Joint General Intelligence Training Architecture
by Edward A. Giarusso
The United States learned many lessons from the Gulf War. Lessons
not only on doctrine and joint warfare but also on the importance
of joint training in conducting joint warfare. The Joint General
Intelligence Training Architecture is an outgrowth of the
intelligence community's effort to better prepare Service personnel
for joint operations and assignments.
Analysis conducted after Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM
identified some areas for improvement in joint operations. One area
that surfaced quickly during the war was the joint targeting
process. This was not unexpected in hindsight as there was no
established joint doctrine or related systematic training
architecture to teach Service personnel how to fuse their skills
into a cohesive staff on such short notice. Hard work and long
hours eventually worked through the problems but certainly at a
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) J2 and the Defense Intelligence
Agency (DIA) formed a Joint Uniformed Lessons Learned (JULLs)
action team to study and recommend solutions for joint targeting.
They reported that the problem with joint targeting resulted in
part from the assignment of Service personnel to the targeting
cells who possessed differing levels of training and experience in
the targeting process. In an effort to fix the targeting problem,
members of the intelligence training community identified the
necessary skills for joint targeting. They also developed a fuller
understanding of the problems and requirements in the assignment of
personnel for joint force missions.
DIA recognized that the JULLs initiative could serve as a basis for
reviewing much larger issues. These issues included
The General Joint Intelligence Training Committee (GITC), comprised
of senior personnel from all the Services, unified commands, and
other general intelligence community members, had asked these
questions previously. After the Gulf War, the concept of a joint
training architecture took on new meaning and increased tempo. The
regular meetings of the GITC addressed the architecture and
supported ongoing work to develop other courses for joint duty
assignments. The effort to develop the architecture was now well
- What is the big picture for training Services' personnel
for joint force assignments?
- What are the necessary cognitive skills?
- How should they acquire and employ these skills?
GITC--Vehicle of Change
Under the auspices of DIA, the GITC undertook a review of the
training requirements for joint assignments. In identifying how the
Services do business in support of joint operations, it became
clear that support of joint warfighters required a uniform level of
knowledge and experience that most military personnel do not
acquire during their normal career assignments.
The problem of a uniform joint targeting process evolved into a
requirement to develop several courses of instruction to prepare
Service personnel for work in a joint headquarters of a unified
command or a separately established joint task force. While that
may seem simple, the effort required months of meetings by the
Services and the intelligence community. Along with representatives
from the unified commands, they developed a plan of action that
answered the basic questions of joint intelligence training:
In moving toward a training solution, it became clear that a
systematic approach to resolution of several interrelated problems
was emerging. The GITC recognized that it was unreasonable to
expect the Services to assume total responsibility for preparing
military personnel for joint assignments. The Services might be
willing, however, to pool assets and develop joint intelligence
courses to be taught in joint environments. Thus, the concept of a
Joint General Intelligence Training Architecture was born. The next
step was the development and application of the architecture.
- How do the Services train personnel for joint duty.
- What are the critical skills and tasks necessary for a joint
Centers for Joint Intelligence Training
In June 1994, GITC contracted a study of joint training
requirements. The study provided the outline and direction for the
Services' joint training requirements and built a relational
database. The database included information on current Service
instruction and curricula that supported personnel assignment to
joint service positions.
The study also documented the need to continue the joint courses of
instruction under development to train personnel for joint duty
billets. These courses include the Joint Task Force Management
Course, the Joint Targeting Training Course, the Joint Intelligence
Course, and the Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System
course. Also included in the study were courses offered by the
Joint Military Intelligence College such as the Collection
Management and the Indications and Warning Courses.
The authors of the study also identified the need for unified
command intelligence training to meet area-unique missions and
responsibilities. Accordingly, the GITC approved the Regional Joint
Intelligence Training Facility (RJITF) concept. Under the concept,
selected unified commands would develop a training facility to
conduct joint and command-specific intelligence training.
Currently, the U.S. Pacific and Strategic Commands have established
RJITFs. The U.S. European, Atlantic, Central, and Special
Operations Commands are in various stages of RJITF development.
The Army Role in Joint Intelligence
The Army vision for intelligence in the 21st century, Intel XXI,
includes the concept of providing warfighters a "dynamic, common
understanding of the battlefield, enabling them to train, plan,
rehearse, and execute missions." From the foxhole to the
warfighting commander in chief, commanders will be able to conduct
their respective tasks with a shared situational awareness
throughout the range of military operations to include joint
The Army doctrine for analyzing the battlefield is found in FM
34-130, Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB). As
described in FM 34-1, Intelligence and Electronic Warfare
Operations, IPB is a "systematic, continuous process of analyzing
the threat and environment in a specific geographic area." IPB is
one of the Army's cornerstone contributions to joint intelligence
doctrine. Joint Pub 2-0, Joint Doctrine for Intelligence Support to
Operations, has accepted IPB as a common intelligence technique
because it is a flexible process that can adapt to a broad variety
of situations. The IPB process and systems training methodology
serves as the framework for the Joint Targeting Course. Scheduled
to begin in October 1995, the Joint Targeting Course has great
potential and will serve as a model for future joint intelligence
courses. The success of the Joint Targeting Course may very well
have long term impact on the emerging Joint General Intelligence
The emerging training architecture and the respective Army role
will require the incorporation of new techniques, equipment, and
methodologies as the Army moves towards Force XXI. The Army and its
sister Services, along with the Joint Staff, DIA, the unified
commands, and the other national intelligence agencies must resolve
a host of issues to foster better working relationships within the
intelligence community. The following are some issues presently
under examination that will improve intelligence support:
The Joint General intelligence Training Architecture will foster
many changes on the Army of today and tomorrow. Army intelligence
will evolve to meet the mission requirements of the joint
commander. After all, the Military Intelligence Corps' motto is
"Always Out Front!"
- Develop joint intelligence training priorities.
- Resolve resourcing within the intelligence community.
- Develop a cost-effective training medium and vehicles for
delivery of training.
- Provide cross-Service training on Service-specific systems.
- Define joint terminology to support Service intelligence
Edward A. Giarusso is currently an intelligence specialist in the
Training Division, Plans and Operations Directorate, Office of the
Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Army Staff, the Pentagon.
His previous assignments include: international military training
specialist in the Pentagon; education specialist at the Army
Engineer School, the Intelligence School-Devens and the Army
Education Center, Fort Devens; and an Army Internship at the
Intelligence School-Devens. Mister Giarusso earned a Bachelor of
Arts in history from Roger Williams College and a Master of Science
in instructional media systems from the University of Bridgeport.