 100                    48                      9
Uganda 1,900                   115
Zambia                   139
Zimbabwe 350                      2                 143
Subtotal  $             6,319  $          37,049    $           242  $         9,731
     
Americas    
Antigua & Barbuda 0 330   177 66
Argentina 12,494 11,700                  485           25,622
Aruba                     18
Bahamas 36 140              1,658              2,904
Barbados 350                      9                   11
Belize 791 200   0 5
Bermuda                     14
Bolivia 2,500                   424
Bolivia (counter-narcotics) 1,787 6,500    
Brazil 14,769 24,000              1,831           22,512
Canada 76,918 98,000              1,758           78,883
Cayman Islands                     15
Chile 4,206 486,500              2,096              5,898
Colombia 3,420 252,000                  996           10,458
Colombia (counter-narcotics) 1,099 100,000    
Costa Rica 1,750                  179                 486
Dominica 120    
Dominican Republic 441 510                    68              3,129
Ecuador                  705              6,997
Ecuador (counter-narcotics) 655 3,410    
El Salvador 337 2,990                  161              1,222
French Guiana                  166                 346
Grenada 120                        4
Guatemala                    26              1,249
Guyana 2,300                      3                   72
Haiti 400                     21
Honduras 566 8,000                      6                 652
Jamaica 165 650                    74                 152
Mexico 5,651 20,000              5,521           62,335
Netherlands Antilles                      2                 188
Nicaragua                   282
Panama 222 590                    39                 510
Paraguay 30 75                    93                   42
Peru 30 3,700                    35              3,048
Peru (counter-narcotics) 157    
St. Kitts & Nevis 212 120                      1                      4
St. Lucia 220                     14
St. Vincent & Grenadines 3 120                        6
Suriname                    11                   30
Trinidad & Tobago 425                  213                 117
Uruguay 1,033 1,530                  706                 549
Venezuela 9,564 10,000            41,966           32,026
Subtotal  $        134,586  $     1,039,250    $      58,985  $     260,311
East Asia & Pacific    
Australia  $        422,460  $        357,000            18,650         216,174
Brunei                  337              3,725
Cambodia 200 2,000    
China (satellites)           750,000
Fiji                        2
Hong Kong              1,103                 891
Indonesia 1,638                  630  
Japan 226,450 438,588   118,542 2,202,192
Laos 2,000    
Macao                    74                   35
Malaysia 30,683 11,000              2,811           14,454
New Caledonia                      2                   84
New Zealand 119,567 30,900              2,130           22,027
Papua New Guinea                    58                 209
Philippines 9,803 42,000                  815           33,082
Singapore 680,943 293,000            10,873           84,577
Solomon Is.                        1
South Korea 510,615 800,000            10,711         474,751
Taiwan 559,401 550,000            15,500         200,000
Thailand 46,047 83,500              4,299           32,464
Tonga    
Subtotal  $     2,607,807  $     2,609,988    $   186,535  $ 4,034,668
     
Europe    
Albania  $             1,512  $             5,400    
Andorra                        5
Austria 5,804 179,000                  786           22,505
Belgium 60,194 59,000              5,766              2,655
Bosnia-Herz. 3,470 4,000             13,715
Bulgaria 1,005 19,200                  721                      1
Croatia                  751                 507
Cyprus                    13                      2
Czech Rep. 8,831 8,500            37,571           30,881
Denmark 116,300 125,000              1,215           18,120
Estonia 2,658 19,000                   253
Faeroe Islands                   450
Finland 4,097 238,000            16,203         128,825
France 67,413 140,000              6,874           65,413
Georgia 3,029 10,500                   106
Germany 287,479 200,000            12,032         152,689
Greece 393,111 1,187,000            32,044           51,080
Greenland                      2                 154
Hungary 6,012 8,464                    39                 196
Iceland                      5              5,318
Ireland 45                  394                 207
Italy 39,859              6,346         189,177
Kazakhstan                     42
Kyrgyzstan 901 1,500    
Latvia 2,871 11,095                   289
Lithuania 393 10,000                   822
Luxembourg 2,407 2,000                  297           22,085
Macedonia (FYROM) 3,529 5,000                   257
Malta 300                     21
Moldova 2,255 1,500    
Monaco   2 77
Netherlands 96,035 523,900              4,703         132,118
Norway 52,850 62,500              1,841           38,297
Poland 24,140 41,700                  546              2,507
Portugal 313,362 10,030                  819           10,209
Romania 11,118 10,300                  189           10,239
Russia 4,500                    34           14,363
Slovakia 2,637 3,500                     87
Slovenia 1,912 117,650                  797              1,619
Spain 336,557 267,500              4,299           56,349
Sweden 613 3,000            12,657           52,579
Switzerland 82,594 10,000              2,352           26,794
Turkey 358,295 385,400              7,751           27,227
Turkmenistan 600    
Ukraine 864 4,000                        4
United Kingdom 116,248 162,400            35,034         609,919
Uzbekistan 2,604 1,600                     40
Subtotal  $     2,413,004  $     3,912,839    $   192,083  $ 1,688,203
     
Near East & South Asia    
Algeria  $                303  $                500             29,234
Bahrain 11,617 153,000                  152              6,147
Bangladesh                  181                 919
Egypt 2,124,160 1,300,000                  623           40,841
India    
Israel 2,320,420 1,391,000              4,228         163,829
Jordan 10,445 158,600                  169              6,655
Kuwait 478,104 360,000              3,937           29,894
Lebanon 257 500                    62                 160
Maldives                     12
Morocco 3,656 7,300                    14           29,943
Nepal                    11                 148
Oman 4,244 2,000                  665              2,309
Pakistan    
Qatar                  682              2,198
Saudi Arabia 1,388,794 1,276,950              7,581           71,100
Sri Lanka                  150              1,234
Tunisia 1,557 4,900                  242              1,020
United Arab Emirates 47,959 167,000              1,399           30,755
Yemen 300 314                   865
Subtotal  $     6,391,816  $     4,822,064    $      20,096  $     417,263
     
Non-Regional    
Classified Total            569,179            693,000          195,703      1,000,000
Int'l Org's               57,727               77,730                  616         355,018
Subtotal  $        653,906  $        770,730    $   196,319  $ 1,355,018
           
Grand Total  $  12,207,438  $  13,191,920    $   654,260  $ 7,765,194

 

FY01 Foreign Military Training: 

We've Got the Whole World in Our Hands!

The administration proposes boosting funding for international military training across the board by more than $5 million, increasing the number of foreign students trained this year by 823. This free training would be provided to 128 different countries. A number of African and Asian countries that did not participate in training in FY99 or 00 are slated to receive IMET assistance in 2001, including: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Congo, Liberia, Mauritania, Niger, Togo, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. IMET funds are supplemented by foreign military training conducted under the Pentagon's budget authority. (Source: Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations FY2001).

IMET Funding and Student Numbers ($ in thousands)
FY00 FY01   FY00 FY01
$ (est.) $ (request)   # (est.) # (request)
Africa          
Angola  $          50  $             50   2 2
Benin 350 350   75 75
Botswana 450 500   45 50
Burkina Faso 0 70    
Burundi 0 70    
Cameroon 150 160   31 33
Cape Verde 100 100   3 3
Cent. African Rep. 90 100   2 2
Chad 50 75   30 46
Congo (Brazzaville) 0 75    
Congo (Kinshasa) 40 75   2 3
Cote díIvoire 150 100   40 40
Djibouti 100 125   4 5
Eritrea 305 345   7 8
Ethiopia 385 400   5 5
Gabon 50 75   2 3
Ghana 400 425   30 32
Guinea 150 175   7 8
Guinea-Bissau 50 50   2 2
Kenya 400 425   114 121
Lesotho 75 85   78 88
Liberia 0 75    
Madagascar 100 125   72 90
Malawi 335 350   103 107
Mali 280 300   44 47
Mauritania 0 75    
Mauritius 50 60   2 3
Mozambique 180 200   58 64
Namibia 175 195   10 11
Niger 0 60    
Nigeria 600 650   12 15
Rwanda 235 250   39 41
Sao Tome 75 85   2 2
Senegal 735 750   149 152
Seychelles 75 60   20 16
Sierra Leone 50 100    
South Africa 800 825   431 445
Swaziland 75 85   5 6
Tanzania 150 175   7 8
Togo 0 50    
Uganda 370 385   24 25
Zambia 150 160   51 54
Zimbabwe 300 325   38 41
Africa total  $     8,080  $       9,170   1,516 1,644
     
East Asia /Pacific    
Cambodia 0 100    
Fiji 150 160   6 6
Indonesia 0 400   0 65
Laos 0 50    
Malaysia 700 700   149 149
Mongolia 500 525   115 121
Papua New Guinea 175 180   96 99
Philippines 1400 1400   222 222
Samoa 100 120   21 25
Solomon Islands 150 150   28 28
Thailand 1600 1560   170 166
Tonga 100 100   28 28
Vanuatu 100 100   45 45
Vietnam 0 50    
E. Asia/Pacific total  $     4,975  $       5,595   881 963
     
Europe    
Albania 600 800   116 155
Bosnia and Herz. 600 800   101 134
Bulgaria 1000 1100   121 121
Croatia 500 525   190 199
Czech Republic 1500 1700   218 247
Estonia 700 800   50 57
Greece 25 25   2 2
Hungary 1470 1700   193 223
Latvia 700 750   71 76
Lithuania 700 750   63 67
Macedonia 500 550   79 87
Malta 100 100   7 7
Poland 1600 1700   248 264
Portugal 700 750   126 135
Romania 1100 1300   278 329
Slovakia 650 700   110 118
Slovenia 650 700   75 81
Turkey 1500 1,600   178 190
Europe total  $     2,226  $     16,350         2,226           2,492
     
NIS    
Georgia 400 475   58 69
Kazakhstan 550 600   16 17
Kyrgyzstan 350 400   12 14
Moldova 490 600   46 57
Russian Federation 800 800   39 39
Turkmenistan 300 325   7 7
Ukraine 1300 1500   346 399
Uzbekistan 500 550   13 15
NIS total  $     4,690  $       5,250   537 617
     
Latin America    
Antigua-Barbuda*   19 24
Argentina 700 750   225 241
Bahamas 100 115   13 15
Barbados*   9 10
Belize 250 275   47 52
Bolivia 550 600   78 86
Brazil 225 250   33 36
Chile 450 500   164 182
Colombia 900 1040   600 693
Costa Rica 200 200   44 44
Dominica*   7 8
Dominican Republic 450 450   43 43
Eastern Caribbean 500 560    
Ecuador 500 550   142 157
El Salvador 500 525   184 194
Grenada*   6 7
Guatemala 225 250   92 102
Guyana 175 195   16 18
Haiti 275 300   3 4
Honduras 500 525   197 207
Jamaica 450 500   54 60
Mexico 1000 1000   211 211
Nicaragua 200 220   55 61
Panama 100 110   4 4
Paraguay 200 200   53 53
Peru 450 475   71 75
St. Kitts-Nevis*   29 31
St. Lucia*   6 7
St. Vincent & Grenada*   10 11
Suriname 100 100   86 86
Trinidad & Tobago 125 125   13 13
Uruguay 300 300   64 64
Venezuela 400 400   182 182
Latin America total  $     9,825  $     10,515         2,755           2,971
     
Near East    
Algeria 125 125   12 12
Bahrain 225 235   34 35
Egypt 1000 1100   79 87
Jordan 1600 1700   190 201
Lebanon 550 575   162 169
Morocco 900 955   49 52
Oman 225 250   39 43
Tunisia 900 955   113 120
Yemen 125 135   5 6
Near East total  $     5,650  $       6,030   683 725
     
South Asia    
Bangladesh 450 460   89 91
India 450 475   11 12
Maldives 100 110   6 7
Nepal 175 200   12 14
Sri Lanka 225 245   9 10
South Asia total  $     1,750  $       1,490   127 134
     
General Costs 595 600    
     
Total  $  50,420  $     55,000   8723           9,546

* $ amounts included in Eastern Caribbean figure.

 

Dictionary of Security Assistance Euphemisms

Official descriptions of U.S. arms sales and military aid programs use a variety of euphemisms to make them sound more palatable to the U.S. public. To avoid any confusion about their true meaning, the ASMP has translated the most commonly used phrases. Look for these terms being used to justify the ongoing "reforms" of the arms export licensing process.

harmonize: reduce controls to the lowest common denominator <We must harmonize export controls with our allies.>

efficiency: sell more weapons more quickly to more countries <The U.S. must increase speed and efficiency in the export licensing process.>

transparency: increase involvement of U.S. arms exporters and foreign buyers in the export control process <We must make the export system more transparent.>

modernize: dismantle, completely overhaul <We aim to modernize arms export regulations.>

interoperability: buy American <European and Middle Eastern countries need to devote more resources to achieving interoperability with U.S. forces.>

 

EDA Info Online!

After a year and a half hiatus, the Pentagon's Excess Defense Articles (EDA) online database is back in a new, web-friendly format, http://www.dsca.osd.mil/programs/eda/edamain.htm. (EDA are surplus U.S. arms and military equipment given to friendly countries for free or at greatly reduced prices.) Information is available on all EDA transfers for FY 1993-2000. Be prepared for some frustration, however: only one country may be searched at a time, and we have had trouble downloading the data when countries have many EDA transfers.

Look to the next Arms Sales Monitor for a list of recent EDA, or check out our own online database, which covers congressional notifications of EDA, FMS, DCS, and other arms transfers to selected countries at http://www.fas.org/asmp/profiles/world.html.

 

Government Documents

Listed below are recently published government documents relating to the arms trade. General Accounting Office (GAO) reports are available online at http://info@www.gao.gov/reports.htm. Reports by the Defense Department Inspector General are at http://www.dodig.osd.mil/audit/reports/00report.htm. CRS reports must be requested from a member of Congress.

1999 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, State Dept. Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, March 2000, http://www.state.gov/www/global/narcotics_law/1999_narc_report/index.html

Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations for FY 2001, State Department (on-line for the first time at http://www.state.gov/www/budget/fy2001/fn150/forops_full/index.html ).

Current Issues in the Western Hemisphere Region, Hearing before the Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Sept. 29, 1999, Serial No. 106-64.

Defense Inventory: Opportunities Exist to Expand the Use of Defense Logistics Agency Best Practices, GAO/NSIAD-00-30, Jan. 26, 2000.

Defense Inventory: Plan to Improve Management of Shipped Inventory Should Be Strengthened, GAO/NSIAD-00-39, Feb. 22, 2000.

Drug Control: U.S. Efforts in Latin America and the Caribbean, GAO/NSIAD-00-90R, Feb. 18, 2000.

Excess Defense Articles: Grants and Sales to Allies and Friendly Countries, Richard F. Grimmett, CRS, Jan. 10, 2000.

Export Licensing at DoD Research Facilities, Defense Dept. Inspector General, D-2000-110, Mar. 24, 2000.

Fiscal Year 2000 Security Assistance Legislation, Kenneth W. Martin and Craig M. Brandt, Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management.

Foreign Military Training & DoD Engagement Activities of Interest, Joint Report of the Defense and State Depts., Mar. 1, 2000

Interagency Review of the Export Licensing Process for Foreign National Visitors, Defense Dept. Inspector General, D-2000-109, Mar. 30, 2000,

National Security Implications of Export Controls, Hearings before the Senate Committee on Armed Services, Feb. 28, 2000, and Mar. 23, 2000.

The Political Futures of Indonesia and East Timor, Joint hearing before the House Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific and the Senate Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Serial No. 106-68, Sept. 9, 1999.

Post-1999 U.S. Security And Counter-Drug Interests In Panama, Hearing before the House International Relations Committee, July 29, 1999, Serial No. 106-73.

Unclassified Report to Congress on the Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions, CIA, Feb. 2, 2000, http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/bian/bian_feb_2000.html

 


FAS Arms Sales Monitoring Project

Founded in 1945, the Federation of American Scientists Fund is a public interest organization of natural and social scientists and engineers dedicated to the responsible use of science and technology. Since 1991, the Arms Sales Monitoring Project at the FAS Fund has worked for a reduction in global weapons production and trade.

Tamar Gabelnick, Director of the Project, edits the newsletter with contributions by Research Assistants Anna Rich and Pamina Firchow. You may reproduce and cite this publication freely. A subscription is available from the FAS Fund at 307 Massachusetts Ave, NE, Washington, DC 20002, phone (202) 675-1016.

All newsletters are also found on our website at: http://www.fas.org/asmp/library/armsmonitor.html.