EXPORTspaceOFspaceDEFENCEspaceMATERIEL




Second Annual Report According to the EU Code of Conduct on Arms Esports
NATIONAL REPORT OF FINLAND FOR 1999

 

1. REPORTING PERIOD AND SCOPE


The reporting period is the year 1999, 11.-31.12.1999. This report covers exports authorised under the Act on the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel.

2. LEGAL BASIS AND NATIONAL LICENSING GUIDELINES

The basic principles, policies and national practices on the export of conventional arms and related technology are embodied in the Finnish legislation concerned. The export of defence materiel and its transit is allowed only if authorisation (export licence) therefore has been granted. Authorisation shall not be granted if it jeopardises Finland's security or is in contradiction with Finland's foreign policy.

These basic principles in the Act on the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel are supplemented by clarifying rules contained in the national Guidelines. According to them, the following factors shall be taken into account in the overall assessment of licence applications


- foreign and security policy aspects, including the relevant UN, OSCE, EU and other international obligations be they decisions on arms embargoes, multilateral restraints, criteria, principles or guidelines of multilateral export control regimes

- analysis of the situation prevailing in the recipient country, especially with regard to human rights, including attitudes of other States vis-à-vis the recipient country

- characteristics, intended use and military significance of the item to be exported

- significance of the item and export in relation to the materiel preparedness of Finnish national defence and to the development of domestic defence industry.

The EU Code of Conduct on Arms Exports is incorporated in the Finnish legislation as an annex to the national Guidelines.


Accordingly, all applications are assessed on a case-by-case basis. In ambiguous cases, restraint should be preferred. If the export of the item in question, by virtue of its characteristics and significance, will not lead to, or will in all likelihood not to be used in violations of human rights, offensive armed action or other comparable unacceptable purposes inside or outside the recipient country, granting of a licence may be recommended if the overall assessment is otherwise favourable and if the formal licensing requirements have been met.

There are specific rules for the export licensing of components and subsystems of any defence equipment.

The relevant Finnish legislation is as follows:

Act on the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel (promulgated in 1990, amendments in force since 1 March 1995)

- a concise framework law stipulating the authorisation and procedure as well as sanctions in case of violations

- establishes the following responsibilities for various authorities:

1. Ministry of Defence (MoD): licensing authority

2. Council of State (Council of Ministers): grants licences in all major exports; affirms the guidelines

3. Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MfA): advises on foreign and security policy considerations

4. Customs: enforcement


General Guidelines for the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel (in force since 1 April 1995 as a Council of State Decision)

- assists in the application of the Act by giving clarifying rules of foreign and security policy substances as well as of procedural substance

- assists also in the implementation of the international agreements and obligations of Finland in the field of export of defence equipment

- incorporates the international norms to the domestic legislation by explicit references to the OSCE Principles on arms transfers, the EU Code of Conduct on Arms Exports, decisions on arms embargoes by the UNSC or the EU etc. - and by integrating these sets to the Guidelines proper as its annexes.


Decree on the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel (in force since 15 February 1997)

- establishes the coverage of controls by defining the list of defence materiel, by main headings, classified into four item categories (based on characteristics, intended use and military significance of the items)

- by the Act, the coverage includes "related technology" as authorisation is also needed for yielding control or transfer abroad of any

- know-how and licence to manufacture materiel
- machine tools and equipment especially designed for manufacturing materiel
- computer software relating to the manufacture or use of materiel
- the export of technology shall require an export licence even if such technology is intended for development, production or use of an item which is not defined as defence materiel

- authorisation is not required for the exports of technology which is necessary for the installation, use, maintenance, inspection, or repair of an already licensed item

- nor is authorisation required for the export of technology which is widely available internationally or related to basic scientific research.

Decision by the Ministry of Defence (in force since 15 March 1997)

- based on the Decree, the decision implements the Munitions' List of the Wassenaar Arrangement.

Decision by the Ministry of Defence, which introduced the Declaration on intra-Community movement or transit of arms, munitions, war materiels and other military goods, has been abolished by the Decision by the Ministry of Defence, in force since 1 January 2000.

In regard to the destination and end-user of the equipment, the Guidelines include a list of countries embargoed by the UNSC or EU decisions. This "negative list" is updated with new decisions or sanctions or upon their lifting. In general, Finland applies a concept of a selective restraint, based on overall assessment of each case.

3. SCOPE OF ARMS EXPORT LICENSING

The list of defence materiel (conventional weaponry) being controlled, is practically identical with the Common List of Military Equipment. This report covers all arms exports with the exception of exports of civilian hunting and sporting materiel which is licensed under the Firearms Act and Decree.

4. EXPORT LICENCES DURING THE REPORTING PERIOD

Number of export licences granted

174

Total number of applications rejected (denials)*

1.1. - 31.12.1999:1
1.1. - 30.6.2000:2

*
Please note that numbers provided herein include only notifications of rejected export applications (denials) in accordance with the operative provision 3 of the EU Code of Conduct and thus do not indicate the total number of export licences and prior enquiries refused

Items according to the Common List of Military Equipment

Country CL
1 Antarctica 6
2. Australia 7
3. Austria 3
7
1
4. Belgium 3
1
1
5. Bosnia (UN) 3
6. Brazil 7
7. Bulgaria 7
8. Canada 3
9. Chile 7
7
7
7
10. Cyprus 13
11. Czech Republic 7
7
12. Denmark 11
3
3
1, 2, 3, 6
13. Egypt 3
4
3
14. Estonia 3
3
21
2, 3, 4
1, 3
15. France 4
3
11
1
4
9
11
4
16. Germany 3
13
10
8
3
2
8
11
11
9
7
1
7
9
11
2, 3
17. Hong Kong (China) 3
18. Ireland 13
19. Israel 9
4
11
3
3
20. Italy 3
1
3
21 Kosovo (UN) 3
22. Latvia 3
7
23. Lebanon (UN) 3
24. Lithuania 1, 3
10
7
25. Netherlands 10
7
3
3
1
1
1
26. New Zealand 7
7
3
27. Norway 4
4
3
1
1, 3, 6, 10
11
8
4
9
3
1, 2, 3, 6
8
6
13
3
6
28. Poland 13
1
29. Portugal 11
30. Republic of Korea 7
31. Saudi Arabia 13
32. Singapore 3
33. Slovakia 7
7
34. Slovenia 7
7
7
18
7
35. South Africa 1
1
36. Sweden 3
4
8
3
3
6
2
10
1, 2, 3. 6
3
8
6
6
3
3
37. Switzerland 3
3
13
11
7
8
1
38. Turkey 6
39. United Arab Emirates 7
3
40. United Kingdom 6
3
3
3
7
1
18
10
1
3
41. United States 4
7
1
1
3
3
2
7
8
1
1
1
11
10
10
9
1
6
1
1
1
General licence (to several countries 3
with no foreign or security political
restraint according to Finnish
legislation)
General licence (to several countries 10
with no foreign or security political
restraint according to Finnish
legislation)




5. ADDITIONAL REMARKS ON THE EXPORT LICENCE STATISTICS


DEFENCE MATERIAL EXPORTS FROM FINLAND 1999 (1000 FIM) ACCORDING TO PRODUCT CATEGORIES BASED ON ANNUAL REPORTS GIVEN BY DEFENCE MATERIAL EXPORTERS
1000 FIM Total 1000 FIM
A. Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Spiper rifles and accessories
- Weapons and accessories, museum pieces

2667.7
1004.5
3672.2
B. Guns, mortars, etc.
- Guns, museum pieces
- Accessories for mortals


8.9
1984.7
1993.6
C. Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks
- Cartridge cases
- Bullets
- Cap primers
- Detonators
- Fuses
- Base bleed unit components
- Projectile components

7864.3
8772.2
46.6
601.3
279.5
180.0
45.1
1472.3
19261.2
D. Military vehicles 181463.2
E. Military powder and related material 1521.9
F. Military electronic equipment 5075.8
G. Others
- Protective equipmnet
- Maintenance line for protective equipment
- Cartridge cases, scrap metal
- Off-road trucks
- Spare parts for primer manufacturing line
- Spare parts for military aircraft

13089.2
200.1
1010.3
3424.4
210.0
7833.0
2656.7
TOTAL 238754.9

DEFENCE MATERIEL EXPORTS FROM FINLAND 1999 (1000 FIM) BY COUNTRIES AND ACCORDING TO PRODUCT CATEGORIES BASED ON ANNUAL REPORTS GIVEN BY DEFENCE MATERIEL EXPORTERS
1000 FIM Total 1000 FIM
1. NETHERLANDS
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks
- Bullets

4830.0
0.5
Military vehicles 180868.6
Others
- Protective equipment

53.0
185752.1
2. SWEDEN
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories

21.7
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Cartridge cases
- Detonators
- Projectile components

8729.1
279.5
1472.2
Military powder and related material 738.3
Others
- Cartdridge cases, scrap metal

1010.3
12251.1
3. SWITZERLAND
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and assessories

32.2
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks
- Cartdridge cases

28.1
25.8
Military powder and related material 58.1
Military electronic equipment 4275.8
Others
- Protective equipment

7664.1
12084.1
4. VIETNAM
Others
- Spare parts for military aircraft

7593.1
7593.1
5. GREAT BRITAIN
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks
- Cartridge cases
- Bullets

1119.7
2.8
3.0
Military vehicles 594.6
Others
- Off-road trucks
- Spare parts for primer manufacturing line

3424.4
210.0
5354.5
6. ITALY
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories

440.0
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks
- Cartridge cases
- Bullets

7.5
8.7
2.1
Others
- Protective equipment

4414.9
4873.2
7. USA
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories
- Weapons and accessories, museum pieces

627.4
1004.5
Guns, mortals etc.
- Guns, museum pieces
- Accessories for mortal

8.9
1984.7
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks
- Bullets

31.9
7.4
Military powder and related material 102.6
Others
- Protective equipment

743.5
4510.9
8. NORWAY
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and assessories

13.5
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks

4.7
Military powder and related material 615.4
Military electronic equipment 800.0
1433.6
9. GERMANY
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories

986.2
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks
- Bullets
- Cartridge cases
- Base bleed unit components

124.2
12.5
5.8
45.1
Military powder and related material 7.5
1181.3
10. SINGAPORE
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks

619.5
619.5
11. DENMARK
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Cap primers

598.4
598.4
12. AUSTRIA
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories

241.6
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks
- Bullets
- Fuses

16.2
0.8
180.0
Others
- Spare parts for military aircraft

32.2
470.8
13. FRANCE
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories

130.0
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks
- Bullets

264.3
1.1
395.4
14. SPAIN
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks

294.2
294.2
15. SLOVENIA
Others
- Protective equipment
- Maintenance line for protective equipment

78.8
200.1
278.9
16. ISRAEL
Others
- Spare parts for military aircraft

207.7
207.7
17. IRELAND
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks

181.5
181.5
18. NEW ZEALAND
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks

175.8
175.8
19. CHILE
Others
- Protective equipment

129.9
129.9
20. REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories

103.0
103.0
21. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks

71.0
71.0
22. SLOVAKIA
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks

58.5
58.5
23. BELGIUM
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories

20.4
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Bullets

8.1
28.5
24. HONG KONG
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks

21.4
Others
- Protective equipment

1.6
23.0
25. ARGENTINA
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories

20.0
20.0
26. CANADA
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Ammunition and blanks

15.8
15.8
27. LUXEMBOURG
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories

14.7
14.7
28. ZIMBABWE
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories

14.2
14.2
29. ESTONIA
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Bullets
- Cap primers

7.3
2.9
10.2
30. AUSTRALIA
Ammunition, shots etc. and their components
- Bullets

3.8
Others 1.9
5.7
31. LITHUANIA
Light weapons and accessories therefor
- Sniper rifles and accessories

2.8
2.8
32. SAUDI-ARABIA
Others
- Protective equipment

1.5
1.5
TOTAL 238754.9


DEFENCE MATERIEL EXPORTS FROM FINLAND IN 1999 (1000 FIM) BY COUNTRIES BASED ON ANNUAL REPORTS GIVEN BY DEFENCE MATERIEL EXPORTERS
(1000 FIM) %
1. NETHERLANDS 185752.1 77.80
2. SWEDEN 12251.1 5.13
3. SWITZERLAND 12084.1 5.06
4. VIETNAM 7593.1 3.18
5. GREAT BRITAIN 5354.5 2.24
6. ITALIY 4873.2 2.04
7. USA 4510.9 1.89
8. NORWAY 1433.6 0.60
9. GERMANY 1181.3 0.49
10. SINGAPORE 619.5 0.26
11. DENMARK 598.4 0.25
12. AUSTRIA 470.8 0.20
13. FRANCE 395.4 0.17
14. SPAIN 294.2 0.12
15. SLOVENIA 278.9 0.17
16. ISRAEL 207.7 0.09
17. IRELAND 181.5 0.08
18. NEW ZEALAND 175.8 0.07
19. CHILE 129.9 0.05
20. REBUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA 103.0 0.04
21. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 71.0 0.03
22. SLOVAKIA 58.5 0.02
23. BELGIUM 28.5 0.01
24. HONG KONG 23.0 0.01
25. ARGENTINA 20.0 0.008
26. CANADA 15.8 0.007
27. LUXEMBOURG 14.7 0.006
28. ZIMBABWE 14.2 0.006
29. ESTONIA 10.2 0.004
30. AUSTRALIA 5.7 0.002
31. LITHUANIA 2.8 0.001
32. SAUDI-ARABIA 1.5 0.001
TOTAL 238754.9 100.00
EU-countries 211395.7 88.54
Other countires without foreign- and security political restraint 18284.4 7.66
Other countries, decision made on case basis 9074.8 3.80
TOTAL 238754.9 100.00


 

Updated 17 Nov, 2000


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