Index USIGS Glossary

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Term Definition/Description Source
nadir (JCS) That point on the celestial sphere directly beneath the observer and directly opposite the zenith. See also ground nadir; map nadir; photograph nadir. HDBK-850
nadir The point at which a vertical line through the perspective center of the camera lens intersects the photo plane. Point on the Earth directly below the imaging vehicle. USIS 95
nadir point See photograph nadir. HDBK-850
nadir radial A radial from the nadir point. HDBK-850
nadir-point plot See nadir-point triangulation. HDBK-850
nadir-point triangulation Radial triangulation in which nadir points are utilized as radial centers. Also called nadir-point plot. HDBK-850
name A term which refers to an entity in a given naming context. An name identifier is an unambiguous name in a given naming context. RM-ODP
naming context A relation between a set of names and set of entities. RM-ODP
nanometer One billionth of a meter. Used to measure optical and infrared wavelengths. 600 nanometers equates to .6 microns. USIS 95
nanosecond One billionth of a second. Light/electricity travels 1 foot in a nanosecond. USIS 95
nanotesla (geomagnetism) A unit of magnetic field intensity generally used in describing the Earth's magnetic field. It is defined as 10-9 tesla = 1 gamma. See also gamma. HDBK-850
narrow band A band whose width is greater than one percent of the center frequency and less than one-third octave. Pertaining to a communication channel of less than voice grade. USIS 95
narrow-angle lens A lens whose focal length is equal approximately to twice the diagonal of the format. HDBK-850
National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) A multiple agency program coordinated by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) that provides panchromatic and color infrared coverage of the United States at 1:40,000 photo scale. USGS Web Site
National Air Intelligence Center (NAIC) The NAIC at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the Air Force's single all-source aerospace intelligence center. Its mission is to support the warfighter, the acquisition community and the national policy maker by acquiring, collecting, analyzing, producing and disseminating foreign aerospace intelligence to the United States Air Force (USAF), the unified commands, sister services, other members of the intelligence community and allies. The NAIC was formed by combining the Foreign Aerospace Science and Technology Center, the 480th Intelligence Group and the 497th Intelligence Group Directorate of Assessments. USAF Web Site
National Air Intelligence Center (NAIC) Computer Aided Design A CAD system comprised of terminals running EUCLID-IS software that enables creation of digital engineering drawings and solid models for exploitation of imagery and production of finished intelligence. USIS 95
National Airborne Operations Center (E-4B) The E-4B is the National Airborne Operations Center for the National Command Authorities. In case of national emergency or destruction of ground command control centers, the aircraft provides a modern, highly survivable, command, control and communications center to direct U.S. strategic forces, and execute emergency war orders by the National Command Authorities. The E-4B, a militarized version of the Boeing 747-200, is a four-engine, swept-wing, long-range, high-altitude airplane capable of being refueled in flight. Air Combat Command (ACC) is the Air Force single-resource manager for the E-4B. ACC provides aircrew, maintenance, security and communications support. The Joint Staff controls E-4B operations and provides personnel for the airborne command center. STRATCOM Web Site
National Basic Reference Graphic (NBRG) A hardcopy or softcopy aid to imagery exploitation that delineates a target or area and serves as a common frame of reference for national exploitation and reporting. USIS 2-1.1
National Command Authorities (NCA) The President and the Secretary of Defense or their duly deputized alternates or successors. USIS 95
National Communications System The telecommunications system that results from the technical and operational integration of the separate telecommunications systems of the several executive branch departments and agencies having a significant telecommunications capability. USIS 95
national data base A data base designed, operated and maintained by any nation for purposes specific to that nation. HDBK-850
National Data Base of Imagery-Derived Information (NDBIDI) A data base of imagery-derived information maintained as a service of common concern to provide imagery information to support intelligence production at national and departmental levels. USIS 95
national exploitation Imagery exploitation that supports Presidential requirements, National Security Council requirements, Congressional requirements, or requirements of common concern to the intelligence community. USIS 2-1.1
National Exploitation Reporting: Control and Management Now the Exploitation and Reporting Structure (EARS). A document describing how data bases will be structured with reference to format of intelligence reporting in a computer-to-computer environment. USIS 95
National Foreign Intelligence Board A body formed to provide the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) with advice concerning: production, review, and coordination of national foreign intelligence; the National Foreign Intelligence Program budget; interagency exchanges of foreign intelligence information; arrangements with foreign governments on intelligence matters; the protection of intelligence sources or methods; activities of common concern; and such other matters as are referred to it by the DCI. It is composed of the DCI (chairman), and other appropriate officers of the CIA, the office of the DCI, DoS, DoD, Justice, DoT, DoE, the offices within the DoD for reconnaissance programs, DIA, NSA, and the FBI; senior intelligence officers of the Army, Navy, and Air Force participate as observers; a representative of the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs may also attend meetings as an observer. USIS 95
National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP) The NFIP includes the Central Intelligence Agency Program (CIAP), the Consolidated Cryptologic Program (CCP), the National Reconnaissance Program (NRP), and the General Defense Intelligence Program (GDIP). USIS 95
National Geodetic Vertical datum of 1929 Known as "sea level datum of 1929" prior to September 1973, this datum was established by constraining the combined interconnected United States and Canadian networks of first-order leveling, as it existed in 1929. HDBK-850
National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) The NGDC manages environmental data in the fields of marine geology and geophysics, paleoclimatology, solar-terrestrial physics, solid earth geophysics, and glaciology (snow and ice). NOAA Web Site
National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC) The NGIC is a major subordinate command of the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM). The NGIC produces the scientific and technical intelligence (S&TI) and the military capabilities analysis on foreign ground forces required by warfighting commanders, the force modernization and R&D communities and the Department of Defense (DoD) and national policymakers. The NGIC is headquartered in Charlottesville, VA. NGIC Web Site
National High Altitude Aerial Photography Program (NHAP) A multiple agency program coordinated by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) that acquired 1:80,000 photo-scale panchromatic and 1:58,000 photo-scale color infrared photography of the 48 conterminous United States from the years 1980-1987. USGS Web Site
National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) Data System (NDS) Formerly the NPIC Data System, it is a system providing support to imagery analysts at NIMA and other locations. [NDS will be replaced by the NIMA Exploitation System (NES)] USIS 95
National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) A scale from 0 (unusable) to 9 (excellent quality) used by and imagery analyst to rate the interpretability of an image. USIS 2-1.1
National Imagery Requirements Imagery requirements in support of the National Command Authorities (President and Secretary of Defense) and the National Security Council. USIS 95
National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) A compressed imagery file format used to exchange imagery and text among secondary imagery dissemination systems (SIDS) that are otherwise incompatible. DoD organizations have been directed to implement the NITF for all future SID developments or purchases. See NITFS. USIS 95
National Imagery Transmission Format Standard (NITFS) A set of standards for the transmission of imagery. The NITF accommodates all size images and all associated support data for transfers of imagery from image distributors to user information systems. USIS 95
National Information Library (NIL) A library which will contain imagery and imagery-based products accessible to all users with the appropriate security clearance and need to know. The NIL, will be located in the National Capital Region [TBD] and will be designed to contain processed imagery from US Government satellites, aircraft (both manned and unmanned) and handheld sources. It may also contain processed imagery from non-US Government (i.e., foreign and commercial) sources. USIS 95
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) The NIST was established by Congress "to assist industry in the development of technology ... needed to improve product quality, to modernize manufacturing processes, to ensure product reliability ... and to facilitate rapid commercialization ... of products based on new scientific discoveries." An agency of the United States Department of Commerce's Technology Administration, NIST's primary mission is to promote U.S. economic growth by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements, and standards. The NIST is headquartered in Gaithersburg, MD. NIST Web Site
national intelligence Integrated departmental intelligence that covers the broad aspects of national policy and national security, is of concern to more than one department or agency, and transcends the exclusive competence of a single department or agency. USIS 95
National Intelligence Daily A high-level glossy newspaper-formatted intelligence publication for limited distribution to the senior leadership, mostly within the Washington, D.C. area. USIS 95
National Intelligence Estimate A strategic estimate of the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and probable courses of action of foreign nations produced at the national level as a composite of the views of the Intelligence Community. USIS 95
National Intelligence Support Team (NIST) A nationally sourced team composed of intelligence and communications experts from either DIA, CIA, NSA, or any combination of these agencies. Replaced the National Military Intelligence Support Team (NMIST). USIS 95
national map accuracy standards See United States National Map Accuracy Standards. HDBK-850
National Maritime Intelligence Center (NMIC) Facility in Suitland, MD that houses the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI); the Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA), and the Coast Guard Intelligence Coordination Center (CG-ICC). USIS 95
National Military Intelligence Center Now the National Military Joint Intelligence Center (NMJIC). DefenseLINK
National Military Joint Intelligence Center (NMJIC) The center, located with the National Military Command Center and the Defense Collection Coordination Center, monitors worldwide developments 24 hours daily for looming crises that may require U.S. involvement. The center is comprised of an alert center, warning and crisis analysts, the Defense Intelligence Network, targeting specialists and intelligence operators who deploy to support warfighters. The National Security Agency (NSA), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), State Department, National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the services also have representatives in the center. DefenseLINK
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) A United States Department of Commerce organization, NOAA's mission is to describe and predict changes in the Earth's environment and to conserve and manage wisely the Nation's coastal and marine resources to ensure sustainable economic opportunities. The five line organizations within NOAA are: NOAA Fisheries (NMFS); National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS); National Weather Service (NWS); Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR); and National Ocean Service (NOS). NOAA is headquartered in Washington, DC.   NOAA Web Site
National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC) Information System (NIS) Consists of all interconnected data processing systems within NPIC. These include NPIC Data System (NDS), the various local-area networks, office automated systems, and production support systems. The NIS is both the end-state architecture and the interim development steps required to attain that architecture. USIS 95
National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) The NRO designs, builds and operates the nation's reconnaissance satellites. NRO products can warn of potential trouble spots around the world, help plan military operations, and monitor the environment. As part of the 13-member Intelligence Community, the NRO plays a primary role in achieving information superiority for the U. S. Government and Armed Forces. A DoD agency, the NRO is staffed by DoD and CIA personnel. The NRO is headquartered in Chantilly, VA. NRO Web Site
national security A collective term encompassing both national defense and foreign relations of the United States. Specifically, the condition provided by: a. a military or defense advantage over any foreign nation or group of nations, or b. a favorable foreign relations position, or c. a defense posture capable of successfully resisting hostile or destructive action from within or without, overt or covert. USIS 95
National Security Agency (NSA) See National Security Agency / Central Security Service (NSA/CSS). NSA Web Site
National Security Agency / Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) The NSA/CSS is responsible for the centralized coordination, direction, and performance of highly specialized technical functions in support of U.S. Government activities to protect U.S. communications and produce foreign intelligence information. The National Security Agency (NSA) was established by Presidential directive in 1952 as a separately organized agency within the Department of Defense (DoD) under the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense, who acts as Executive Agent of the U.S. government for the production of communications intelligence (COMINT) information. The Central Security Service (CSS) was established by Presidential memorandum in 1972 in order to provide a more unified cryptologic organization within the DoD. The Director, NSA, serves as chief of the CSS and exercises control over the signals intelligence activities of the military services. The NSA/CSS is headquartered at Ft. George G. Meade, MD. NSA Web Site
National Security Council (NSC) The Council is the President's principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inception under President Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the P'esident's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies. Whitehouse Web Site
National Security Council Intelligence Directive Establishes direction, in part, for the imagery community. USIS 95
National Security Establishment Includes the Office of the Secretary of Defense; the military departments - uniformed, civilian, reserve and National Guard; the CJCS and the Joint Staff; the Unified Combatant Commands; the Defense agencies; DoD field activities; and the Intelligence Community, including CIA and NPIC. USIS 95
national security system A. The term "national security system" means any telecommunications or information system operated by the United States Government, the function, operation, or use of which: (1) involves intelligence activities; (2) involves cryptologic activities related to national security; (3) involves command and control of military forces; (4) involves equipment that is an integral part of a weapon or weapons system; or (5) subject to subsection (b), is critical to the direct fulfillment of military or intelligence missions. B. LIMITATION.-Subsection (a)(5) does not include a system that is to be used for routine administrative and business applications (including payroll, finance, logistics, and personnel management applications). (Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996. See JTA 2.0
National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) The technology, policies, standards, and human resources necessary to acquire, process, store, distribute, and improve utilization of geospatial data. (U.S. Executive Office of the President, 1994). FGDC
National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) The NSDI is defined as the technologies, policies, and people necessary to promote sharing of geospatial data throughout all levels of government, the private and non-profit sectors, and the academic community. FGDC Web Site
National Tasking Policy for Imagery Processing and Exploitation Provides the imagery community with direction related to imagery processing and exploitation. USIS 95
native map A map of any country produced by that'country's governmental or private agencies. HDBK-850
natural detail The features on the Earth, such as streams, lakes, forests, and mountains; exclusive of the works of man. Also called natural feature. See also culture; hydrographic detail; hypsographic detail. HDBK-850
natural error Errors arising from variations in temperature, humidity, wind, gravity, refraction, and magnetic declination. HDBK-850
natural feature See natural detail. HDBK-850
natural language Programming language paradigm exemplified by using English-like commands and syntax to issue commands; interactions in the vernacular of the user. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
natural monument A natural feature, such as a stream, boulder, tree, etc., which serves to mark the location of a survey station or land corner. See also monument. HDBK-850
nautical broadcasts Radio navigational warning broadcasts to shipping on urgent dangers to navigation, advanced information on changing navigational conditions, and special warnings disseminated by official U.S. Government proclamations affecting shipping. This information is also accessible on the Navigation Information System (NAVINFONET). HDBK-850
nautical chart See hydrographic chart. HDBK-850
nautical mile A measure of the distance equal to one minute of arc on the Earth's surface. The United States has adopted the international nautical mile equal to 1,852 meters or 6,076.11549 feet. JPUB 1-02
Naval Operating Area Chart (OPAREA) Nautical charts produced and overprinted with prescribed OPAREA boundaries, submarine transit lanes, aeronautical and other information for fleet exercise areas. HDBK-850
Naval Order of Battle A listing of foreign navy-related installations with an accounting of equipment. USIS 95
Naval Range Charts Detailed bathymetry, grid, and range boundaries; information on range acoustics; and seismic instrumentation. HDBK-850
Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) The NRL is the Navy's corporate research and development laboratory, created in 1923 by Congress for the Department of the Navy on the advice of Thomas Edison. The NRL's mission is "to conduct a broadly based multidisciplinary program of scientific research and advanced technological development directed toward maritime applications of new and improved materials, techniques, equipment, systems, and ocean, atmospheric, and space sciences and related technologies." The NRL has three main sites: NRL DC, the main campus, is located at Bolling AFB in Washington, D.C.; NRL SSC is located at the Stennis Space Center in Bay St. Louis, MS; and NRL MRY is located in Monterey, CA. NRL Web Site
Naval Space Command (NAVSPACECOM) NAVSPACECOM's primary mission is to provide space systems support to naval forces worldwide as the naval service component of the United States Space Command (USSPACECOM). NAVSPACECOM support flows directly to Fleet and Fleet Marine Force operational units to help prepare them for routine deployments, exercises, or actions in response to a crisis situation. NAVSPACECOM is headquartered in Dahlgren, VA. DefenseLINK
naval special warfare A specific term describing a designated naval warfare specialty and covering operations generally accepted as being unconventional in nature and, in many cases, covert or clandestine in character. These operations include using specially trained forces assigned to conduct unconventional warfare, psychological operations, beach and coastal reconnaissance, operational deception operations, counterinsurgency operations, coastal and river interdiction, and certain special tactical intelligence collection operations that are in addition to those intelligence functions normally required for planning and conducting special operations in a hostile environment. USIS 95
Naval Special Warfare Unit A permanent Navy organization forward based to control and support attached naval special warfare forces. USIS 95
Naval Warfare Tactical Data Base Established in May 1990. It is a management process to standardize all data used by naval tactical warfare systems. It develops standards by coordination with system developers, data base producers, and operational users. Consists of four categories of data: 1. Forces and Facilities- IDB Core; 2. Weapon Systems- NID Core (includes Naval, Merchant, and some Air for all countries, EW); 3. Environmental- OAML (includes oceanography, meteorology, astrometry, precise time/time interval, MC&G); 4. Cryptologic- CCDB. USIS 95
navigation chart See aeronautical chart; hydrographic chart. HDBK-850
Navigation Information Network (NAVINFONET) The NIMA data base which contains the information to produce the following publications: Notice to Mariners, Summary of Corrections, List of Lights and Fog Signals. It also provides users access to up-to-date marine information via commercial telecommunications services. HDBK-850
navigation sight An auxiliary device used in the taking of aerial photography to show not only the vertical field of view but also the path ahead and behind the aircraft. HDBK-850
Navigational Filmstrips (NFS) Filmstrips depicting cartographic data as photographed from lithographic copy among the JNC and TPC series for A-7 aircraft, ONC and JOG series for HH-53 aircraft, and all 4 chart series for Remote Map Reader (RMR) equipped (F-14E). Used in aircraft equipped with a moving map display system to provide in-cockpit display of aircraft horizontal position relative to the chart data. HDBK-850
navigational planets The four planets commonly used for celestial navigation: Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. HDBK-850
navigational triangle The spherical triangle solved in computing altitude and azimuth or great circle sailing problems. The celestial triangle is formed on the celestial sphere by the great circles connecting the elevated pole, zenith of the assumed position of the observer, and a celestial body. The terrestrial triangle is formed on a spherical Earth by the great circles connecting the pole and two places on Earth, either the assumed position of the observer and geographic position of the body for celestial observations, or the points of departure and destination for great circle sailing problems. The expression navigational triangle applies to either the celestial or terrestrial triangle used for solving navigation problems. HDBK-850
NAVINFONET See Navigation Information Network (NAVINFONET). HDBK-850
NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) The GPS is a constellation of orbiting satellites that provides navigation data to military and civilian users all over the world. The system is operated and controlled by members of the 50th Space Wing located at Falcon AFB, CO. GPS provides 24-hour navigation services which include: Extremely accurate three-dimensional location information (latitude, longitude and altitude), velocity and precise time; a worldwide common grid that is easily converted to any local grid; passive all-weather operations; continuos real-time information; support to an unlimited number of users and areas; and support to civilian users at a slightly less accurate level. GPS satellites orbit the earth every 12 hours emitting continuous navigation signals. With the proper equipment, usreceive recieve these signals to calculate time, location and velocity. The signals are so accurate, time can be figured to within a millionth of a second, velocity within a fraction of mile per hour and location to within a few feet. Receivers have been developed for use in aircraft, ships and land vehicles as well as for hand carrying. SPACECOM Web Site
Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS) A set of five or six satellites in polar orbit with which three-dimensional position of a user can be determined. See also broadcast ephemeris; Doppler navigation; precise ephemeris. HDBK-850
near infrared The term for shorter wavelengths in the infrared region extending from about .78 micrometers (visible, red) to around 2.5 micrometers. Sometimes referred to as VNIR. USIS 95
near on-line data Digital data that are electronically accessible using standard discovery mechanisms, but whose access time is slower than on-line systems, with response times ranging from seconds to minutes. These data are stored on tapes and optical discs that are retrieved by robotics. See also on-line data, off-line data and far off-line data. USIS 95
near-certainty error (3.5 sigma, 3.5s) The 99.78 percent error interval based on the bivariate normal distribution function. See also circular near-certainty error; circular error probable. HDBK-850
near-real time Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information that has been delayed by the time required for electronic communication and automatic data processing. This implies there are no significant delays. USIS 95
neat model The portion of the gross overlap of a pair of photographs that is actually utilized in photogrammetric procedures. Generally, the neat model approximates a rectangle whose width equals the air base and whose length equals the width between flights. See also gross model. HDBK-850
neatlines (JCS) The lines that bound the body of a map, usually parallels and meridians [but may be conventional or arbitrary grid lines]. Also called sheet lines. HDBK-850
need to know Determination made by an authorized holder of classified information that a prospective recipient requires access to specific classified information in order to perform or assist in a lawful and authorized governmental function. USIS 95
needline A requirement that is the logical expression of the need to transfer information among nodes (e.g., operational elements, system elements). (The content of the transfer is specified by reference to an information exchange requirement (IER).) C4ISR AF
negative 1. In black and white photography an image on film, plate, or paper in which the normal tones of the subject are reversed. In color photography, an image on film, plate, or paper, in which colors appear as their complements. 2. In cartographic scribing, a scribed sheet is essentially a manually produced negative. See also duplicate negative; original negative. HDBK-850
negative An image of film or paper in which the tones are reversed from the brightness of the true scene features. See positive. USIS 95
negative altitude Angular distance below the horizon. HDBK-850
negative component in color mixture A component that is mixed with the sample light in order to desaturate it sufficiently to obtain a match with a mixture of the other two components. HDBK-850
negative corrections Changes made directly on a negative or a scribed surface. See also negative engraving. HDBK-850
negative deflection angle See deflection angle, definition 1. HDBK-850
negative engraving The operation of making corrections and additions to negatives. This term should not be applied to the process of scribing on coated plastics. HDBK-850
negative forming In relief model making, forming into a negative mold. HDBK-850
negative lens A lens diverging a beam of parallel light rays, with no real focus being obtained. Also called concave lens; diverging lens. HDBK-850
negative mold The cast resulting from casting over a master relief model. HDBK-850
negative scribing See scribing. HDBK-850
negative titling See titling. HDBK-850
net See survey net. HDBK-850
network The joining of two or more nodes for a specific purpose. C4ISR AF
network 1. An arrangement of objects that are interconnected. 2. In communications, the transmission channels interconnecting all client and server stations as well as all supporting hardware and software. Freedman 1995
network A system of connected computers. TAFIM 3.0
network 1. A system of interconnected computer systems and terminals. 2. A series of points connected by communications channels. Webster Computer
network analysis Analytical techniques concerned with the relationships between locations on a network, such as the calculation of optimal routes through road networks, flow capacities of network systems, or the best location for facilities along networks. HDBK-850
network layer The third layer of the OSI Reference Model. This layer controls underlying telecommunication functions such as routing, relaying, and data link connections. TAFIM 3.0
network management (NM) Network management is the surveillance and control of the traffic across the network. Network management encompasses the techniques and organization needed to ensure service to the C2 users even under adverse conditions, such as abnormal loads or equipment failures. [JITC Dictionary] DISA CFS
neutral data Digital Geographic Information that is intended to support numerous applications but must be tailored for a specific application. HDBK-850
neutral filter A filter that reduces the intensity of light reaching the film or plate without affecting the tonal rendition of colors in the original scene. HDBK-850
new chart A chart constructed to satisfy the needs of navigation in a particular area. It is laid out in conformity with a broad scheme to meet future needs in the adjacent areas. HDBK-850
new edition Contains changes of such importance to map or chart users that all previous printings are made obsolete. HDBK-850
new survey See resurvey. HDBK-850
New York leveling rod A two-piece rod with movable target. For heights greater than 6 1/2 feet, the target is clamped at 6 1/2 feet and raised by extending the rod. Graduated to hundredths of a foot and read by vernier to thousandths. HDBK-850
newton The newton is the metric (SI) unit of force. A force of 1 newton (N) acting on a mass of 1 kilogram imparts an acceleration of 1 meter per second per second. .One newton equals 1 kilogram per meter per second per second. See also dyne. HDBK-850
Newtonian constant of gravitation See constant of gravitation. HDBK-850
Newton's laws 1. (gravitation) Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them. 2. (motion) (1) Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by a force impressed upon it. (2) The rate of change of momentum is proportional to the force impressed, and takes the direction of the straight line in which the force acts. (3) To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; or, the mutual actions of two bodies are always equal and oppositely directed. HDBK-850
Newton's rings An interference effect arising from close, but not quite perfect, contact between two surfaces, manifested by irregular concentric rings of color. HDBK-850
night effect (JCS) An effect mainly caused by variations in the state of polarization of reflected waves, which sometimes result in errors in direction finding bearings. The effect is most frequent at nightfall. HDBK-850
NIMA Information Service (NIS) The single gateway to imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information acquired and produced by NIMA for its customers. It provides customer service data and software applications related to this information. The NIS provides on-line, integrated access to, and delivery of NIMA information content as formatted produces and seamless coverages, stored in an array of distributed libraries.
Customers may browse through structured directories of products or search metadata catalogs that characterize the products by a number of parameters. Once located, files may be viewed by a customer, or downloaded ("pulled") to their workstation or workgroup server for local tailoring and use.
Large-area seamless coverages are accessed through a Geographic Information System-like interface. A customer may select a particular region of interest and designate the coverages (themes) that are to be displayed for a particular problem.
Software applications that provide capabilities to display, manipulate, and exploit imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information are maintained in a download area of the NIS for use by customers. The NIMA Information Service is one aspect of the USIGS associated with the access and delivery of NIMA-provided information. It is one component of NIMA's portion of the USIGS.
no apparent change (NAC) A term meaning that, in comparison to the referenced image, target description (baseline), or target report remark, no significant change is apparent. The term NAC may be used in either a first- or second-phase report. USIS 95
no reportable change (NRC) A term meaning that, in the judgment of the analyst writing the report, there is nothing of significance to report. The term NRC will be used only in first-phase reports. USIS 95
no-check position See intersection station. HDBK-850
nocturnal arc See astronomic arc. HDBK-850
nodal line In a tide area, the line about which the tide oscillates and where there is little or no rise and fall of the tide. HDBK-850
nodal plane A plane perpendicular to the optical axis at a nodal point. HDBK-850
nodal point 1. (optics) One of two points on the optical axis of a lens, or system of lenses, such that a ray emergent from the second point is parallel to the ray incident at the first. This first nodal point is also referred to as the front nodal point, incident nodal point, or nodal point of incidence; and the second point as the rear nodal point, emergent nodal point, or nodal point of emergence. Also called node. 2. (astronomy) See node, definition 1. 3. (hydrography) See amphidromic point. HDBK-850
nodal point of emergence See nodal point, definition 1. HDBK-850
nodal point of incidence See nodal point, definition 1. HDBK-850
node A representation of an element of architecture that produces, consumes or processes data. C4ISR AF
node 1. A point in a network, either at the end of a communication line (end node) or where two lines meet (intermediate node). [TAFIM 3.0, vol. 4] 2. In network topology, a terminal of any branch of a network or a terminal common to two or more branches of a network. 3. In a switched communications network, the switching points; also may include patching and control facilities. 4. In a data network, the data station location that interconnects data transmission lines. [Joint Pub 6-02.1] DISA CFS
node 1. (astronomy) One of the two points of intersection of the orbit of a planet, planetoid, or comet with the ecliptic, or of the orbit of a satellite with the equatorial plane of the orbit of its primary. Also called nodal point. See also ascending node; descending node; ecliptic node; equatorial node; line of nodes; longit'de of the Moon's nodes; lunar node; regression of the nodes. 2. (optics) See nodal point, definition 1. 3. A unique point representing the location of a feature, or the location of an intersection or connection of some number of features. Alternatively, a node is any isolated point, or the junction of any two or more edges, or the end points of an edge. HDBK-850
node A 0[zero]-dimensional structure primitive. ISO/TC 211
node A configuration of engineering objects forming a single unit for the purpose of location in space. The node provides a set of processing, storage, and communications functions. Access to these functions is provided by a nucleus object. A computer and its software (operating system and applications) is an example of a node. A node can be a parallel computer under the control of a single operating system. RM-ODP
node (UCDM Entity: "NODE") A zero dimensional topological primitive that defines topological relationships. USIGS/CDM-A
node A zero-dimentional geometric primitive that is composed of a single coordinate tuple (pair or triplet). There are two types of nodes: entity nodes and connected nodes. Only one can occupy a single geographic location. VPF Glossary
node cycle The time required for the regress'on of the Moon's nodes to complete a circuit of 360 of longitude; a period of approximately 18.6 years. HDBK-850
nodical month The interval of time between two successive passages of the Moon through the same node of its orbit, approximately 27 days. Also called draconic month. HDBK-850
nodical period The interval between two successive passages of a satellite or planet through the ascending node of its orbit. HDBK-850
noise level The magnitude of random errors in a particular type of measurement. HDBK-850
nominal focal length (JCS) An approximate value of the focal length, rounded off to some standard figure, used for the classification of lenses, mirrors, or cameras. HDBK-850
nominal focal length An approximate value of the focal length, rounded off to some standard figure, used for the classification of lenses, mirrors, or cameras. USIS 95
nominal ground A theoretical view of the reality defined by the specification of the geographic dataset and forming the ideal geographic dataset to which the actual geographic dataset will be compared for evaluating its quality. The nominal ground is considered to represent the true value for the values contained in the geographic dataset. CEN/TC 287
nominal orbit The true or ideal orbit upon which a space vehicle is expected to travel. HDBK-850
nomination A request for imagery or imagery-derived information. USIS 95
nomogram A diagram showing, to scale, the relationship between several variables in such manner that the value of one which corresponds to known values of the others can be determined graphically. HDBK-850
nonautomatic rectifier Any rectifier which requires computation of the elements of rectification, each of which must be manually set on its corresponding circle or scale on the rectifier. HDBK-850
Nonconventional Exploitation Factors Data System Data-base-related software for use in spectral exploitation. USIS 95
nondevelopmental item (NDI) 1. Any previously developed item in use by a US Federal, State or Local government agency or a foreign government with which the US has a mutual defense cooperation agreement.
2. Any item described in subparagraph 1, above, that requires only minor modification in order to meet the requirements of the procuring agency.
3. Any item currently being produced that does not meet the requirement of paragraphs 1, or 2, above, solely because the item is not yet in use. (DRAFT 6/30/95 NDI HANDBOOK/ Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 DoD 5000.37H)
JTA 2.0
non-developmental item (NDI) The Congress identifies an NDI as: (1) any item available in the commercial marketplace; (2) any previously developed item in use by the U.S. Government or cooperating foreign governments; or (3) any item of supply needing only minor modification to meet DOD requirements. [DISA/D4] DISA CFS
non-developmental item (NDI) A generic term that covers materiel available from sources with little or no development effort required by the Government. This includes:
a. Any item that is available in the commercial marketplace;
b. Any previously developed item that is in use by a department, agency, or Commanders'-in-Chief (CINCs) of the United States, a State or local government, or a foreign government with which the United States has a mutual defense cooperative agreement;
c. Any item described in definitions a. or b., above that requires only minor modification in order to meet the requirements of the procuring agency; or
d. Any item that is currently being produced that does not meet the requirements of definitions a. through c., above, solely because the item is not yet in use or is not yet available in the commercial marketplace.
DODI 4630.8
non-government standard (NGS) A standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society which plans, develops, establishes, or coordinates standards, specifications, handbooks, or related documents. This term does not include standards of individual companies. [DOD 4120.3-M] DISA CFS
non-government standards body (NGSB) A private sector association, organization, or technical society which plans, develops, establishes, maintains, or coordinates NGSs. [DOD 4120.3-M] DISA CFS
nongravitational perturbations Perturbations caused by surface forces due to mechanical drag of the atmosphere (in case of low flying satellites), electromagnetism, and radiation pressure. HDBK-850
non-mapping image Any non-photogrammeteric image. This includes any imagery product that has gone through rubber sheeting (also referred to as image warping) or any other imagery processing that doesnot allow for rigorous measurement of error propagation. OGC RFI
nonmonumented bench mark See temporary bench mark. HDBK-850
nonperspective azimuthal map projection A projection not based on perspective lines of sight from a single point of view. HDBK-850
non-positional, adj. Characteristic that lacks either a direct or indirect, realtive or absolute, spatial component. ISO/TC 211
non-repudiation Provides to the recipient proof of the origin of data and protects against any attempt by the originator to falsely deny sending the data or their content. For example, non-repudiation with proof of origin can be used to provide to a judge that a person signed a contract. [DISA/D2] DII MP
Non-secure Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET) The data communications component of the DISN [Defense Information System Network] used for Sensitive-but- unclassified (SBU) data. NIPRNET uses Internet Protocol routing technology to transport data. See also Secure Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET). DII MP
nonselective filter A filter for which transmittance is substantially independent of wavelength. HDBK-850
non-specific relationship See relationship, non-specific. USIGS/CDM-A
Nonstrategic Nuclear Force (NSNF) A command, control, and communications (C3) function including the planning, targeting, and execution of tactical nuclear weapon operations. Execution of NSNF involves the release, launch of an armed delivery system, and the possible recall or termination of a nuclear strike or employment. USIS 95
Non-Submarine Contact (NSC) Lists Lists which contain a tabulated list of wrecks and other obstructions which might be construed as submarines by sonar. HDBK-850
nontilting-lens rectifier A class of rectifier wherein the lens is constrained to move in the direction of its fixed axis. HDBK-850
nontilting-negative-plane rectifier A class of rectifier which contains a nontilting negative carrier. In this class of rectifiers, the negative carrier plane remains horizontal. HDBK-850
non-time-dominant requirements Refers to those imagery collection requirements that are of a less immediate nature than are time-dominant requirements. Examples are imagery collected to support long-term studies of installations or detailed studies for data base updates. Generally, non-time dominant requirements are satisfied within timelines established by the requester. USIS 95
non-traditional approaches A process managed outside the normal DoD 5000 Series acquisition and milestone review process. Non-traditional approaches are exemplified by approaches such as rapid prototyping, evolutionary and incremental acquisition, flexible technology insertion, the Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD), Battle Labs/Joint Battle Center, Joint Warfighting Interoperability Demonstrations (JWIDs), Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATDs), CINC and other Initiatives, and Advanced Warfighting Experiments (AWE). These approaches differ from the standard DoD 5000 Series acquisition program approach in that system requirements and concepts of operation (CONOPS) are developed during the field test of the system, and the processes receive guidance from management plans, e.g., ACTD Management Plan, versus the DoD 5000 Series. DODI 4630.8
normal 1. A straight line perpendicular to a surface or to another line. 2. A condition of being perpendicular to a surface or line. 3. In geodesy, the straight line perpendicular to the surface of the reference ellipsoid. 4. The average, regular, or expected value of a quantity. HDBK-850
normal distribution function A mathematical function describing the behavior of one-dimensional random errors. HDBK-850
normal equation One of a set of simultaneous equations derived from observation, condition, or correlate equations, and expressing a condition for a least squares adjustment. In a least squares adjustment, values obtained from the solution of normal equations (either directly or through the correlate equations) are applied to the observation or condition equations to obtain the desired corrections. HDBK-850
normal gravity A reference gravity field that is mathematically defined for a normalized earth which has gravitational symmetry. It is commonly taken as the field of a rotating level ellipsoid but may be arbitrarily defined. HDBK-850
normal gravity field A mathematically derived gravity field used in geodesy to closely approximate the Earth's actual gravity field. HDBK-850
normal orbit The orbit of a satellite considered with no disturbing effects present due to other celestial bodies, or to some physical phenomena. Also called unperturbed orbit. HDBK-850
normal section azimuth The angle between the geodetic meridian of the observer and the plane containing the ellipsoidal normal of the observer, and measured clockwise from the north in a plane perpendicular to the ellipsoidal normal of the observer. HDBK-850
normal section line A line on the surface of the ellipsoid connecting two points on that surface, and traced by a plane containing the normal at one point and passing through the other point. HDBK-850
normal tension (taping) The tension to be applied to a tape to compensate for the shortening effect of sag in order to bring the tape to standard length. That pull at which the tension correction and sag exactly balance each other. HDBK-850
normal water level The most prevalent water level in a watercourse, reservoir, lake, or pond, generally defined by a shoreline of permanent land-type vegetation. Along large bodies of water, wave action may retard vegetation beyond the normal shoreline. HDBK-850
normal-angle lens A lens having an angle of coverage from 60 to 75. A lens whose focal length is equal approximately to the diagonal of the format. HDBK-850
normalized difference vegetation index Vegetation indices derived from satellite image data have become one of the primary information sources for monitoring vegetation conditions and mapping land cover change. The most widely used vegetation index in this context is NDVI, which is a function of red and near-infrared spectral bands. USIS 95
north The primary reference direction relative to the Earth. See also compass north; grid north; magnetic north; true north. HDBK-850
North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) NORAD is a binational United States and Canadian organization charged with the missions of aerospace warning and aerospace control for North America. Aerospace warning includes the monitoring of man-made objects in space, and the detection, validation, and warning of attack against North America whether by aircraft, missiles, or space vehicles, utilizing mutual support arrangements with other commands. Aerospace control includes providing surveillance and control of the airspace of Canada and the United States. NORAD is headquartered at Peterson AFB, CO. SPACECOM Web Site
North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) The datum which defined the geodetic positions in the United States and adjoining countries was derived from a readjustment of the geodetic data as available up to 1927. It is based on the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid. See also horizontal datum. HDBK-850
North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) The new datum, which replaces NAD 27, is geocentric and based on Geodetic Reference System (GRS) 80 parameters. Its coverage includes Alaska, Canada, CONUS, and Central American countries from Mexico to Panama. Total number of redefined horizontal stations exceeds 250K. HDBK-850
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) NATO was established by the 1949 North Atlantic Treaty, commonly referred to as the Treaty of Washington. Today its focus is on promoting stability throughout Europe through cooperation and by developing the means for collective crisis management and peacekeeping. The objectives of the partnership between the European and North American members of the Alliance are primarily political, underpinned by shared defence planning and military cooperation and by cooperation and consultation in economic, scientific, environmental and other relevant fields. NATO is an alliance based on political and military cooperation among the independent member countries: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom and United States. NATO is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. NATO Web Site
north declination See declination, definition 3. HDBK-850
north geographical pole The geographical pole in the Northern Hemisphere, at latitude 90 N. HDBK-850
north geomagnetic pole The geomagnetic pole in the Northern Hemisphere. HDBK-850
north magnetic pole The magnetic pole in the Northern Hemisphere. HDBK-850
north point See celestial meridian. HDBK-850
north polar circle See Arctic Circle. HDBK-850
North Star See Polaris. HDBK-850
northbound node See ascending node. HDBK-850
northing The northward coordinate on a plane. CEN/TC 287
northing 1. (JCS) Northward increasing grid values on a map. See also false northing. 2. (plane surveying) See latitude difference. HDBK-850
Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) (DOD, NATO) A notice containing information concerning the establishment, condition, or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedures, or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations. JPUB 1-02
Notice to Mariners (NTM) Specific narrative and graphic correction data for all NIMA, USCG and NOS nautical charts, publications and new information required to navigate. This information is published weekly. It is also accessible on the Network (NAVINFONET) as incorporated in the summary of corrections. HDBK-850
nuclear damage assessment (DOD, NATO) The determination of the damage effect to the population, forces, and resources resulting from actual nuclear attack. It is performed during and after an attack. The operational significance of the damage is not evaluated in this assessment. JPUB 1-02
Nuclear Immediate Photo Interpretation Report This message provides interpretation results from post-Single Integrated Operational Plan reconnaissance. It contains information on gross damage levels to objective installations or observed damage at other locations. USIS 95
Nuclear Initial Photo Interpretation Report Nuclear blast damage assessment for Single Integrated Operational Plan targets. USIS 95
nuclear intelligence (NUCINT) (DOD) Intelligence derived from the collection and analysis of radiation and other effects resulting from radioactive sources. See also intelligence. JPUB 1-02
nucleus An engineering object which coordinates processing, storage, and communications functions for other engineering objects within its node. RM-ODP
numerical map See digital map. HDBK-850
nutation 1. The oscillation of the axis of any rotating body, as a gyroscope rotor. 2. (astronomy) Irregularities in the precessional motion of the equinoxes because of varying positions of the Moon and, to a lesser extent, of other celestial bodies with respect to the ecliptic. HDBK-850
nutation in right ascension See equation of the equinox. HDBK-850

Last Updated by Mark Owens 7 January 1999.