by Captain Erasmo A. Martinez
Division XXI will possess the most powerful and lethal capabilities
the world has ever known. Commanders of the future will be able to
call on the capabilities of weapons systems like the Comanche and
Apache Longbow attack helicopters, the M1A2 main battle tank, and
the Army Tactical Missile System and PALLADIN artillery systems.
They will be able to better visualize the battlespace with systems
such as the All-Source Analysis System (ASAS) for intelligence
fusion, the Phoenix maneuver control system, and the Appliqu‚
battlefield visualization system. This article illustrates how the
military intelligence (MI) battalion fits into Division XXI
operations, and how the conduct of intelligence operations will
support the Division XXI commander in achieving mission success.
Division XXI Operations Defined
According to the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Pamphlet
525-71, Military Operations: Force XXI Division Operations Concept,
six patterns of operations characterize Division XXI operations.
These operations are simultaneous, multidimensional, and
nonlinear, conducted by a dispersed force integrated operationally
and digitally to execute precise, decisive operations throughout
the battlespace. The division must be able to conduct a variety of
missions against a wide range of diverse and unpredictable threats,
which may possess sophisticated and lethal capabilities. Division
XXI will almost always conduct operations jointly and often in the
context of a multinational force.
To mass the effects of these highly potent weapons systems and
achieve decisive results, Division XXI commanders must have a
number of capabilities. These include the ability to
- Project the force.
- Protect the force.
- Gain information dominance.
- Shape the battlespace.
- Employ decisive attack.
- Sustain the force.
- See their battlespace in depth and multidimensionally.
- Precisely identify, locate and track the high-payoff targets
- Produce and share both horizontally and vertically an accurate,
relevant common picture that provides their force's situational
- Plan and synchronize command and control (C2) warfare (C2W) and
conduct electronic attack (EA) operations.
- Access, leverage, and interoperate with the echelons above
division (EAD), joint, and multinational organizations, and
- Protect their force through all phases of an operation, from
predeployment to their return to the home station.
- Track friendly forces over a dispersed battlespace.
To be successful in terms of lethality, survivability, and tempo of
operations (OPTEMPO), Division XXI organizations must gather,
process, evaluate, share, and act on information (friendly, enemy,
and environmental) more rapidly than ever before. This means having
the capability to achieve information dominance.
The Division XXI MI Battalion
- The Division XXI MI Battalion has organized, equipped and
trained to achieve information dominance and meet these demanding
requirements. It is a highly capable and responsive force with
modernized systems and balanced capabilities tailorable to meet any
contingency. It can provide the division with organic intelligence
and electronic warfare support with direct support capabilities at
the brigades. The MI battalion is also capable of interoperating
with joint, multinational, and coalition assets. It is integrated
vertically and horizontally across echelons from national level
down to brigade. This means it can command, control, and employ
specialized, reinforcing capabilities from EAD and joint
Patterns of Intelligence Operations
- According to TRADOC Pamphlet 525-71, the Force XXI division
will execute Force XXI operations through a deliberate pattern of
operations. The patterns are neither phased nor sequential; they
serve to focus the many tasks armies have always performed in war
and other military operations. To better illustrate the
capabilities of the Division XXI MI battalion, the following is a
description of how the battalion conducts Division XXI intelligence
operations in the context of the six patterns of operations.
- Project the Force. In preparation for deployment,
Division XXI commanders must be able to quickly plan, wargame, and
rehearse operations. They must be able to rapidly tailor and
project their forces for joint, integrated operations. While
enroute to a theater of operations, they must be able to receive,
update, and maintain situational awareness. On arrival, the
Division XXI early entry force must be able to protect itself and
conduct decisive operations, with much of its resources provided in
a split-based mode.
- The MI battalion, in concert with the G2 intelligence team,
provides the commander with the intelligence information he needs
to tailor the division and determine the force flow. It also
provides the intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB)
products needed to conduct effective mission planning, wargaming,
and rehearsals prior to deployment and commitment. These functions
are primarily performed by the battalion's analysis and control
element (ACE) with its established links to EAD, joint, national,
and in-theater operating resources.
- The battalion is also capable of providing tailored
intelligence force packages with the ability to command, control,
train, and integrate augmentation capabilities from outside the
division along with its own organic resources. These organic
resources include the All-Source Analysis System (ASAS), Common
Ground Station (CGS), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and the
TROJAN Special Purpose Integrated Remote Intelligence Terminal
(SPIRIT) II. Organic capabilities, reinforced by specialized teams
from echelons above the division, provide the early entry force
commanders with situational awareness, targeting, force protection,
and long-haul, reach-back communications capabilities with access
to in-theater joint assets.
- Finally, by design, the battalion supports split-based
operations by establishing an intelligence support base or
sanctuary command post in conjunction with the intelligence
infrastructure of the continental United States force projection
platform or installation. This permits continuous intelligence
support to the deploying, early entry force.
- Protect the Force. Division XXI is vulnerable to attack
at every echelon during all phases of operations, from
predeployment to their return home. To achieve decisive results,
maintain a high OPTEMPO, and minimize casualties, Division XXI
commanders must protect their forces, critical assets, and
essential information. To do so, they must first understand the
adversary's capabilities, particularly their reconnaissance,
intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA), in
relation to their own vulnerabilities. They must determine what
forces, assets, and information require protection and then plan
and execute appropriate force protection, counter-RISTA operations.
This includes the dispersed positioning of forces for simultaneous,
nonlinear attack. The division's ability to operate while dispersed
over extended distances is made possible, in large part, by the
capabilities of the MI battalion and G2 to support situational
awareness across the force.
- The analysts of the MI battalion provide the division G2 and
commander with an assessment of the division's vulnerabilities and
the adversary's RISTA capabilities. As part of the division's
overall mission planning, wargaming, and rehearsal effort, it
produces a graphic portrayal and understanding of how Red (the
adversary) sees Blue (friendly forces). Thus, commanders can
quickly assess their options and determine what measures to take,
including C2W and the precise targeting of the adversary's RISTA
- With organic and supporting counterintelligence (CI) assets,
the battalion supports the planning and conduct of operations
security, counter-RISTA, and deception operations. It can employ
its organic EA assets, in conjunction with EAD and joint
capabilities, in support of counter-RISTA and C2W operations. Using
organic and leveraged joint capabilities, the battalion also
supports the targeting of key C2 and RISTA capabilities.
- Gain Information Dominance. To Division XXI, information
dominance means achieving a better understanding of the current
situation and end-state than the adversary's understanding. It
means knowing the location and status of friendly forces in
relation to the enemy and the environment. Division XXI achieves
information dominance through the conduct of information operations
(IO). These IO include the establishment of a robust command,
control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) system or
network, the gathering of friendly force and other relevant
information, the conduct of focused intelligence operations, and
the synchronized conduct of C2W.
- The MI battalion, in support of the G2 and brigade S2s, plays
a significant role in developing situational awareness. The ACE at
the Division and the analysis and control team (ACT) at the
brigade, in conjunction with the G2 and the brigade S2s, plan and
direct the conduct of RISTA operations to satisfy the commander's
priority intelligence requirements (PIR). Using the automated
capabilities of ASAS, they filter and fuse the large volume of
sensor data (including bottom-up RISTA and top-down intelligence)
and then interpret it and produce intelligence products which are
integrated into the division's common picture. The division uses
these products for mission planning, wargaming, and rehearsals as
well as the execution of decisive operations.
- The battalion employs its organic collection assets UAVs, the
Ground-Based Common Sensors, Advanced QUICKFIX, and human
collectors to satisfy PIR and support targeting, battle damage
assessment (BDA), and C2W. Its ability to access and leverage
joint, EAD, and multinational capabilities via the CGS and ASAS is
vital to the conduct of multidimensional operations and targeting.
To degrade the enemy's understanding of the battlespace, the
battalion supports the conduct of counter-RISTA and C2W with
organic and supporting CI and EA assets. Access to higher echelon
assets such as the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar
System (Joint STARS) enables the Battalion's ACE and ACT to support
battle management (for example, friendly-force tracking), which is
also a key component of information dominance.
- Shape the Battlespace. Once the commander has achieved
information dominance, he must identify when and where to act, and
set the conditions in preparation for decisive attack. This
requires the commander to see deep, establish and maintain contact
with the enemy, and precisely locate and engage HPTs.
- The MI battalion, in coordination with the G2 and S2s, will
enable the commander to visualize the battlespace so he can better
seize the temporary opportunities that come from an information
advantage. The MI battalion provides multidimensional deep- and
wide-area surveillance through corps assets like the GUARDRAIL
Common Sensor (GRCS) and Joint STARS, its organic UAVs, and its
capability to access and leverage joint, EAD, and RISTA assets
through the ACE. Precise target location, identification and
tracking capabilities, and sensor-to-shooter links allow for
cross-cueing of the division's deep attack assets. The battalion's
ground- and air-based signals intelligence (SIGINT) and EA
capabilities provide the commander with the capability to conduct
synchronized C2W attack with both lethal and nonlethal means. Its
deep-surveillance assets, including the UAVs, conduct timely BDA
for attack and also reattack purposes.
- Attack Decisively. The division must be able to conduct
simultaneous attacks across the battlespace, massing the effects of
its forces to achieve quick, decisive results. To do this, the
division commander must have continuous situational awareness,
intelligence on the move, and precise targeting and tracking of
both enemy and friendly forces.
- The Division XXI MI battalion provides the division commander
This allows the maneuver commander to simultaneously attack in
depth, and mass the effects of his combat power on HPTs and enemy
C2. Simultaneously, intelligence will continue to provide force
protection across the division battlespace.
- Continuous situational awareness for force positioning and
accurate identification, location, and tracking of obstacles,
formations, and HPTs.
- Dynamic links of sensors to shooters and cross-cueing.
- The capability to track friendly forces.
- Sustain the Force. The division must be capable of
sustainment during their deployment and operations. They must be
able to rapidly transition from combat operations to a variety of
possible missions (such as redeployment). Throughout these
transitions, the commander must be able to keep an overwatch to
protect his force and prepare for future operations. The MI
battalion is a flexible, tailorable force that easily adapts as the
division transitions to future operations or redeployment, while
providing continuous intelligence overwatch.
- The challenges that the MI battalion will face supporting
Division XXI operations require revisions in our doctrine. MI will
incorporate these changes and revisions in the next family of
manuals and doctrinal publications emerging from changes in our
technology, equipment, and the nature of operations. They will then
establish the framework for the tactics, techniques, and procedures
(TTPs), the Experimental Force (EXFOR), Task Force XXI, Division
XXI, and the Advanced Warfighting Experiments.
- These changes in doctrine imply training challenges for the
force. Intelligence leaders and soldiers require a different set of
skills to be able to operate effectively in Force XXI decisive
operations. Soldiers down to the lowest level require a higher
levels of operational understanding, computer literacy, and
presentation skills. Leaders will have to use advanced techniques
and technologies to conduct training, incorporating realistic
intelligence processing and analysis during live, virtual,
constructive simulations and exercises.
- The Division XXI MI battalion will be a place to grow and groom
future G2s, S2s, and MI commanders. Our intelligence officers and
NCOs must thoroughly understand Force XXI decisive operations to be
able to support their warfighters. Likewise, Division XXI leaders
must understand the capabilities and limitations of the
- Division XXI operations require an integrated total force
intelligence concept, where higher and lower echelons operate in
concert. Organizations must be modular, highly mobile, deployable,
and tailorable, with organic, dedicated intelligence analysis
capabilities. They must also be capable of commanding and
controlling a variety of diverse augmentation from EAD and joint
- The equipment and systems in the MI battalion incorporate open
system architectures to allow for upgrades, modernization, and
interoperability. Management tools are automated, and they allow
dynamic management and retasking of collectors in real time. MI
systems are capable of conducting full spectrum collection,
automated processing and analysis, and automatic target recognition
(ATR). They provide multimedia presentation tools to help the
commander visualize the battlespace.
- This modernized force, with streamlined, modular organizations
and state-of-the-art systems requires the highest quality personnel
to make it work. Intelligence soldiers in the Division XXI MI
battalion must meet high standards of tactical and technical
proficiency, and operational understanding.
- The Force XXI Division must simultaneously conduct
multidimensional nonlinear operations against a wide range of
unpredictable threats. Division commanders must be able to see in
depth, locate and engage HPT with precision, and dominate their
battlespace, all within the context of the Division XXI patterns of
operations. The Division XXI MI battalion meets those requirements,
providing the division commander with the capability to operate
decisively and to protect the force before, during, and after
operations. It provides intelligence support in tailorable packages
with quick adaptability. This intelligence force will have
modernized systems and quality people with advanced skills and high
operational understanding to support Division XXI decisive
Captain Erasmo "Tito" Martinez is currently an action
officer in the Concepts Division, Combat Developments Directorate,
U.S. Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca (USAIC&FH). His
previous assignments include service with the 10th Mountain
Division (Light Infantry) as infantry brigade and battalion S2 and
assistant MI battalion S3, and at the USAIC&FH as a company
commander. CPT Martinez has a bachelor of arts in English from the
University of Puerto Rico. Readers can reach him at (520) 538-7212,
DSN 879-7212, or via PROFS/E-mail at martine%