Index USIGS Glossary

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Term Definition/Description Source
wading rod A rod, graduated in feet and tenths of feet, used for stream gaging in shallow water. HDBK-850
wall map A special-purpose map of a large area designed to be displayed on a wall. HDBK-850
wander See apparent precession. HDBK-850
want of correspondence See y-parallax. HDBK-850
warped model Any spatial model which, due to photographic distortions or orientation errors, has a model datum which is deformed or otherwise incapable of being leveled. See also flat model. HDBK-850
wartime reserve modes Characteristics and operating procedures of sensor, communications, navigation aids, threat recognition, weapons, and countermeasures systems that will contribute to military effectiveness if unknown to or misunderstood by opposing commanders before they are used, but could be exploited or neutralized if known in advance. Wartime reserve modes are deliberately held in reserve for wartime or emergency use and seldom, if ever, applied or intercepted prior to such use. USIS 95
Washington Area Wideband System A communications system for passing data within the Washington, D.C. area. USIS 95
water leveling A method of obtaining relative elevations by observing heights with respect to the surface of a body of still water. HDBK-850
water stage recorder An automatic recording instrument which records the rise and fall of the water surface at a stream gaging station. HDBK-850
Waveform Audio File Format (WAV) A file format for sampled audio used extensively on Windows-based PCs. Multimedia
wavelength Quantitative specification of kinds of radiant energy. See also dominant wavelength. HDBK-850
waving the rod In leveling, a technique whereby the rodman slowly pivots the leveling rod toward and away from the instrument position. The least reading obtainable is the proper one to be recorded. HDBK-850
weapon system Items that can be used directly by the Armed Forces to carry out combat missions and that cost more than 100,000 dollars or for which the eventual total procurement cost is more than 10 million dollars. That term does not include commercial items sold in substantial quantities to the general public. [DODD 8000.1 27 Oct 92 and Pub. L. No. 97-86 (1982)] DISA CFS
weapon systems A combination of one or more weapons with all related equipment, materials, services, personnel and means of delivery and deployment (if applicable) required for self sufficiency. [JCS Pub 1-02] See also national security systems. JTA 2.0
weather map (JCS) A map showing the weather conditions prevailing, or predicted to prevail, over a considerable area. Usually, the map is based upon weather observations taken at the same time at a number of stations. Also called surface charts; synoptic chart. See also map. HDBK-850
weber (geomagnetism) Unit of magnetic flux. In the mks system, 1 weber = 1 joule/amp = 1 kgm2/amp sec2. HDBK-850
wedge (optics) A refracting prism of very small deviation, such as those used in the eyepieces of some stereoscopes. Also called optical wedge. HDBK-850
Wedge Imaging Spectrometer (WIS) A Hughes Santa Barbara Research Center-funded demonstration using a 1-cm² wedge filter and detector array in the 400-1000 nm spectral range. The compact, rugged nature of the WIS brings routine acquisition of hyperspectral imagery into the realm of financial feasibility. USIS 95
weight The relative value of an observation, source, or quantity when compared with other observations, sources, or quantities of the same or related quantities. The value determined by the most reliable method is assigned the greatest weight. HDBK-850
weight features The process of systematically increasing the value of a particular data element or elements so as to give that element more significance in the analysis or calculations. HDBK-850
weighted mean A value obtained by multiplying each of a series of values by its assigned weight and dividing the sum of those products by the sum of the weights. HDBK-850
Werner map projection A particular case of the Bonne map projection, in which the standard parallel is at the pole, and the tangent cone becomes a tangent plane. Any one geographic meridian is chosen as the central meridian and represented by a straight line, divided to exact scale. The geographic parallels are represented by circular arcs, also divided to exact scale, and the other meridians are curved lines. HDBK-850
west point See prime vertical plane. HDBK-850
westing See departure, definition 1. HDBK-850
wide area network (WAN) A physical or logical network that provides data communications to a larger number of independent users than are usually served by a local area network (LAN) and is usually spread over a larger geographic area than that of a LAN. Note 1: WANs may include physical networks, such as Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDNs), X.25 networks, and T1 networks. Note 2: A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a WAN that serves all the users in a metropolitan area. WANs may be nationwide or worldwide. FED STD 1037C
wide-angle lens A lens having an angle of coverage between 75° and 100°. A lens whose focal length is equal to approximately one-half the diagonal of the format. HDBK-850
wideband 1. The property of any communications facility, equipment, channel, or system in which the range of frequencies used for transmission is greater than 0.1 % of the midband frequency. Note: "Wideband" has many meanings depending upon application. "Wideband" is often used to distinguish it from "narrowband," where both terms are subjectively defined relative to the implied context. 2. In communications security systems, a bandwidth exceeding that of a nominal 4-kHz telephone channel. 3. The property of a circuit that has a bandwidth wider than normal for the type of circuit, frequency of operation, or type of modulation. 4. In telephony, the property of a circuit that has a bandwidth greater than 4 kHz. 5. Pertaining to a signal that occupies a broad frequency spectrum. Synonym: broadband. FED STD 1037C
wiggling-in A survey procedure used when it is necessary to establish a point, exactly on line between two control points neither of which can be occupied. It is essentially a trial-and-error technique where repeated fore and back readings are taken and the instrument shifted after each pair of readings until exactly in line with the stations. Also called ranging-in. HDBK-850
wiggling-in on line See double centering. HDBK-850
wind rose 1. A diagram showing the relative frequency of winds blowing from different directions. It may also show average speed or frequency of occurrence of various speeds from different directions. 2. A diagram showing the average relationship between winds from different directions and the occurrence of other meteorological phenomena. HDBK-850
window 1. An interface component for computers through which objects and actions are presented to users. 2. A rectangular frame with a specified size and location on the screen of an interactive graphics system, and within which a rectangular portion, or window, of the data is displayed. HDBK-850
wing photograph A photograph taken by one of the side or wing lenses of a multiple-lens camera. HDBK-850
wing point Three easily identified points along each side of an aerial photograph, one near each corner and one near the middle. Used in the extension of radial control in making controlled mosaics. HDBK-850
winter solstice 1. That point on the ecliptic occupied by the Sun at maximum southerly declination. Also called first point of Capricornus; December solstice. 2. That instant at which the Sun reaches the point of maximum southerly declination, on or about 22 December. HDBK-850
wipe-on printing plates A printing plate which has a light-sensitive coating applied by the user. HDBK-850
wire drag A sounding device consisting of weighted wires which are maintained at a given depth by floats, and then dragged over any desired course. HDBK-850
witness corner 1. A marker set on a property line leading to a corner; used where it is impractical to maintain a monument at the corner itself. 2. A monumented survey point usually on the line of survey near a corner established as a reference when the corner is so situated as to render its monumentation or ready use impracticable. HDBK-850
witness mark A mark placed at a known distance and direction from a property corner or survey station to aid in its recovery and identification. Also called witness post; witness stake. HDBK-850
witness point A monumented station on a line of the survey, employed to perpetuate an important location without special relation to any regular corner, except that the bearing or distance may be known. HDBK-850
witness post See witness mark. HDBK-850
witness stake See witness mark. HDBK-850
Woodward base-line measuring apparatus See iced-bar apparatus. HDBK-850
work organization model A term used to describe the impact on business operations at the work group and user levels. It is used by organizational change designers to manage the impact of introducing new IT systems. It provides the users' views of the architecture. TAFIM 3.0
working pendulum A pendulum which is used (swung) in a determination of the intensity of gravity. HDBK-850
working-in on a line See double centering. HDBK-850
World Aeronautical Chart (WAC) A chart system overlaying the Earth's surface, usually found as an overprint on certain maps. Each WAC chart (1:1,000,000 scale) measures four degrees latitude (240nm) by varying longitude (average approximately 360nm). Each WAC chart is subdivided by the World Area Grid (WAG) system and contains 25 WAG cells. USIS 2-1.1
World Aeronautical Chart (WAC) Target Mosaic (WTM) One of sixteen cells of a World Area Grid 200 grid cell measuring approximately 12 x 18nm. It is the basic collection tasking unit for broad area search imagery. USIS 2-1.1
World Aeronautical Chart (WAC) Target Mosaic (WTM) Subcell One of 24 subcells of a WTM measuring approximately 3 x 3 NM. It is the basic unit of accomplishment reporting for area search targets. USIS 95
World Data Bank II (WDBII) A CIA-produced digital representation of the world divided into five geographic areas. Each area contains vector data on coastlines (including islands and lakes), rivers, and international boundaries. WDBII was digitized at scales ranging from 1:1 million to 1:4 million. HDBK-850
World Geodetic System (WGS) A consistent set of parameters describing the size and shape of the Earth, the positions of a network of points with respect to the center of mass of the Earth, transformations from major geodetic datums, and the potential of the Earth (usually in terms of harmonic coefficients). HDBK-850
World Geodetic System (WGS) Validation Code Defines source and accuracy of the WGS coordinates. USIS 95
World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF) A worldwide position reference system that maybe applied to any map or chart graduated in latitude and longitude (with Greenwich as prime meridian) regardless of projection. It provides a method of expressing positions in a form suitable for reporting and plotting. The primary use is for interservice and interallied reporting of aircraft and air target positions. HDBK-850
World Mean Elevation Data (WMED) A data base of minimum, maximum, and mean terrain elevations. Provides coarse resolution elevation data with continuous worldwide coverage, which may be used to support military planning and command and control systems. HDBK-850
world polyconic grid A grid system in which a grid network is mathematically derived from elements of a polyconic projection. HDBK-850
World Vector Shoreline (WVS™) A digital data file developed to support map display systems, GIS, and weapon systems at 1:250,000 scale which contains shorelines, international boundaries, and country names of the world. HDBK-850
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) An international industry consortium, jointly hosted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) in the United States; the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA) in Europe; and the Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus in Asia. The W3C was founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee to develop open standards and common protocols to enhance interoperability and lead the evolution of the World Wide Web in a single direction. The W3C is the chief standards body for HTTP and HTML. W3C Web Site and PC Webopaedia (combined)
Worldwide Military Command and Control System (WWMCCS) A network of computer stations making available current information used in the decision making process for direction of U.S. forces by the National Command Authorities. [Joint Pub 6-02.1] This system has been replaced by the Global Command and Control System (GCCS). DII MP
Worldwide On-line System (WWOLS) An automated system which manipulates data on government-owned communications assets for the operation and maintenance of the Defense Communications System. [DISA/DO3 (CIO)] DII MP
write-once, read-many (WORM) Write-once, read-many, descriptive of a memory combining magnetic and laser-based recording on which the user (not a vendor) records data but cannot later modify it. Multimedia
wrong-reading A descriptive term for an image which is a reverted or mirror image of the original. Other terms, such as reverse reading, etc., are sometimes used to identify image direction, but are not recommended because of possible confusion in film negative-positive relationship. HDBK-850
wye (Y) level A leveling instrument having the telescope, with attached spirit level, supported in Y-shaped bearings. The telescope can be rotated about its longitudinal axis (collimation axis) and it can be lifted and reversed, end for end, for testing and adjustment. Also called Y level. HDBK-850

Last Updated by Mark Owens 17 February 1999.