Biological Weapons in the Twentieth Century:

 

A Review and Analysis*

 

Milton Leitenberg

 

Contents

 

1. Introduction:  Past Estimates in the Twentieth Century

 

 

2.  National Programs in World War I

 

3.  National Programs Prior to and During World War II

 

4.  Post-World War II Programs

 

 

5. Proliferation

 

6. The Experience of the Use of Biological Weapons by Non-State Actors

 

7. International Treaties and Arms Control

 

8. The BWC Review Conferences and the Verification Protocol

 

9. Undermining the International Regime:  False Allegations of BW Use

 

10. Important Events in the Past Ten Years:  Shocks to the Regime

 

 

11. Prospects for the Future:  An Assessment of Where Things Stand and Aspects that May Stimulate Further Interest in BW

 

 

*This paper was prepared for the 7th International Symposium on Protection against Chemical and Biological Warfare, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2001