Index USIGS Glossary

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Term Definition/Description Source
ultrahigh frequency (UHF) The frequency spectrum ranging from 300 MHz - 3 GHz. USIS 95
Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) Follow-on Satellite Program Designed to replenish and subsequently replace existing FLTSAT, LEASAT, and Gapfiller coverage. The new constellation will consist of two satellites over each of the existing four Earth coverage areas with one in-orbit spare. USIS 95
ultraspectral A very high spectral resolution sensor having hundreds of spectral bands, each with resolution of less than 0.1 nanometer. USIS 95
ultraviolet (UV) That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (ranging from .2 to .4 microns) that is shorter than visible light but longer than x-rays . USIS 95
ultraviolet (UV) imagery That imagery produced as a result of sensing ultraviolet radiation reflected from a given target surface. UV occupies the 0.2-0.4 micron range of the electromagnetic spectrum. USIS 95
ultrawide-angle lens See superwide-angle lens. HDBK-850
unchecked spot elevation Elevation determined by unchecked field survey methods, such as side shots on stadia lines, unchecked vertical angles, and barometric leveling. Also an elevation determined by repeated photogrammetric reading. HDBK-850
uncontrolled mosaic (JCS) A mosaic composed of uncorrected prints, the details of which have been matched from print to print without ground control or other orientation. Accurate measurement and direction cannot be accomplished. See also controlled mosaic. HDBK-850
undefined An indication that a part of the standard imposes no portability requirements on an application's use of an indeterminate value of its behavior with erroneous program constructs or erroneous data. [IEEE P1003.1-1990] ITSG Vol. 1
underground mark A surveying mark set and plumbed below the center of a surface mark and separated therefrom so as to preserve the station in case of accident to the surface mark. HDBK-850
undershoot A data omission which occurs during the data capture process, particularly during manual digitizing. In an undershoot situation, linear data falls short of reaching an intersection. An undershoot may be corrected by a snap software function. HDBK-850
undevelopable A surface, such as a sphere, that cannot be flattened to form a plane without compressing or stretching some part of it. HDBK-850
undulation of the geoid See geoid height. HDBK-850
unidimensional datum; one-dimensional datum A datum which serves as a reference for defining a single coordinate. EXAMPLE: Vertical datum for defining heights. CEN/TC 287
unidimensional magnification Transformation of one rectangle into another of different proportions. HDBK-850
unified combatant command See unified command. USIS 95
unified command A command with broad continuing missions under a single commander and composed of forces from two or more military departments, and which is established by the President, through the Secretary of Defense with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Also called unified combatant command. [The unified commands include: United States Atlantic Command (USACOM); United States Central Command (USCENTCOM); United States European Command (USEUCOM); United States Pacific Command (USPACOM); United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM); United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM); United States Space Command (USSPACECOM); United States Strategic Command (Usstratcom); United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM).] USIS 95
Unified Command Plan Establishes the missions, responsibilities, and force structure for Commanders of Unified Commands and establishes their general geographic areas of responsibility and functions. USIS 95
UniForum Association Since its inception in 1981, UniForum has served as a professional association for end users, developers, and vendors to promote and exchange information about the practices and benefits of open technologies and related hardware, software, applications and standards. UniForum is an international vendor-independent not-for-profit association that the use of open systems, based on shared industry standards. Central to this mission is the delivery of high quality educational programs, conferences, publications, on-line services and peer group interaction. UniForum Web Site
Unique Database Segment {DII COE} A database segment that is limited in scope and typically used by only one application. Unique database segments may be shared between applications, but the usage is restricted to a single mission domain. An example of a Unique database segment is a configuration table that an application reads at initialization time. Unique database segments are under the configuration control of the segment sponsor. DII COE IRTS
United States Air Force (USAF) The Air Force mission is to defend the nation through control and exploitation of air and space. The Air Force is responsible for providing aircraft and missile forces necessary to prevent or fight a general war; land-based air forces to establish air superiority, interdict the enemy and provide air support of combat ground forces; primary aerospace forces for the defense of the nation against air and missile attack; the primary airlift capability for use by all of the nation's military services; major space research and development support for the Department of Defense; and assistance to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in conducting our nation's space program. The Air Force is headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, VA. USAF Web Site
United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) USAFE is a major command of the United States Air Force (USAF). It is also the air component of the United States European Command (USEUCOM), and the U.S. component of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In peacetime, USAFE trains and equips USAF units pledged to NATO. USAFE plans, conducts, controls, coordinates and supports air and space operations to achieve United States national and NATO objectives based on taskings by USEUCOM. Under wartime conditions USAFE assets, augmented by people, aircraft and equipment from the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve, come under the operational command of NATO. USAFE is headquartered at Ramstein Air Base, Germany. USAFE Web Site
United States Alaskan Command The United States Alaskan Command is a sub-unified command under the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) It is responsible for the unified defense of Alaska's land and territorial waters, including the Aleutian Islands. United States Alaskan Command is headquarted at Elmendorf AFB, AK. MIT Web Site
United States Army (USA) The missions of the Army are to provide a forward presence with units forward deployed, project land forces/contingency operations, provide peacetime and wartime reinforcement, evacuate/protect U.S. citizens, support the nation's war on drugs, assist friendly nations, and to support nation assistance and civil affairs. The Army is headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, VA. Army Web Site
United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) The mission of the USACE is to provide quality, responsive engineering service to the nation. The Corps plans, designs, builds and operates water resources and other civil works projects, provides military construction for the Army and Air Force, and design and construction support for other Defense and Federal Agencies. USACE is headquartered in Washington, DC. USACE Web Site
United States Army Europe (USAREUR) USAREUR is a component command within the United States European Command (USEUCOM) and consists of the United States 7th Army. USAREUR is headquartered at Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg, Germany. USAREUR Web Site
United States Army Forces Central Command (ARCENT) ARCENT provides strategic land combat forces for power projection and sustained land combat. In addition to its combat capabilities, ARCENT provides logistics, communications, engineer, and medical support to all deployed Services. ARCENT is headquartered atFort McPherson, GA. CENTCOM Web Site
United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) FORSCOM is the Army's largest major command. FORSCOM trains, mobilizes, deploys and sustains combat ready forces capable of responding rapidly to crises world-wide. FORSCOM is the Army component of U.S. Atlantic Command. FORSCOM is headquartered at Fort McPherson, GA. FORSCOM Web Site
United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) INSCOM, a major Army command, conducts dominant intelligence, security and information operations for military commanders and national decision makers. Charged with providing the warfighter the seamless intelligence needed to understand the battlefield and to focus and leverage combat power, INSCOM collects intelligence information in all intelligence disciplines. INSCOM also conducts a wide range of production activities, ranging from intelligence preparation of the battlefield to situation development, SIGINT analysis, imagery exploitation, and science and technology intelligence production. INSCOM also has major responsibilities in the areas of counterintelligence and force protection, electronic warfare and information warfare, and support to force modernization and training. INSCOM is headquarted at Ft. Belvoir, VA. INSCOM Web Site
United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) INSCOM, a major Army command, conducts dominant intelligence, security and information operations for military commanders and national decision makers. Charged with providing the warfighter the seamless intelligence needed to understand the battlefield and to focus and leverage combat power, INSCOM collects intelligence information in all intelligence disciplines. INSCOM also conducts a wide range of production activities, ranging from intelligence preparation of the battlefield to situation development, SIGINTanalysis, imagery exploitation, and science and technology intelligence production. INSCOM also has major responsibilities in the areas of counterintelligence and force protection, electronic warfare and information warfare, and support to force modernization and training. INSCOM is headquarted at Ft. Belvoir, VA INSCOM Web Site
United States Army Pacific (USARPAC) USARPAC provides trained and ready Army forces for the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) in support of military operations and peacetime engagements in the Asia-Pacific area of operations in order to contribute to regional stability, crisis response and decisive victory. USARPAC is headquartered at Ft Shafter, HI. USARPAC Web Site
United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) The ARL executes fundamental and applied research to provide the Army the key technologies and analytical support necessary to assure supremacy in future land warfare. The ARL has its two main sites in Maryland: the Adelphi Laboratory Center and Aberdeen Proving Ground. Other sites are at White Sands Missile Range, NM; the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH; and the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. ARL Web Site
United States Army South (USARSO) USARSO is a Major Army Command (MACOM) serving as the United States Southern Command's (USSOUTHCOM) Army component. USARSO's missions include: Maintain a high state of force readiness; Defense of the Panama Canal; Support for democracy in Panama and throughout the region; Military-to-military and nation assistance programs; Support for counterdrug initiatives; Implementation of the Panama Canal Treaties. USARSO is headquartered at Fort Clayton in the Republic of Panama. Army Web Site
United States Army Space and Missle Defense Command (USASMDC) The USASMDC, a multifunctional Major Army Command, serves as the Army's proponent for Space and National Missile Defense, and as the Army's integrator for Theater Missile Defense. USASMDC is headquartered in Arlington, VA. SMDC Web Site
United States Army Space Command (USARSPACE) USARSPACE, as the Army Component Command to United States Space Command (USSPACECOM), Commands and Controls the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) Operations Centers; the Army National Missile Defense Element, Space Control Forces (ASAT), Theater Ballistic Missile Early Warning and Other Forces and Operating Facilities as Assigned; Deploy Space Forces, Assets and Expertise in Support of Contingency Operations and Operations Other Than War; Plan and Authorize Joint Tactical Use of Military Satellite Communications Resources; Execute Title X responsibilities. USARSPACE is headquartered in Arlington, VA and USARSPACE(FWD) is located in Colorado Springs, CO. USARSPACE Web Site
United States Army Special Operations Command An Army component command under United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) and located at Fort Bragg, NC. USIS 95
United States Army Topographic Engineering Center (USATEC) USATEC's mission is to provide the warfighter with a superior knowledge of the battlefield and support the nation's civil and environmental initiatives through research, development, and the application of expertise in the topographic and related sciences. USATEC is located in Alexandria, VA. USATEC Web Site
United States Atlantic Command (USACOM) The mission of USACOM is to support and advance U.S. interests and policies throughout its assigned area of responsibility; to provide combat-ready land, maritime and air forces to U.S. warfighting commanders in chief; to conduct operations unilaterally or in concert with coalition partners; and to train forces as joint units. The Commander in Chief of USACOM also serves as NATO's Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic. USACOM is headquartered in Norfolk, VA. ACOM Web Site
United States Atlantic Fleet (LANTFLT) LANTFLT is the United States Navy component of the United States Atlantic Command (USACOM). LANTFLT provides fully trained and ready forces to support operations conducted by United States and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) commanders. LANTFLT provides readiness training, logistical support and administrative support for surface ships, submarines and aviation squadrons through its subordinate "type" commands, Naval Surface Force Atlantic, Submarine Force Atlantic and Naval Air Force Atlantic. LANTFLT is headquartered in Norfolk, VA. LANTFLT Web Site
United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) USCENTCOM's mission is to support U.S. and free-world interests by assuring access to theater oil resources, helping friendly regional states maintain their own security and collective defense, maintaining an effective and visible U.S. military presence in the region, deterring threats by hostile regional states and projecting military force into the region if necessary. USCENTCOM is headquartered at MacDill AFB, FL.   CENTCOM Web Site
United States Central Command Air Forces (USCENTAF) USCENTAF is the air component to the United States Central Command (USCENTCOM). USCENTAF is heaquartered at Shaw AFB, SC. CENTAF Web Site
United States Coast Guard (USCG) The Coast Guard is the primary federal agency with maritime authority for the United States. The Coast Guard's four main missions are Law Enforcement, Maritime Safety, Marine Enviromental Protection and National Security. Supporting missions of the Service are to remain constantly ready to defend the United States, ensure national security and protect national interests; minimize loss of life and property, personal injury and property damage at sea and in U.S. waters; enforce U.S. laws and international agreements; assure the safety and security of marine transportation, ports, waterways and shore facilities; promote marine transportation and other waterborne activity in support of national economic, scientific, defense and social needs; protect the marine environment and its creatures; assure effective U.S. presence in the polar regions; project the interests of the United States in relationships with other maritime nations around the world; assist other agencies in the performance of their duties and cooperate in joint maritime ventures provide an effective maritime communications system; and when directed by the president, operate as a Service in the U.S. Navy. The Coast Guard is headquartered in Washington, DC. USCG Web Site
United States control survey nets The two control survey nets being extended over the United States by the National Geodetic Survey for the control of nautical charts and topographic maps, and comprising: (1) The horizontal-control survey net consisting of arcs of first-order and second-order triangulation and lines of first-order and second-order traverse, a few of which have been executed by the United States Geological Survey. The Corps of Engineers, and other organizations. The data derived in this survey are being coordinated and correlated on the North American datum of 1927. The National Geodetic Survey is currently recomputing the horizontal control network to the North American datum of 1983. (2) The vertical control survey net consisting of lines of first-order and second-order spirit leveling which determine the elevations of thousands of bench marks above a common datum, mean sea level. This net includes lines of levels run by the United States Geological Survey, the Corps of Engineers, and other organizations. HDBK-850
United States Engineer precise leveling rod A speaking rod of T-shaped cross section, 12 feet long, graduated in centimeters. HDBK-850
United States European Command (USEUCOM) USEUCOM's mission is to support and advance U.S. interest and policies throughout the assigned area of responsibility; provide combat ready land, maritime, and air forces to Allied Command Europe or U.S. unified commands; and conduct operations unilaterally or in concert with coalition partners. USEUCOM is headquartered at Patch Barracks, in Stuttgart-Vaihingen, Germany.   EUCOM Web Site
United States Forces Azores (USFORAZORES) USFORAZORES is a subordinate Unified Command under United States Atlantic Command (USACOM). USFORAZORES' mission is to be "a joint team fostering access and promoting stability in support of U.S. and allied interests and maximizing the capability of forces in or assigned to our area of responsibility." USFORAZORES is headquartered at Lajes Field, Azores, Portugal. Lajes Web Site
United States Forces Japan (USFJ) Established 1 July 1957, U.S. Forces, Japan, with its U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps elements, consists of approximately 47,000 military personnel, 52,000 dependents, 5,500 DOD civilian employees and 23,500 Japanese workers. U.S. Forces are stationed in Japan pursuant to the U.S.-Japan Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security of 1960. Under Article V of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, U.S. Forces, Japan's area of responsibility is the land areas of the Japanese archipelago and the adjoining sea areas out to 12 nautical miles. Under Article VI, the U.S. is given use of facilities in Japan for maintaining regional security. USFJ is headquartered at Yakoto Air Base, Japan. USFJ Web Site
United States Forces Korea (USFK) USFK supports the United Nations Command (UNC) and Republic of Korea- United States Combined Forces Command (ROK-U.S. CFC). It coordinates planning among U.S. component commands in Korea and exercises operational control (OPCON) of U.S. forces assigned as directed United States Pacific Command (USPACOM). USFK coordinates U.S. military assistance to the Republic of Korea (ROK) and functions as U.S. Defense Representative in Korea. USFK is headquartered at in Seoul, ROK. USFK Web Site
United States Geological Survey (USGS) The USGS provides the Nation with reliable, impartial information to describe and understand the Earth. This information is used to: minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; enhance and protect the quality of life; and contribute to wise economic and physical development. The USGS is headquartered in Reston, VA. USGS Web Site
United States Geological Survey (USGS) level A level of the dumpy type, constructed of stainless steel. It has an internal focusing telescope; the level bubble is centered by the end-coincidence method, effected with the aid of a prism device and Stellite mirror which can be adjusted by the observer. HDBK-850
United States Geological Survey (USGS) precise leveling rod 1. A speaking rod graduated in yards and fractions of a yard. It is read for each of three cross wires to the nearest thousandth of a yard. The sum of the three readings is then the mean reading in feet to the nearest thousandth. 2. A target rod of plus-sign (+) cross section, a little over 12 feet in length. There are two forms of this rod: the single-target rod and the double-target rod. HDBK-850
United States Imagery and Geospatial Information System (USIGS) The extensive network of systems used by the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Intelligence Community that share and exploit imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information. These systems provide capabilities involved with the integrated information management, collection, production, exploitation, dissemination and archive, and infrastructure of this information. Organizations which have some level of interface with USIGS, but are not part of DoD and the Intelligence Community, are considered participants in USIGS if they adhere to the technical and system standards. NIMA SP
United States Marine Corps (USMC) The statutory mission of the Marine Corps is to organize, train and equip to provide fleet Marine forces of combined arms, together with supporting air components, for service with the fleet in the seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and for the conduct of such land operations as may be essential to the prosecution of a naval campaign; provide detachments and organizations for service on armed vessels of the Navy; provide security detachments for the protection of naval property at naval stations and bases; and perform other duties as the President may direct. The Marine Corps is also responsible for developing amphibious doctrine including tactics, techniques and equipment used by landing forces. The Marine Corps is headquartered at the Navy Annex in Arlington, VA. USMC Web Site
United States Marine Forces Atlantic (MARFORLANT) MARFORLANT is one of two major Marine Corps commands that provide operating forces to support unified or joint task force commanders and fleet commanders in chief (CINCs), the other being Marine Corps Forces Pacific (MARFORPAC). MARFORLANT is responsible for organizing, training, and equipping forces for employment as directed by the United States Atlantic Command (USACOM), United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) and United States European Command (USEUCOM). MARFORLANT Web Site
United States Marine Forces Central Command (USMARCENT) See United States Marine Forces Pacific (MARFORPAC). MARFORPAC Web Site
United States Marine Forces Europe See United States Marine Forces Atlantic (MARFORLANT). MARFORLANT Web Site
United States Marine Forces Pacific (MARFORPAC) The single largest U.S. Marine Corps field command, it is designated as both Marine Forces Pacific (MARFORPAC) and Fleet Marine Forces, Pacific (FMFPAC). This command is the Marine "service component" (senior headquarters) for United States Pacific Command (USPACOM), and the designated component command for United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) and United Nations Command (UNC) in Korea. MARFORPAC is responsible for providing, sustaining and commanding forces; and for advising the CinCs on the proper employment and deployment of those forces. MARFORPAC is headquartered at Camp H. M. Smith, HI. MARFORPAC Web Site
United States Message Text Format (USMTF) Recorded information expressed in plain or encrypted language and prepared in a format specified for intended transmission by a telecommunications system. Formerly the Joint Interoperability Tactical Command and Control System (JINTACCS). USIS 95
United States National Map Accuracy Standards 1. Horizontal accuracy: (1) for maps at publication scales larger than 1:20,000, 90 percent of all well-defined features, with the exception of those unavoidably displaced by exaggerated symbolization, will be located within 1/30 inch (0.85 mm) of their geographic positions as referred to the map projection; (2) for maps at publication scales of 1:20,000 or smaller, 1/50 inch (0.50 mm). 2. Vertical accuracy: 90 percent of all contours and elevations interpolated from contours will be accurate within one-half of the basic contour interval. Discrepancies in the accuracy of contours and elevations beyond this tolerance may be decreased by assuming a horizontal displacement within 1/50 inch (0.50 mm). Also called map accuracy standards; national map accuracy standards. HDBK-850
United States Naval Forces Central Command (USNAVCENT) USNAVCENT is the naval component for United States Central Command (USCENTCOM). USNAVCENT is headquartered in Bahrain. CENTCOM Web Site
United States Naval Forces Europe (NAVEUR) NAVEUR is responsible for having fully ready forces available for NATO if the need arises. It is also responsible for the logistic support of U.S. Navy ships and aircraft whether they are nationally or NATO assigned. It deals with NATO commands and member governments in planning, operating, and funding NATO facilities used by the U.S. Navy. NAVEUR is headquartered in London, UK. EUCOM Web Site
United States Navy (USN) The mission of the Navy is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The Navy is headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, VA. Navy Web Site
United States Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) PACAF is one of eight major commands of the United States Air Force (USAF) and is air component of the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM). PACAF's primary mission is to plan, conduct and coordinate offensive and defensive air operations in the Pacific and Asian theaters. The command provides advice on the use of aerospace power throughout the theater and carries out missions as directed by the commander in chief of the USPACOM. PACAF is headquartered at Hickam AFB, HI. PACAF Web Site
United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) USPACOM's mission is to promote peace, deter aggression, respond to crises and, if necessary, fight and win to advance security and stability throughout the Asia-Pacific region. USPACOM directs and coordinates the employment of United States Forces in peace, crisis or war to advance U.S. interests as an active player, partner, and beneficiary in pursuit of a secure, prosperous, and democratic Asia-Pacific community. USPACOM is headquartered at Camp H.M. Smith, HI. PACOM Web Site
United States Pacific Fleet (PACFLT) The Navy Component Command under the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM). The mission of the PACFLT is to support USPACOM's theater strategy, and to provide interoperable, trained and combat-ready naval forces to USPACOM and other U.S. unified commanders. PACFLT is headquartered in Makalapa, HI. PACFLT Web Site
United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) The basic mission of USSOUTHCOM is to provide strategic and operational command control of assigned U.S. land, sea and air forces within its area of responsibility [primarily Central and South America]. Like the other four region unified commands, USSOUTHCOM has two major tasks: defend U.S. interests within its assigned area of responsibility; and assist the development of modern militaries within friendly nations throughout its area of responsibility. USSOUTHCOM is headquartered in Miami, FL. SOUTHCOM Web Site
United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) USSPACECOM is a unified command of the Department of Defense. USAPACECOM is staffed by personnel of all services, and has three components: the Army, Naval, and Air Force Space Commands. USSPACECOM provides joint employment of military forces and operational support to other unified, combatant commands. The command performs these functions through four primary missions: space support, force enhancement, space control and force application. USSPACECOM is headquartered at Peterson AFB, CO. SPACECOM Web Site
United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) USSOCOM is one of nine unified combat commands. USSOCOM's primary mission is to provide combat-ready forces for rapid reinforcement of the other unified commands worldwide. USSOCOM provides command, control and training for all special operations forces (SOF) in the United States. USSOCOM is headquartered at MacDill AFB, FL. DefenseLINK
United States Special Operations Command Central (SOCCENT) SOCCENT is a component command within the United States Central Command (USCENTCOM). SOCCENT implements the Command's theater strategy through initiatives and programs that improve host-nation capabilities. SOCCENT's forces provide a direct and unobtrusive link to our host-nation counterparts and work to formalize coalition operation procedures, agreements, and doctrine for coalition warfare. SOCCENT is headquartered at MacDill AFB, FL. CENTCOM Web Site
United States Special Operations Command Europe (SOCEUR) The primary responsibility SOCEUR is to exercise operational control over all assigned or attached special operation forces in the area of responsibility of the United States European Command (USEUCOM). When directed, SOCEUR establishes a Joint Task Force or Joint Special Operations Task Force to plan, coordinate, and conduct special operations in support of USEUCOM or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). SOCEUR is headquartered at Patch Barracks in Stuttgart-Vaihingen, Germany. EUCOM Web Site
United States Special Operations Command Pacific An inactive joint component command under United States Pacific Command (USPACOM). USIS 95
United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) USSTRATCOM's mission is to deter military attack on the United States and its allies, and should deterrence fail, employ forces so as to achieve national objectives. USSTRATCOM's responsibilities include: providing intelligence on countries and other entities possessing or seeking weapons of mass destruction (WMD); providing support to other combatant commanders; developing a Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) that fully satisfies national guidance; monitoring the readiness of SIOP committed forces; and commanding, controlling and employing assigned forces. USSTRATCOM is headquartered at Offutt AFB, NE. STRATCOM Web Site
United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) USTRANSCOM's mission is to provide air, land and sea transportation for the Department of Defense both in time of peace and time of war. USTRANSCOM is a unified command and is the single manager of defense transportation. Through the coordinated use of air, sea and land transportation, USTRANSCOM moves troops, equipment and supplies wherever needed and provides transportation support to sustain forces for as long as necessary. USTRANSCOM provides a global transportation planning and execution system supported by a communications and computer network. USTRANSCOM is headquartered at Scott AFB, IL. TRANSCOM Web Site
universal analog photographic rectification system An electronic rectification system permitting the rapid transfer of detail from trimetrogon or any other type of aerial photography, to include panoramic coverage. The system consists of four basic components: input scanner, computer, console, and x-y plotter. Also called electronic sketchmaster. HDBK-850
Universal Database Segment {DII COE} A database segment that represents widespread data requirements and is used by many applications, many database segments, and spans multiple mission domains. They are typically reference or lookup tables. An example is a database of country-code abbreviations. Universal database segments are under stricter configuration control with DISA and DOD Data Administration coordination. DII COE IRTS
universal instrument See altazimuth instrument. HDBK-850
Universal Interoperability {DII COE} An interoperability level characterized by the ability to globally share integrated information in a distributed information space. Universal interoperability represents the ultimate interoperability goal. DII COE IRTS
universal level See circular level. HDBK-850
universal plotting sheet A plotting sheet on which either the latitude or longitude lines are omitted, and are to be drawn in by the user, making it possible to quickly construct a plotting sheet for any part of the Earth's surface. See also plotting chart; position plotting sheet. HDBK-850
Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS) grid A military grid system based on the polar stereographic projection, applied to maps of the Earth's polar regions north of 84N and south of 80S latitudes. HDBK-850
universal sketchmaster A type of sketchmaster in which vertical or oblique photographs may be utilized. HDBK-850
Universal Space Rectangular (USR) Coordinate System A right-handed orthogonal coordinate system with its origin at the center of the Earth, positive x-axis in the equatorial plane and passing through the 0 meridian, positive y-axis in the equatorial plane and passing through 90 east meridian, and positive z-axis along the rotational axis of the Earth and passing through the North Pole. HDBK-850
Universal Time (UT1) (DOD) A measure of time that conforms, within a close approximation, to the mean diurnal rotation of the Earth and serves as the basis of civil timekeeping. Universal Time (UT1) is determined from observations of the stars, radio sources, and also from ranging observations of the Moon and artificial Earth satellites. The scale determined directly from such observations is designated Universal Time Observed (UTO); it is slightly dependent on the place of observation. When UTO is corrected for the shift in longitude of the observing station caused by polar motion, the time scale UT1 is obtained. When an accuracy better than one second is not required, Universal Time can be used to mean Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Also called ZULU time. Formerly called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). JPUB 1-02
Universal Time Observed (UTO) See Universal Time (UT1). JPUB 1-02
universal transforming printer A specially designed printer for making glass diapositives in which a known camera distortion is eliminated or compensated for, or in some cases introduced. The glass diapositives may be reproduced at scale, enlarged, or reduced. HDBK-850
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinate system Based on the Universal Transverse Mercator map projection, is a planar locational reference system which provides positional descriptions accurate to 1 meter in 2,500 across the entire Earth's surface except the poles. At the poles, the Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS) projection is used. The UTM system divides the Earth's surface into a grid in which each cell, excluding overlap with its neighbors, is 6 degrees east to west, and 8 degrees north to south (with the exception of the row from 72-84 degrees north latitude). For any position in the UTM grid, X-Y coordinates can be determined in eastings and northings. Eastings are in meters with respect to a central meridian drawn through the center of each grid zone (and given an arbitrary easting of 500,000 meters). In the Northern Hemisphere, northings are read in meters from the equator (0 meters). In the Southern Hemisphere, the equator is given the false northing of 10 million meters. OpenGIS Guide
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates Quantities which designate the location of a point on the Universal Transverse Mercator grid. HDBK-850
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid (JCS) A military grid system based on the transverse Mercator projection, applied to maps of the Earth's surface extending to 84N and 80S latitudes. HDBK-850
UNIX An operating system that has become a de facto industry standard, supported on a wide range of hardware systems from a variety of vendors. TAFIM 3.0
unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) A powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload. Ballistic or semiballistic vehicles, cruise missiles and artillery projectiles are not considered UAVs. USIS 95
unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), endurance This UAV category will provide high and medium altitude, heavy payload and multimission performance capabilities, and on-demand support across all mission areas, with flight duration in excess of 24 hours. USIS 95
unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), medium range The medium-range UAV was designed to fly for two hours at subsonic speeds, spending relatively small amounts of time over target areas. USIS 95
unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), tactical (TUAV) Satisfies requirement of short-range mission need statements. This UAV will have a range capability of between 150-300 km beyond the Forward Line of Own Troops (FLOT). USIS 95
unperturbed orbit See normal orbit. HDBK-850
unprocessed imagery Imagery data as received directly from the sensor. This data requires additional processing and is not in a form that is directly useful to a user. USIS 95
unspecified An indication that a part of a standard imposes no portability requirements on applications for correct program constructs or correct data regarding a value of behavior. [IEEE P1003.1-1990] ITSG Vol. 1
unstable-type gravimeter A gravity meter which utilizes a moving system which approaches a point of instability such that small changes in gravity produce relatively large motions of the system. See also astatized gravimeter. HDBK-850
update An operation to amend or replace information in a dataset. This may be the complete replacement of a part of the dataset or a combination of the insertion of new elements and changes or deletions of existing elements. CEN/TC 287
update date The date at which the update status of an object changes to its current value. CEN/TC 287
update schema The conceptual schema defining rules and operators needed for update of data. CEN/TC 287
update set A dataset bounded by one or more of temporal extent, planar extent and vertical extent with or without change history. An update set may correspond to a version of the database, an update snapshot of part of the database, a replacement subset for part of the database, or one or more primitives each with a change history. CEN/TC 287
update set number The sequential number and date of transfer of a replacement dataset. CEN/TC 287
update status The attribute value applied to different representations of a primitive. CEN/TC 287
update transaction Transaction changing a database file. CEN/TC 287
updating The capability to make changes or add new information to existing data. HDBK-850
upper branch That half of a meridian or celestial meridian from pole to pole which passes through a place or its zenith. HDBK-850
upper culmination See culmination. HDBK-850
upper limb That half of the outer edge of a celestial body having the greatest altitude, in contrast with the lower limb, that half having the least altitude. HDBK-850
upper motion (surveying) Rotation of the upper plate of a repeating instrument. HDBK-850
upper transit Transit of a celestial body over the upper branch of the celestial meridian. Also called superior transit. See also culmination. HDBK-850
Urban Vector Smart Map (UVMap™) UVMap™ is compiled from a wide variety of graphic, image, and textual data. At present, production efforts begin with compilation from the City Graphics printed maps (MIL-C-89303 - Military Specification City Graphics Map). This is supplemented with many various sources as available for the subject city. UVMap™ is intended for military planners and commanders with responsibilities for operations in urban areas. The UVMap™ databases are a vector-based product implemented in Vector Product Format (VPF™) designed to support geographic information system (GIS) applications. The relatively detailed level of features and limited geographic extent make UVMap™ unsuitable for strategic planning / operations. See also Vector Smart Map Level 0 (VMap 0™), Vector Smart Map Level 1 (VMap 1™), and Vector Smart Map Level 2 (VMap 2™). NIMA Web Site
usage The quality element describing applications for which a geographic subset has been used. CEN/TC 287
user (A&D LDM Entity: "USER") A person who can order products and/or information. A&D LDM
user 1. Any person, organization, or functional unit that uses the services of an information processing system. 2. In a conceptual schema language, any person or any thing that may issue or receive commands and messages to or from the information system. [FIPS PUB 11-3] TAFIM 3.0
User Agent (UA) An X.400 component of the Mail Handling System through which a single direct user engages in message handling. The UA assists users in the preparation, storage, and display of messages. [DISA/D2] DISA CFS
user interface The method by which the human operator communicates with the various data base and applications modules. HDBK-850
User Interface Service {DoD TRM} A service of the Platform entity of the Technical Reference Model that supports direct human-machine interaction by controlling the environment in which users interact with applications. TAFIM 3.0
user portability The ability of a user to move from one system to another without having to learn everything again. See also application portability. OpenGIS Guide
user requirement analysis (URA) The study of the needs of the potential system users. HDBK-850
user-computer interface (UCI) Hardware and software allowing information exchange between the user and the computer. [HCI Style Guide] DISA CFS
USIGS Element USIGS Elements define the highest level of functional breakdown of activities necessary to produce imagery, imagery intelligence and geospatial information and are managed by the NIMA Program Executive Officers (PEOs). They include Information Management, Archive & Dissemination, Exploitation and Infrastructure. EPIP

Last Updated by Mark Owens 2 February 1999.