1. INTRODUCTION. This block of instruction on the ACE and ASAS equipment is provided to give you an overall understanding of the new organization of the MI BN at Division and the Operations Battalion of the MI Bde at Corps. Additionally we will discuss each individual piece of equipment within the Analysis and Control Element (ACE), its functions and placement; the responsibilities of the individuals the production of Intelligence products by the separate Functional Identity Workstations.
a. Tie-in: The complete understanding of the ACE concept and ASAS functionality is a critical aspect of the MIOAC graduate. As the future Battle Captains and ACE chiefs you must begin now to understand the entire system; the personnel, equipment and communications network. At the end of this block of instruction you will be required to understand the ACE, ASAS and FI responsibilities. This information is testable on the IBOS final examination.
b. Safety: Low, IV.
Slide 2 (Purpose)
c. Purpose: to provide an overview of the ACE organization, equipment and operations.
Slide 3 (Reference)
The Field Manual for this subject is FM 34-25-3, All-Source Analysis System and the Analysis and Control Element. It is in print and available from your publications clerk.
Slide 4 (ASAS is ...)
-a tactically deployable, ruggedized, and automated information management system;
-it contains evolutionary hardware and software that support the execution of IEW tasks at Regt, Bde, Division, Corps, and Theater Army;
-the major subcomponents workstations in the ASAS set are:
--ASAS Reconfigurable Workstation (RWS)
--ASAS All Source Workstation (AS WS)
--ASAS Single Source Workstation (SS WS)
The ALL-SOURCE ANALYSIS SYSTEM (ASAS) is a computer based MI Bde through MI Echelons Above Corps (EAC) level intelligence fusion system. The system consists of All-Source and Single Source hardware, software, cabling, and communications interfaces. The ASAS system receives battlefield information and intelligence reports through the Communications Control System (CCS), store the information in the Data Processing System (DPS-D) and fuses information in the All source Correlated Data Base (ASCDB). This fused intelligence is produced quicker than the old manual systems found in the DTOCSE and CTOCSE. This is not to sat that ASAS is the first system to have automated databases because it is not. The initial system we had was MICROFIX, followed by FAISS and locally procured systems. The ASAS system is the current system used for fusing intelligence within the MI Corps.
Slide 5 (ASAS uses prototyping...)
As new software and hardware are developed by the contractors, the new technology and applications are sent directly to the field in product upgrades. Most units will undergo some type of NETT during the receipt of these new products.
The downfall of these continual upgrades is that units will have different hardware and software during upgrade NETT.
Slide 6 (ASAS is a portion of ....)
ASAS is a portion of the Army Battle Command System (ABCS). ABCS has three subcomponents:
-Common Hardware and Software (CHS)
-and three primary communications systems (Army Common User System (ACUS); Combat Net Radio (CNR); Army Data Distribution System (ADDS))
Slide 7 (Components of ASAS)
The COMPONENTS OF THE ASAS are as follows:
-The Analysts, the most important part of the system. No matter how good the database of the ASAS system it is only a TOOL for the analyst to use in producing timely and accurate intelligence for the Commander.
-Fused All Source Data Base, is derived from the initial information entered into the system manually or disc back-up. From this initial database the trained analysts must manage, interactively and passively the enormous amounts of data entered into the system from throughout the intelligence architecture.
The ability of the software to receive, fuse and prompt the analyst through the use of alarms allows us in the Intelligence Community to provide that Common Picture to all echelons. The speed in which the software and hardware correlate the mass quantities of data is astounding, as well is the speed in which you can query your database for an answer to an RI.
For example we have all been in that situation where we briefed our commander of an incident and days later the commander says "I want to see that message you briefed me on two days ago." As soon as the commander tells you this a frantic search begins of the computer discs you backed your messages up on or through the foot-lockers you used to store all the hard copy message traffic. This search could and did take two to three analysts to find that one message. With the ASAS ASCDB all you have to do is create a query for that specific message type, the time, the day or in the future through a key word search and you have the data in a matter of seconds or minutes. You are then able to print and quickly answer your commanders request to see that traffic. This one aspect is worth its weight in gold to analysts of all echelons.
The fused intelligence is available almost immediately upon receipt by the system. If a message fails to automatically parse through the system the ASCDB manger manipulates the message and gets the data into the database in a timely manner.
-Another example is if you receive two identical messages the software compares them and updates the DTG and only keeps the last message. Thereby fusing data by itself.
-Seamless Connectivity is somewhat capable through this system in that the All-Source Correlated Data Base can receive timely information downloads from other ASAS databases. Additionally through the CCS's the SSE and ASE can receive raw information and intelligence reports through various communications links. These links will be discussed in detail in a later slide.
The current configuration of the ASAS hardware and software allow a limited seamless integration of intelligence. What does this mean? What it means is that the divisional ACE cannot itself receive data directly from and analyst at NSA. The system does not allow individual interfaces in this manner. What must occur is the standard practice of sending an RI to your higher intelligence agency and awaiting a return message. The ASAS system is able to receive information from a variety of sources already in use such as TENCAP systems via the ETUT or EPDS. The next configuration software due to be fielded in 2d or 3d Qtr FY 95 should allow more capabilities but it will not be before ASAS Block II (FY 2000), that we will truly see a seamless architecture at all levels.
-The Automated Analytical Tools allow the senior analysts to establish ALARM criteria which notify them of information received which fulfills an intelligence requirement for the Commander. Other Automated tools include a message journal, database, overlay and query options.
Slide 8 (ACE Mission)
The MISSION of the ACE is to produce and disseminate intelligence and focus collection resources to provide the information the Commander needs to make decisions. Period!! This mission is no different than that of the Corps TOC Support Element (CTOCSE) or Division TOC Support Element (DTOCSE) before it. The major significant difference is the collocation of the Technical Control and Analysis Element (TCAE) and the G2 DTOCSE. The Operations Battalion/MI Bde at Corps has normally had this relationship so the changes found under the ACE reorganization are not as significant as they are at the division level.
Does anyone think this mission is different from the DTOCSE/CTOCSE mission?
The employment of the ASAS system throughout the Army has triggered a reorganization of the MI Bn at the Division and the Operations Bn at the MI Bde/Corps. In this class we will only focus on the ACE, you will receive another class on the reorganization of the MI Bn. The ACE is located within the renamed Headquarters, Headquarters and Operations Company.
Slide 9 (ACE Organization)
This slide provides for the student the old and new Intelligence organization names.
Slide 10 (ACE Platoon)
There are three sections within the ACE platoon. Each has overlapping and concurrent functions.
-The Headquarters Element
-The All-Source Intelligence Section
-The Technical Control and Processing Section
We will now look at each cell in detail.
Slide 11 (Headquarters Element)
The Headquarters Element duties include:
-Focus Intelligence Development (Intelligence Synchronization Matrix).
-IPB to support the Tactical Decisionmaking Process.
-Coordinating the ASAS function and communications.
-General purpose support of the G2 Plans section.
The MI Bn S-3 or an assistant S-3 should work hand in hand with the Chief of this organization. As this cell is responsible for the timely movement of the ACE and the ACE belongs to the MI Bn the S3 must be aware of all upcoming moves so that he/she can coordinate for Terrain Management and ensure the timely emplacement of the required communications systems.
The element exercises overall supervision of current and future ACE operations.
The ACE Chief is responsible for focusing and synchronizing the commander's concept of operations with his intelligence requirements.
The ACE Headquarters element is composed of the following:
-Chief, 35D 0-4.
-Chief, Intelligence Sergeant, 96B50 E-8.
-Intelligence Analyst, 96B20, E-5.
-2 each Communications Control Set (CCS).
-2 each 98C40, CCS Operators; THE ONLY SCHOOL TRAINED PERSONNEL ON THE ASAS SYSTEM. (AWARDED AN ADDITIONAL SPECIALITY).
-3 each Trojan Spirit's.
-3 each 98C20, E-5 Team Chiefs.
-3 each 98C10 E-4 Operators.
This element is not only responsible for the entire ACE but the ASAS communications network.
Slide 12 (All-Source Intelligence Section)
The All-Source Intelligence Section is the CENTER OF GRAVITY of the ACE and its duties include:
-Situation and Target development.
-Intelligence requirements and mission management.
-Product and message generation.
This cell sets their individual Function Identity (FI) alarms to match the current PIR/IRs and targets derived from the daily targeting meeting. This cell produces overlays, database queries, INTSUMS, INTREPs and the other common intelligence production missions. This cell coordinates processing requirements and support from subordinate J-STARS GSM, MITT, UAV CGS, and HUMINT teams.
For example products such as the operations overlays are transposed from the acetate on to the computer screen. Overlays can be sent to other terminals within the All-Source Enclave but not to the Singe-Source Enclave. This cell is derived from the ASPS/ASPB of the old DTOCSE/CTOCSE.
The All-Source Intelligence Section is composed of:
-Tactical Intelligence Officer (Battle CPT), 35D, 03.
-Senior Intelligence Sergeant, 96B40, E-7.
-All-Source Production Team (Situation).
-All Source Intelligence Technician, 350B, CW3.
-Transcription Analysis Technician, 352C, CW2.
-Intelligence Sergeant, 96B40, E-7.
-Mission Management Supervisor, 98C40, E-7.
-Counter-SIGINT, 97G40, E-7.
-Intelligence Analyst, 96B20, E-5.
-SIGINT Analyst, 96C20, E-5.
-IMINT Analyst, 96D20, E-5.
-Collection and Mission Management.
-SIGINT/EW Officer, 35G, 03, (Battle CPT).
-All Source Intelligence Technician, 350B, CW2.
-Intelligence Sergeant 96B30, E-6.
-Imagery Analyst, 96D30, E-6.
-Senior Mission Planner, 96U30, E-6.
-NonCommunications Intercept Analyst, 98J30, E-6.
-All Source Intelligence Technician, 350B, CW2.
-Intelligence Sergeant, 96B40, E-7.
-Intelligence Analyst, 96B20, E-5.
-JSTARS Ground Station Module (GSM) x 3.
-Aerial Intelligence Sergeant, 96H40, E-7.
-18 x Data Terminal Operators, 96HXX.
-Imagery Analyst, 96D, E-6.
-2 x Imagery Analyst, 96D20, E-5.
-2 x ELINT Analyst, 98J20, E-5.
Slide 13 (Technical Control and Processing Section)
The TC&P or Single Source Cell (SSC) duties include:
-Single-Source and All-Source analysis of received traffic. To include all INTs. The SSC also controls and operates the GSM, CGS, and MITT and any other interface or link available to the ACE. Their single source products are analyzed and sent to the All Source Section for fusion into the ASCDB.
-Analyzing, processing and reporting; both internal and external.
-Internal in that the two enclaves are not linked via a LAN but must generate a message in JAMH (JINTACCS) and send the message out through the CCS to the other enclave. That enclave then treats that message like any other received from an outside source. As the enclaves are collocated it would be just as easy to walk over and talk to the analyst you need to see.
-External reporting through the CM and JAMH messages and formats. The system evolves around JINTACCS messages. It has about 200 individual message formats preloaded for the analyst to use. This one portion of the system is not user friendly and requires zero mistakes before a message can be released through the system.
The Technical Control and Processing Section is composed of the following:
-Operations Officer (Battle CPT), 35G 03.
-Operations Sergeant, 98C4L, E-7.
-Single Source Analysts, SIGINT.
-Team Transcription Analyst Technician, 352C, CW3.
-Mission manager supervisor, 98C4L, E-7. Has the ability to task sensors from within the ACE. Works closely with the CM for tasking.
-Voice Analyst Supervisor, 98C4L, E-7.
-Senior Transcriber, 98G3L, E-6.
-Senior Non-Communications Analyst, 98J30, E-7.
-Non-Communications Intercept analyst 98J20, E-5.
-Senior SIGINT Analyst, 98C3L, E-6.
-Transcriber, 98G2L, E-5.
-Single Source Analysts, HUMINT/CI TEAM.
-Interrogation Technician, 351E, CW2.
-Senior CI Agent, 97B40, E-7.
-Senior Interrogator, 97E3L, E-6.
-Counter/SIGINT Sergeant, 97G30, E-6.
-Single Source Analysts, IMINT TEAM.
-Imagery Technician, 350D, CW2.
-4 x 96D Imagery Analysts.
Slide 14 (Responsibilities)
Regardless of what type of intelligence is being received or fused into the all source data base. The members of the ACE must work together to execute the Analysis mission; current and future targeting; Control and Synchronization of the IBOS in support of the commander's operation.
Slide 15 (...the ACE executes...)
The ACE executes it's mission using one of the following types of equipment.
-ASAS Block I
-ASAS Block I Extended
Systems not fielded but in the near future include:
-ASAS Block II and III which include DoD Common Hardware / Software (CHS) requirements.
Slide 16 (ASAS Block I)
Pieces of equipment included in the ASAS Block I include the following:
-Single Source Workstation
-Communications Control Set
-Data Processor Set
-Supplementary Equipment, Electronic (SEE)
We will discuss each of these pieces of equipment in some detail.
Slide 17 (ASAS Block I, Reconfigurable WS)
The reconfigurable work station (RWS) is issued in a set of 2 x workstations. Each is a ruggedized, portable computer workstation used by non-ACE intelligence organizations.
The RWS is the IEW interface between the SCI and collateral security level workstations of the ABCS. The RWS is controlled by a UNIX operating system and it's communications software uses the USMTF format. All applications software provides an automated planning tool and a database of current threat information.
Slide 18 (ASAS Block I, AS WS)
The All Source Workstation, AN/TYQ-37(V5), Data Processing System-Workstation (DPS-W). This WS is a ruggedized, portable, dual screen computer workstation used by the ACE intelligence personnel in multidiscipline intelligence fusion. The WS is able to correlate and combine multiple reports about the same target unit or activity based on time, location, and unit identification. This WS is controlled by the VAX operating system.
Is issued six workstations per enclave. These systems cannot be separated farther than the LAN cables. This system cannot be separated from the LAN and forward displaced like the Single Source workstations.
Each DPS-W has one 720MB removable hard drive to run the system, one Tahiti optical disc drive for maps. Most units have discontinued the use of their optical disc drives and have purchased additional hard drives and loaded all their contingency maps onto them.
-Software Functional Identities (FI) include:
-System Supervisor (SPV).
-Operator Diagnostics (OPR).
-Security Audit Trail (SAT).
-Message Release Authority (MRA).
-Intelligence Collection Management (ICM).
-Situation Analyst (SIT).
-Target Analyst (TGT).
-All Source Analyst (ALL).
-Functional Manager (FMR).
Slide 19 (AS WS Software)
The AS WS has functional identity software which the operators use for executing operations on the terminals. The most important ones are:
-The System Supervisor (SPV), is responsible for software maintenance, system security, passwords, assignment of FIs to each workstation, sets the internal routing of all incoming traffic. This person should be one that is a self-starter, motivated, but not your Senior Analyst. A trained non-MI MOS can do these functions as they require no intelligence training. The terminal used for this activity can also be used for intelligence production.
The system supervisor is the one person, two trained for day and night operations, within the ACE who can order the activation of the system. They are trained in the entire system, especially the start-up. Once they have verified that the power generation, DPS-Ds, M40s and the LAN are properly cabled then the system is started at their terminal. They then tell the operators when to Log-on and off. They are responsible for the operations of the entire system.
-Intelligence Collection Management (ICM), has all collection management responsibilities. In conjunction with the Mission Manager found in the Single Source Enclave he/she conducts CM&D for the G2. Responsibilities include:
-Maintaining collection requirements.
-Graphically portraying collection coverage.
-Maintaining collection asset status.
The system software has the normal ICM messages preloaded, all you have to do is fill in the blanks. Additionally you can enter your aviation tracks and the system will display your coverage. One drawback is that the map coverage in the ASAS does not see obstacles, ie, towns, hills, towers etc, when conducting line of sight. Therefore you must use some other system when determining system employment.
-The Situation Analysis (SIT) terminal is the one that produces all the normal current intelligence products. Specific requirements include:
-Maintaining specific event alarms (NAI) via automatic queries. These queries are normally established during pre-operations set-up and run when necessary during operations.
-Maintain current situation maps.
-Assists in the maintenance of the all-source correlated database (ASCDB). When not overwhelmed with incoming traffic the SIT analyst assists the ASCDB manager in reducing errors in the database and general database management.
-Developing doctrinal, situational, event and decision support templates as required. These items are very time consuming to produce and should be done during pre-operations if possible.
-The Target Analysis (TGT) terminal conducts and maintains:
-Maintains target alarms
based on the current HPT list and TAIs.
-Creates target development files, based on HPTs, HVTs and TAIs.
-Receives and processes recommended targets from other analysts within the All-Source Enclave.
The Field Artillery Intelligence Officer (FAIO) is normally collocated with this terminal.
-The All Source (Data Base) is responsible for:
-Database maintenance for ASCDB, Ground Order Battle (GOB), Enemy Order Battle (EOB), and Friendly Order Battle (FOB). Each of these database must be entered into the system upon initial delivery. Any changes should be made during pre-operations if possible as this process is very time consuming.
-Perform Correlation of messages that did not automatically parse into the system.
-Manage Parser table, by this establishing the codes which allow the system to automatically parse.
-Correct message input errors, or interactively parsing messages into the database.
Slide 20 (Single Source WS)
The Single Source Workstation (AN/TYQ-52(V3)) is issued in a set of six. The workstations are interactive with each other but cannot directly talk to the All-Source Workstations. To talk to each other they must send traffic like any other unit or sensor.
The Single Source workstation is a ruggedized, computer workstation used for processing SIGINT data. In this current software there are no HUMINT/IMINT capabilities. The software upgrade which will be fielded in 2d or 3rd QTR FY 95 will have an IMINT capability.
Slide 21 (SS WS Software)
This system has many of the same functions as the All-Source workstation, such as monitoring displays, text, message, map images, and graphics. The system receives, parses and maintains the SIGINT database.
From the SIGINT database traffic and finished intelligence products are sent to the All-Source Situation Analyst for inclusion in the All Source Intelligence picture, thus the Common Picture of the Battlefield.
Slide 22 (Communications Control Set (CCS))
The Communications Control Set (CCS) AN/TRQ-40(V2) is the electronic interface between the ASAS enclave and external elements. This system provides voice or data links via:
-COMMANDERS TACTICAL TERMINAL.
There are currently two versions of the CCS. The significant difference is that the divisional CCS has FM capabilities via SINCGARS and the Corps does not.
The CCS is the link to the outside world. The ASAS system cannot operate without the CCS. Reduced operations are capable with one CCS.
-For example a DISE is formed out of three SSE terminals, one Trojan Spirit, and one CCS. This element is forward deployed. The remaining elements of the ACE can continue to operate but at a slower rate.
As the CCS is nothing more than a receiver/transmitter, a mini communications center it is dependent upon the outside world for its downlinks. Here is a list of those communications links and interfaces.
-TYC-39, via ETUT or EPDS or other source.
-TACTICAL COMMANDERS TERMINAL (TSC-116).
-NET RADIO PROTOCOL (NRP) SENSORS, (ie. QUICKFIX).
-UHF voice, DCT, NRP data.
-UHF voice, DCT data.
Slide 23 (The Data Processing Set (DPS))
The Data Processing Set (DPS-D) AN/TYQ-36(V3) is a self monitoring, unmanned data processing station, the ASAS system has two. It is fielded in an S-250 shelter and mounted on a M1037, heavy HMMWV.
The DPS-D is the brain of the ASAS system. Each has four x 720MB hard drives. The ASAS system is tethered to the DPS-D via a LAN. The LAN is bi-directional and can operate with one damaged/broken fiber optic cable. Additionally the power source for the ASAS is fed from the DPS-D and the M-40 power distribution boxs. Three workstations are powered from each M-40. The ASAS workstations cannot operate without the DPS-Ds.
Inside the DPS-D is an additional communications port for the CCS. The CCS operators are responsible for the operation of this panel.
The high speed printer for the ACE is normally placed inside the DPS-D for convenience.
Slide 24 (ASAS-Extended)
The ASAS-E is a set of commercially procured systems which uses the baseline ASAS software. The hardware is all commercial but is similar to ASAS Block I. The System can exchange information with other ASAS, BOS and EAC systems.
This system uses the UNIX operating system and the CAMPS instead of the CCS for communications interface.
Slide 25 (ACE Operations)
When conducting site selection the ACE Chief must coordinate with the HQs Commandant of the Division. The ACE is not highly mobile and takes considerable time to tear-down and set-up. The following items must be taken into consideration for ACE Operations:
-the type of operation the unit is planning
-the tactical situation
The CCS can be configured for "last in first out" (LIFO) or "first in first out (FIFO) operations prior to movement. In order to execute one of these types of operations the CCS or CAMPS must be configured and remain connected to its MSE drop.
Slide 26 (ASAS Maintenance)
The system maintenance will be provided by contractor's throughout the life of the system. Civilian contractor's both hardware and software are assigned as the primary maintainers for each set of equipment.
33Ts are receiving training on how to repair the system but are currently only allowed to do card replacement, LAN repair.
The system maintainers must be located near the system on the battlefield.
Slide 27 (ASAS Training)
How do we get trained and stay trained? First, by beginning lecture and hands-on training for all soldiers at Ft Huachuca and by continuing a soldiers education on the system at Home station. Will this training be easy? No, but we must keep at it actively or one will lose these hard taught skills. The system is extremely complex.
We must ensure that our 33Ts are school trained and unit maintained. Through interaction with the contractors these soldiers will be able to continue to hone their hardware repair skills.
Additionally one of these specialists must be school trained in fiber optic cable repair.
The software specialists must teach the users how to conduct tests to ensure the systems is always ready.
All soldiers assigned to the ACE platoon must be trained on one or more FIs. Officers must receive familiarization training so that they can ensure the effective employment of the entire capabilities of this system.
Sustainment can only occur through use! Units will not have the luxury of leaving this system crated and for field use only. To ensure that skills are not lost this system should be up and running every day.
How are we going to sustain our training? Through use of the system in garrison, field, and deployments.
In the past two hours we have discussed the ACE structure and ASAS functionality. Through the different Functional Identities, and the databases we are now able to commonly see the battlefield. We have closed the time gap between sensor and processed intelligence thereby providing the commander with real-time and near real time intelligence with which to make decisions. Through the use of set alarms we can quickly identify important information as soon as it comes into the ASAS system.
By having personnel and systems identified to do certain things through FIs we have greater flexibility in producing finished intelligence products. The collocation of all the INTs within the G2 also provides greater flexibility to him/her and subsequently the commander.
Bottom line ACE functionality and ASAS connectivity enable you to provide information to the Commander on time, every time!
WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE LOCATION OF THE ACE, ASAS COMPONENTS, AND FUNCTIONAL IDENTITIES?