Biological Weapons in the Twentieth Century:


A Review and Analysis*


Milton Leitenberg




1. Introduction:  Past Estimates in the Twentieth Century



2.  National Programs in World War I


3.  National Programs Prior to and During World War II


4.  Post-World War II Programs



5. Proliferation


6. The Experience of the Use of Biological Weapons by Non-State Actors


7. International Treaties and Arms Control


8. The BWC Review Conferences and the Verification Protocol


9. Undermining the International Regime:  False Allegations of BW Use


10. Important Events in the Past Ten Years:  Shocks to the Regime



11. Prospects for the Future:  An Assessment of Where Things Stand and Aspects that May Stimulate Further Interest in BW



*This paper was prepared for the 7th International Symposium on Protection against Chemical and Biological Warfare, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2001