News

DATE=5/01/97

TYPE=NEW HORIZONS #1967

NUMBER=3-27236

TITLE=BANNING CHEMICAL WEAPONS

BYLINE=BRIAN CISLAK

TELEPHONE=619-3529

DATELINE=WASHINGTON

EDITOR=SWANEY

 

CONTENT=

 

(INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES)

 

TAPE: MUSIC THEME

 

ANNCR: NEW HORIZONS!!!!

 

TAPE: MUSIC THEME

 

ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS -- NEW HORIZONS -- A

WEEKLY PROGRAM ON DEVELOPMENTS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY

AND MEDICINE. TODAY -- "BANNING CHEMICAL WEAPONS" -- A

LOOK AT THE NEW INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL WEAPONS

CONVENTION: WHAT IT IS, WHAT IT DOES, WHOM IT AFFECTS.

 

TAPE: MUSIC THEME

 

TAPE: CUT ONE -- MIKULAK: (:11)

 

"THIS IS A PRETTY FAR REACHING PROHIBITION. IN FACT,

IT'S A TRUE DISARMAMENT MEASURE. IT'S INTENDED TO

COMPLETELY ELIMINATE CHEMICAL WEAPONS AS A WEAPON IN

NATIONAL ARSENALS."

 

TEXT: ROBERT MIKULAK (PRON: MICK-U-LACK), CHIEF OF THE

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL POLICY DIVISION AT THE U.S. ARMS

CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT AGENCY. THE AGENCY HAD A LEADING

ROLE IN NEGOTIATING THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION,

WHICH TOOK EFFECT APRIL 29TH.

 

TAPE: CUT TWO -- MIKULAK: (:19)

 

"WHAT IS THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION? SIMPLY PUT,

IT'S AN INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT THAT BANS POISON GAS

WEAPONS -- BANS WEAPONS CONTAINING NERVE GAS, MUSTARD

GAS, EVEN SOME OF THE OLDER WEAPONS CONTAINING COMMON

COMMERCIAL CHEMICALS LIKE HYDROGEN CYANIDE AND

PHOSGENE."

 

TEXT: POISON GAS WEAPONS, FIRST USED EXTENSIVELY IN WORLD WAR

ONE IN THE FORM OF MUSTARD GAS, HAVE LONG BEEN CONDEMNED

FOR THEIR LETHALITY AND THEIR WIDESPREAD POTENTIAL FOR

HARM, BOTH TO SOLDIERS AND TO CIVILIAN POPULATIONS.

INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS TO BAN OR CONTROL CHEMICAL WEAPONS

BEGAN ALMOST AS SOON AS THEY WERE DEVELOPED. AN

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION RESTRICTING THEIR USE IN WAR

WAS CONCLUDED AT GENEVA IN 1925.

 

NEVERTHELESS THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORE SOPHISTICATED AND

LETHAL CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS PERSISTED INTO THE 1930'S

AND '40'S, WHEN NAZI GERMANY DEVELOPED THE FIRST NERVE

GAS AGENTS, WHICH CAUSE RAPID DEATH BY PARALYSIS. THESE

WERE NOT USED IN WORLD WAR TWO -- IT IS BELIEVED, DUE TO

GERMAN FEARS OF POSSIBLE RETALIATION IN KIND.

 

POSTWAR DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS BY THE

SUPERPOWERS LED TO CONCERNS OVER PROLIFERATION AND THE

POTENTIAL FOR THEIR USE IN REGIONAL CONFLICTS. THEIR

RELATIVE EASE OF PRODUCTION BY ANY NATION WITH CHEMICAL

MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES CAUSED THEM TO BE DUBBED "THE

POOR MAN'S ATOMIC BOMB." ROBERT MIKULAK EXPLAINS:

 

TAPE: CUT THREE -- MIKULAK: (:56)

 

"AT THAT TIME WE WERE WORRIED PRIMARILY ABOUT THE SOVIET

UNION. LATER ON, IT BECAME APPARENT THAT CHEMICAL

WEAPONS WERE STARTING TO PROLIFERATE. THE IRAQIS, FOR

EXAMPLE, USED CHEMICAL WEAPONS IN THEIR WAR WITH IRAN

AND AGAINST THEIR OWN KURDISH POPULATION DURING THE

1980'S. SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR, THAT PROBLEM HAS

ACCELERATED. THESE DAYS WE ESTIMATE THAT APPROXIMATELY

20 COUNTRIES EITHER HAVE CHEMICAL WEAPONS OR ARE

INTERESTED IN ACQUIRING THEM -- HAVE SOME KIND OF

CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROGRAM.

 

"IT'S A SCARY THOUGHT, PARTICULARLY IF YOU LOOK AT WHERE

THOSE COUNTRIES ARE. THEY TEND TO BE PRIMARILY IN THE

MIDDLE EAST, THOUGH CHINA, FOR EXAMPLE, WE THINK HAS A

CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROGRAM. RUSSIA STILL HAS A CHEMICAL

WEAPONS PROGRAM. NORTH KOREA PROBABLY HAS A CHEMICAL

WEAPONS PROGRAM. AND THERE ARE A NUMBER OF OTHERS. SO

IT'S A WORLDWIDE PROBLEM. IT'S NOT JUST A BILATERAL

PROBLEM ANYMORE."

 

TEXT: IN 1969, PRESIDENT RICHARD NIXON UNILATERALLY RENOUNCED

USE BY THE UNITED STATES OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS. LATER,

THE UNITED STATES BEGAN DESTROYING ITS CHEMICAL WEAPONS

STOCKPILES -- A PROCESS THAT CONTINUES TO THIS DAY. IN

THE 1970'S AND '80'S, SERIOUS EFFORTS GOT UNDERWAY

TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE INTERNATIONAL TREATY, WHICH WOULD

BAN THE USE, PRODUCTION AND STOCKPILING OF CHEMICAL

WEAPONS AND MANDATE THEIR DESTRUCTION. THIS EFFORT

CULMINATED IN THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION, SIGNED IN

PARIS ON JANUARY 12, 1993, WHICH BECAME EFFECTIVE ON

APRIL 29TH OF THIS YEAR. A FEW DAYS EARLIER, THE U.S.

SENATE VOTED TO RATIFY THE TREATY, MAKING THE UNITED

STATES THE 73RD SIGNATORY TO DO SO.

 

WHAT IS SPECIAL ABOUT THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION

AND WHAT MAKES IT DIFFERENT FROM PREVIOUS EFFORTS TO

RESTRICT CHEMICAL WARFARE? ROBERT MIKULAK OF THE ARMS

CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT AGENCY EXPLAINS:

 

TAPE: CUT FOUR -- MIKULAK: (1:10)

 

"MORE SPECIFICALLY THEN, THE TREATY BANS POISON GAS, BUT

WHAT EXACTLY DOES IT DO? IT MAKES POISON GAS WEAPONS

ILLEGAL. THEY HAVEN'T BEEN ILLEGAL UNTIL NOW. IT'S

BEEN LEGAL TO STOCKPILE THEM AND A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES

HAVE. AND IT CREATES A VERIFICATION AND ENFORCEMENT

MECHANISM TO ENSURE THAT COUNTRIES LIVE UP TO THEIR

COMMITMENTS UNDER THE TREATY.

 

"IN TERMS OF THE SCOPE OF THE TREATY, IT BANS NOT ONLY

USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS, AS IMPORTANT AS THAT IS, BUT IT

ALSO BANS ALL THE ACTIVITIES RELATED TO ACQUIRING

CHEMICAL WEAPONS -- BANS DEVELOPMENT, BANS PRODUCTION,

BANS STOCKPILING. AND IT REQUIRES THAT ALL EXISTING

STOCKPILES, ALL EXISTING CHEMICAL WEAPONS PRODUCTION

FACILITIES, BE DECLARED AND DESTROYED. SO UNDER THE

TREATY, THE UNITED STATES, FOR EXAMPLE, WOULD MAKE A

VERY DETAILED DECLARATION OF ITS CHEMICAL WEAPONS

STOCKS, PRODUCTION FACILITIES, AND WOULD BE OBLIGATED TO

DESTROY THESE OVER A TEN YEAR PERIOD. THE SAME WOULD GO

FOR ANY OTHER COUNTRY THAT HAS CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND

CHEMICAL WEAPONS PRODUCTION FACILITIES."

 

TEXT: TO ENSURE THAT COUNTRIES ARE, IN FACT, DESTROYING THEIR

STOCKPILES, A SYSTEM OF ROUTINE INSPECTION IS BEING SET

UP IN THE HAGUE WITH 250 INSPECTORS DRAWN FROM THE

NATIONS THAT HAVE RATIFIED THE TREATY. THEY WOULD BE

DISPATCHED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD TO CHECK FACILITIES AND

VERIFY COMPLIANCE. MOST OF THE DETAILED INSPECTIONS

WOULD BE OF MILITARY FACILITIES. BUT SOME OF THE

CHEMICALS THAT COULD BE USED IN WEAPONS -- HYDROGEN

CYANIDE AND PHOSGENE, FOR EXAMPLE -- ARE SO-CALLED "DUAL

USE" -- THAT IS, THEY HAVE LEGITIMATE COMMERCIAL

APPLICATIONS. SO CERTAIN CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING PLANTS

COULD BE TARGETED FOR INSPECTION.

 

IT WAS THIS LATTER POSSIBILITY THAT PROMPTED THE

CONVENING OF A SPECIAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS

TREATY AT LAST MONTH'S MEETING OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL

SOCIETY IN SAN FRANCISCO. DURING THE DEBATE ON

RATIFICATION OF THE TREATY, CONCERNS WERE RAISED THAT

INSPECTIONS OF COMMERCIAL PLANTS MIGHT BE INTRUSIVE, OR

MIGHT COMPROMISE TRADE SECRETS -- PUTTING COMPANIES AT

COMPETITIVE DISADVANTAGE. BUT MARY BETH KELLEHER OF THE

CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION -- THE MAIN U.S.

INDUSTRY GROUP -- SAYS THE LEAKAGE OF PROPRIETARY

INFORMATION DURING TREATY-MANDATED INSPECTIONS IS A

NON-PROBLEM. THE REASON, AS SHE EXPLAINED AT THE

CHEMICAL SOCIETY MEETING, IS THAT INDUSTRY HAD BEEN

INVOLVED FROM THE VERY BEGINNING IN ADVISING TREATY

NEGOTIATORS ON WAYS TO PROTECT AGAINST THAT POSSIBILITY:

 

TAPE: CUT FIVE -- KELLEHER: (:53)

 

"THROUGHOUT THOSE NEGOTIATIONS, REPRESENTATIVES OF

SEVERAL US CHEMICAL INDUSTRY SECTORS, SUCH AS THE BASIC

CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS, PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURERS AND

SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS, PROVIDED

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND INPUT TO THE U.S GOVERNMENT

DELEGATION NEGOTIATING THE CONVENTION.

 

"U.S. INDUSTRY ALSO HELPED COORDINATE AN INTERNATIONAL

INDUSTRY GROUP REPRESENTING THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES OF

THE UNITED STATES, JAPAN, EUROPE, CANADA AND AUSTRALIA.

INDUSTRY'S INVOLVEMENT IN NEGOTIATION AND ONGOING

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TREATY STEMS FROM ITS COMMITMENT

TO PREVENT ANY DIVERSION OF ITS LEGITIMATE PRODUCTS TO

ILLEGAL USES. THE U.S. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY DOES NOT MAKE

CHEMICAL WEAPONS. BUT THE SUCCESSFUL DETERRENCE OF THE

CHEMICAL WEAPONS THREAT REQUIRES INDUSTRY INPUT AND

SUPPORT."

 

TEXT: MS. KELLEHER ADDS THAT THERE ARE FEWER THAN 200

FACILITIES IN THE UNITED STATES THAT COULD EXPECT TO BE

INSPECTED UNDER THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION.

ROUGHLY 18-HUNDRED OTHERS -- PRODUCERS OF SO-CALLED

"DISCRETE," OR BASIC, ORGANIC CHEMICALS -- WOULD FILL

OUT A FORM INDICATING VOLUME OF PRODUCTION. BUT AS

LARRY HALL OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPLAINS,

MOST PLANTS -- SUCH AS THOSE THAT PRODUCE RAW MATERIALS

FOR THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY -- WOULD BE EXEMPT FROM

DECLARATION OR INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS:

 

TAPE: CUT SIX -- HALL: (:39)

 

"THESE EXEMPTIONS WERE WORKED OUT WITH INDUSTRY AND WILL

REDUCE THE NUMBER OF FIRMS THAT WILL BE REQUIRED TO

SUBMIT DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICAL DECLARATIONS. EXCLUDED

ARE DOC (DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICAL) PLANT SITES THAT

PRODUCE EXPLOSIVES EXCLUSIVELY, PRODUCE HYDROCARBONS

EXCLUSIVELY SUCH AS ETHYLENE AND BENZENE....... REFINE

SULFUR-CONTAINING CRUDE OIL, PRODUCE OLIGOMERS AND

POLYMERS AND PRODUCE UNSCHEDULED CHEMICALS VIA

BIOLOGICAL OR BIOMEDIATED PROCESS: THIS IS LIKE

FERMENTED BEVERAGES OR FOOD PROCESSING."

 

TEXT: IN ADDITION TO ROUTINE INSPECTIONS, THERE IS ANOTHER

LEVEL OF SCRUTINY UNDER THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION

CALLED A "CHALLENGE" INSPECTION. THAT IS ONE IN WHICH A

MEMBER NATION SPECIFICALLY ACCUSES ANOTHER OF

MANUFACTURING OR POSSESSING CHEMICAL WEAPONS AT A

SPECIFIC LOCATION. EVERY SIGNATORY COUNTRY WILL

DESIGNATE A CIVILIAN AGENCY TO ACT AS AN INTERMEDIARY

BETWEEN THE INTERNATIONAL INSPECTION TEAMS AND THE

FACILITIES BEING INSPECTED. IN THE UNITED STATES IT

WILL BE THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, /// OPT /// AS LARRY

HALL EXPLAINS:

 

TAPE: CUT SEVEN -- HALL: (:45)

 

"WHILE WE BELIEVE THAT VERY FEW CHALLENGE INSPECTIONS

WILL TAKE PLACE, ANY THAT DO TAKE PLACE WILL LIKELY BE

DIRECTED AT U.S. MILITARY FACILITIES. IN THE EVENT

THERE IS A CHALLENGE INSPECTION OF A U.S. COMMERCIAL

FACILITY, COMMERCE IS EXPECTED TO PLAY THE LEAD ROLE IN

MANAGING ACCESS TO ENSURE THAT INSPECTORS PURSUE THE

LEAST INTRUSIVE MEANS POSSIBLE TO GAIN REASONABLE

ANSWERS TO REASONABLE QUESTIONS. A FIRM IS UNDER NO

OBLIGATION TO PROVIDE INFORMATION UNRELATED TO A

POSSIBLE VIOLATION OF THE CWC. AS WITH ROUTINE

INSPECTIONS, COMMERCE INTENDS TO RELY HEAVILY ON THE

JUDGMENTS OF A FIRM REGARDING WHAT CONSTITUTES THEIR

CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION AND TO PROTECT FIRMS

AGAINST UNREASONABLE QUESTIONS." /// END OPT ///

 

TEXT: LEGAL EXPERTS SAY THAT THE FOURTH AMENDMENT TO THE U.S.

CONSTITUTION, WHICH PROTECTS CITIZENS AGAINST

UNREASONABLE SEARCHES OF THEIR PROPERTY, ALSO APPLIES TO

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES -- THOUGH TO A

LESSER EXTENT THAN TO A PRIVATE RESIDENCE. EDWARD

TANZMAN, AN ATTORNEY, IS MANAGER OF THE ECONOMICS AND

LAW SECTION AT ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY -- A NUCLEAR

RESEARCH FACILITY NEAR CHICAGO. HE SAYS THAT ALL

INSPECTIONS UNDER THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION WOULD

HAVE TO BE CARRIED OUT IN A MANNER CONSISTENT WITH

CONSTITUTIONAL PRIVACY PROTECTIONS:

 

TAPE: CUT EIGHT -- TANZMAN: (:46)

 

"CONFLICTS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION AND

TREATIES ARE RESOLVED BY COURTS IN FAVOR OF THE

CONSTITUTION. TREATIES DO NOT TRUMP THE CONSTITUTION.

IT'S THE OTHER WAY AROUND. SO AS A RESULT, INSPECTIONS

UNDER THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION ARE SUBJECT TO THE

PRIVACY PROTECTIONS PROVIDED BY THE FOURTH AMENDMENT.

THIS MEANS THAT ANY INSPECTIONS OCCURRING IN THIS

COUNTRY WILL HAVE TO PROCEED IN A VERY SPECIFIC MANNER

THAT RESPECTS OUR TRADITIONAL VALUES. /// OPT /// AND

WHAT YOU NEED TO UNDERSTAND -- IF YOU DON'T UNDERSTAND

ANYTHING ELSE ABOUT WHAT I'M TELLING YOU -- IS THAT THE

CONSTITUTION IS GREATER THAN THE TREATY. THE

CONSTITUTION WILL NOT BE VIOLATED BY THE TREATY." ///

END OPT ///

 

TEXT: MR. TANZMAN SAYS THESE PROTECTIONS WOULD INCLUDE

ADMINISTRATIVE AND JUDICIAL OVERSIGHT, INCLUDING SEARCH

WARRANTS WHERE THE LAW WOULD NORMALLY REQUIRE THEM:

 

TAPE: CUT NINE -- TANZMAN: (:21)

 

/// OPT /// "THE FOURTH AMENDMENT CREATES A SET OF

COMMON STANDARDS TO GUIDE GOVERNMENT SEARCHES UNDER A

VARIETY OF LAWS. AS AMERICANS WE HAVE THE RIGHT TO

EXPECT THAT THESE STANDARDS WILL BE FOLLOWED UNDER THE

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION, JUST AS THEY ARE FOLLOWED

IN DOMESTIC INSPECTION SITUATIONS AND INVESTIGATIONS."

/// END OPT ///

 

TEXT: IF AN INSPECTION AT A CHEMICAL PLANT OR MILITARY

FACILITY IS ORDERED, IT MUST BE CONDUCTED IN A MANNER

THAT IS AS UNOBTRUSIVE, SPEEDY AND FOCUSED AS POSSIBLE.

A KEY TO MEETING THESE REQUIREMENTS IS TO RESTRICT BOTH

THE INSPECTION AND THE ANALYSIS OF ANY RETRIEVED

CHEMICAL SAMPLES TO THE SITE BEING INSPECTED. CHARLES

GALLAWAY OF THE U.S. DEFENSE DEPARTMENT'S SPECIAL

WEAPONS AGENCY SAYS THIS REQUIREMENT HAD LED TO THE

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR ON-SITE CHEMICAL

ANALYSIS:

 

TAPE: CUT TEN -- GALLAWAY: (:44)

 

"BACK IN 1993, MOST OF THE COMMUNITY WAS VERY SKEPTICAL

THAT WE WOULD BE ABLE TO DO THAT. AT THAT TIME IT WAS

PRETTY MUCH ASSUMED THAT YOU WOULD HAVE TO TAKE A SAMPLE

AND TAKE IT BACK TO A LABORATORY AND DO THE ANALYSIS

SOMEWHERE ELSE. THAT IS EXTREMELY INTRUSIVE BECAUSE YOU

HAVE NO IDEA WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN TO THAT SAMPLE WHEN

IT LEAVES YOUR SITE.

 

"SO THE DEFENSE SPECIAL WEAPONS AGENCY HAS BEEN

INSTRUMENTAL IN CONVINCING THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

THAT WE CAN DO EFFECTIVE ON-SITE ANALYSIS. WE'VE ALSO

DEVELOPED TECHNIQUES TO CONVINCE THE INTERNATIONAL

COMMUNITY THAT WE CAN DO NON-INVASIVE SAMPLING OF

CONTAINERS SO WE DON'T HAVE TO OPEN THINGS LIKE

MUNITIONS THAT MAY HAVE CHEMICAL WEAPONS IN THEM OR

CONTAINERS."

 

TEXT: THE DEFENSE SPECIAL WEAPONS AGENCY IS EXPLORING A NUMBER

OF "NON-INVASIVE" OR "NON-DESTRUCTIVE" SAMPLING

TECHNIQUES. THESE INCLUDE ACOUSTIC RESONANCE

SPECTROSCOPY, WHICH CAN "READ" THE CHEMICAL CONTENTS

INSIDE A CONTAINER BY BOMBARDING IT WITH SOUND WAVES.

ANOTHER, CALLED THE PORTABLE ISOTOPIC NEUTRON SYSTEM, OR

PINS, AIMS A BEAM OF NEUTRONS AT A CONTAINER, AND

DETERMINES ITS CHEMICAL CONTENTS BY THE GAMMA RAYS THAT

THEY EMIT. EFFORTS ARE ALSO UNDERWAY TO MAKE STANDARD

LABORATORY ANALYTICAL TOOLS, LIKE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHS AND

MASS SPECTROMETERS, MORE RUGGED AND PORTABLE, EASIER TO

USE ON SITE:

 

TAPE: CUT ELEVEN -- GALLAWAY: (:42)

 

/// OPT /// "ONE OF THESE INSPECTIONS MAY GO INTO A SITE

THAT HAS NO POWER, NO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS, SO YOU

ESSENTIALLY HAVE TO CARRY ALL OF YOUR POWER IN WITH YOU,

CARRY IN SOME KIND OF PROTECTIVE STRUCTURE IF THAT'S

WHAT IT TAKES FOR YOU TO OPERATE IN......WE NEED TO BE

FAST. WE THINK A SCREENING PROCESS SHOULD TAKE NO MORE

THAN THREE MINUTES TO ACCOMPLISH. WE NEED TO MINIMIZE

FALSE POSITIVES, BECAUSE IF WE HAVE TOO MANY FALSE

POSITIVES WE'RE STILL GOING TO HAVE TO ANALYZE 'WAY TOO

MANY SAMPLES. AND MAN-PORTABLE. WHAT WE'RE THINKING

THERE IS SOMETHING THAT IS HAND-HELD -- PROBABLY WEIGHS

TEN POUNDS (4.5 KILOS) OR LESS, BATTERY OPERATED SO THAT

IT'S VERY USEFUL OUT IN THE FIELD. AND IT HAS TO BE

RUGGED SO IT CAN GO OUT INTO SOME PRETTY HOSTILE

ENVIRONMENTS." /// END OPT ///

 

TEXT: A KEY OBJECTIVE, ACCORDING TO MR. GALLOWAY, IS TO ENSURE

THAT A CHEMICAL WEAPONS INVESTIGATION AT A PLANT OR A

BASE REMAINS FOCUSED ON POTENTIAL TREATY VIOLATIONS, AND

THAT IT DOES NOT WANDER INTO IRRELEVANT AREAS THAT COULD

INVOLVE A COMPANY'S TRADE SECRETS OR NATIONAL SECURITY.

HE SAYS THAT RECENT ADVANCES IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY CAN

HELP MAKE SURE THAT THE INVESTIGATION REMAINS ON TRACK:

 

TAPE: CUT TWELVE -- GALLOWAY: (:30)

 

"OUR OBJECTIVE IS TO FIND ALL TREATY-RELEVANT CHEMICALS.

WE WANT TO IDENTIFY THE CONTENTS OF MUNITIONS OR CLOSED

CONTAINERS NON-INVASIVELY. THEN FINALLY TO ENSURE THAT

IT'S NOT TOO INTRUSIVE, WE DON'T WHAT TO FIND OUT WHAT

IS OUT THERE THAT IS NOT TREATY RELEVANT. SO WE'VE GONE

TO WHAT IS CALLED 'MASKING SOFTWARE.' .... WHAT WE'RE

TRYING TO DO IS AUTOMATICALLY SUPPRESS THE NON-RELEVANT

OUTPUT SO THAT ONE DOES NOT LEARN ANYTHING THAT IS NOT

RELATED TO THE TREATY."

 

TEXT: THE MASKING SOFTWARE WOULD BE INCORPORATED INTO ALL

SCREENING AND ANALYTICAL EQUIPMENT, SO THAT THE ONLY

RESULTS DISPLAYED ON A COMPUTER SCREEN OR PAPER READOUT

WOULD BE FOR THOSE CHEMICALS THAT ARE SPECIFICALLY

COVERED BY THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION. MR.

GALLAWAY ADDS THAT, AS THESE TECHNOLOGIES ARE DEVELOPED,

HIS AGENCY MAKES THEM AVAILABLE FREE OF CHARGE TO

COMMERCIAL DESIGNERS AND MANUFACTURERS TO ENSURE THAT

THEY ARE RAPIDLY EMBRACED AND USED -- EVERYWHERE IN THE

WORLD.

 

IN ADDITION TO MAKING CHEMICAL WEAPONS SCREENING

TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE ELSEWHERE, THE UNITED STATES IS

HELPING NATIONS WITH WEAPONS STOCKPILES TO PROPERLY

DISPOSE OF THEM. ROBERT MIKULAK OF THE U.S. ARMS CONTROL

AND DISARMAMENT AGENCY CITES THE EXAMPLE OF RUSSIA:

 

TAPE: CUT THIRTEEN -- MIKULAK: (:58)

 

"THE RUSSIAN STOCKPILE IS THE LARGEST IN THE WORLD --

40-THOUSAND TONS OF NERVE AGENT AND MUSTARD AGENT.

GETTING RID OF IT IS A VERY COMPLICATED TECHNICAL

PROCESS WHERE SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS HAVE TO BE

PARAMOUNT. THE UNITED STATES, TO GET RID OF A SMALLER

STOCKPILE, IS SPENDING 12-BILLION DOLLARS. THE RUSSIANS

ESTIMATE THEIR OWN COSTS AT PERHAPS TWO TO THREE BILLION

DOLLARS. THAT'S MONEY THEY DON'T HAVE RIGHT NOW. SO

THEY'VE HAD TROUBLE GETTING THEIR PROGRAM UNDERWAY.

THE UNITED STATES HAS BEEN TRYING TO PROVIDE SOME

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND WE ARE DISCUSSING WITH THEM

FUNDING A PILOT-SCALE NERVE AGENT DESTRUCTION FACILITY,

WHICH WOULD BE THEIR FIRST NERVE AGENT (DESTRUCTION)

FACILITY.

 

/// OPT /// "BUT THE RUSSIANS WILL HAVE TO PAY FOR THE

BULK OF THEIR PROGRAM THEMSELVES. IT'S THEIR

RESPONSIBILITY, EVEN THOUGH WE'RE TRYING TO HELP THEM.

AND THAT CERTAINLY IS A CONSIDERATION IN THE DUMA AS

THEY CONSIDER ENTERING THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION

WHICH REQUIRES DESTRUCTION OF ALL ITS STOCKPILES." ///

END OPT ///

 

TEXT: ULTIMATELY, THE GOAL IS NOT ONLY TO DESTROY CHEMICAL

WEAPONS, BUT ALSO TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF CHEMICAL

WEAPONS TECHNOLOGY TO ROGUE NATIONS THAT WOULD USE IT TO

INTIMIDATE THEIR NEIGHBORS. MR. MIKULAK ADDS THAT, BY

MAKING CHEMICAL WEAPONS ILLEGAL, THE CONVENTION WILL

PROVIDE SIGNATORY NATIONS WITH LEGAL LEVERAGE OVER

ONE-ANOTHER TO PREVENT TRANSFER OF MATERIALS OR KNOWHOW

TO COUNTRIES OR FIRMS OUTSIDE OF THE CONVENTION THAT

WOULD MISUSE THEM. THE TREATY CONTAINS A SYSTEM OF

SANCTIONS THAT COULD CUT OFF TRADE EVEN IN COMMERCIAL,

NON-WEAPONS-RELATED CHEMICALS WITH THOSE NATIONS --

SIGNATORIES OR NON-SIGNATORIES -- THAT DO NOT ABIDE BY

NON-PROLIFERATION GUIDELINES. ALSO, ALL SIGNATORY

COUNTRIES ARE REQUIRED TO INCORPORATE THE TREATY'S

PROVISIONS INTO THEIR NATIONAL LAWS. THUS VIOLATORS

WOULD BE SUBJECT TO CRIMINAL PROSECUTION. ANYONE

CONVICTED OF MANUFACTURING OR SELLING CHEMICAL WEAPONS

COULD THEREFORE GO TO PRISON. AS MR. MIKULAK SEES IT,

IT'S ONLY THE "BAD GUYS" WHO WOULD BE HURT:

 

TAPE: CUT FOURTEEN -- MIKULAK: (1:00)

 

"THE UNITED STATES IS ALREADY GETTING OUT OF THE

CHEMICAL WEAPONS BUSINESS. DURING THE MID-1980'S --

1985 IT WAS DECIDED TO DESTROY OUR ENTIRE UNITARY

CHEMICAL WEAPONS STOCKPILE. DURING OPERATION DESERT

STORM, IT BECAME CLEAR TO OUR MILITARY THAT IT WAS NOT

NECESSARY TO RETAIN ANY CHEMICAL WEAPONS AT ALL --

EITHER AS A DETERRENT OR AS A RETALIATORY MEASURE; THAT

WE HAD OTHER MILITARY MEANS FOR DEALING WITH THE

CHEMICAL WEAPONS THREAT.

 

"SO YOU FIND UNIFORMLY OUR MILITARY LEADERS SAYING THE

UNITED STATES DOESN'T NEED CHEMICAL WEAPONS. WE WANT TO

GET OUT OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS BUSINESS, AND WE WANT

OTHER PEOPLE TO GET OUT OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS

BUSINESS, TOO. THAT'S ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL ADVANTAGES WE

SEE IN THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION -- THAT IT WILL

GET OTHER PEOPLE TO DO WHAT WE ARE ALREADY DOING

OURSELVES."

 

TAPE: MUSIC THEME

 

ANNCR: YOU'VE BEEN LISTENING TO -- NEW HORIZONS -- A WEEKLY

VOICE OF AMERICA PROGRAM ON DEVELOPMENTS IN SCIENCE,

TECHNOLOGY AND MEDICINE. TODAY YOU HEARD -- "BANNING

CHEMICAL WEAPONS" -- A LOOK AT THE NEW INTERNATIONAL

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION: WHAT IT IS, WHAT IT DOES,

WHOM IT AFFECTS. THIS PROGRAM WAS WRITTEN AND PRODUCED

BY BRIAN CISLAK.

 

01-May-97 2:41 PM EDT (1841 UTC)

 

Source: Voice of America