INDEX


                                   CHAPTER II

                     PROTECTION OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL
                              AND VITAL EQUIPMENT

1.  GENERAL.  This chapter outlines requirements for the protection of
    Categories I through IV quantities of special nuclear material and Vital
    Equipment.  The following requirements shall apply:

    a.   A facility shall not receive, process, transmit, or store special
         nuclear material until that facility has been approved as required
         by DOE 5634.1B, FACILITY APPROVALS, SECURITY SURVEYS, AND NUCLEAR
         MATERIALS SURVEYS.

    b.   Nuclear material production reactors and fuel shall be protected
         consistent with the category of special nuclear material involved
         and/or the consequences of radiological sabotage.

    c.   Protection afforded special nuclear material shall be graded
         according to the nuclear material safeguards category, as defined
         in Figure I-2 of DOE 5633.3A, CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY OF NUCLEAR
         MATERIALS, and shall reflect the specific nature of special nuclear
         material existing at each site.  DOE 5633.3A shall be used to
         determine if there is a potential to accumulate a category quantity
         of special nuclear material by theft of material from more than one
         location (rollup).

    d.   Factors, such as ease of separability, accessibility, and
         concealment; quantity, chemical form, isotopic composition, purity,
         and containment; portability; protection strategies; radioactivity;
         and self-protecting features, shall be considered in determining
         physical protection systems for each category of special nuclear
         material.

    e.   When special nuclear material is classified because of its
         configuration or content, or because it is part of a classified
         item, it shall receive the physical protection required by the
         highest level of classification of the configuration, content, or
         item, or category of special nuclear material involved, whichever
         is greater.

    f.   Protective force personnel, as determined by a vulnerability
         assessment and documented in the Site Safeguards and Security Plan,
         shall be available and positioned to respond to a verified threat
         occurrence to contain, interrupt, and/or neutralize adversaries
         within the required response times.

    g.   Intrusion detection shall be accomplished through a combination of
         intrusion sensors and tamper-indicating devices, material
         surveillance procedures, material accounting and tracking, and/or
         specialized nuclear measurement techniques.

    h.   Delay mechanisms shall be employed to prevent removal or
         unauthorized use of Category I and II quantities of special nuclear
         material.  Delay mechanisms may include passive barriers (e.g.,
         walls, ceilings, floors, windows, doors, security bars), activated
         barriers (e.g., sticky foam, popup barriers), and visual obscurants
         (e.g., cold smoke).

    i.   Specific protection requirements, such as systems and protective
         personnel response capabilities necessary to satisfy identified
         protection needs, shall be documented.

2.  ACCESS.  Access controls shall be in place to ensure that only properly
    cleared and authorized personnel are permitted unescorted access to
    special nuclear material and Vital Equipment.  Access authorizations
    (security clearances) shall be accomplished according to DOE 5631.2C,
    PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM.  See Table II-1 for access authorization
    required for special nuclear materials.  Access authorization
    requirements for Vital Equipment shall be comparable to Category I
    special nuclear material.

3.  PROTECTIVE FORCE POSTS.  See DOE 5632.7A, page VI-6, paragraph 2.

4.  STORAGE.  Each facility shall have controls for nuclear materials held
    in storage (see Chapter IX for elaboration) consistent with the graded
    safeguards concept.  Controls for storage shall:

    a.   Be formally documented;

    b.   Assure that only authorized personnel have access to the storage
         repositories (see Chapter VII);

    c.   Prevent and/or detect unauthorized access;

    d.   Describe procedures used to authenticate material movements into or
         out of a repository;

    e.   Include procedures for investigating and reporting abnormal
         conditions;

    f.   Provide a record system to document ingress/egress to repositories;
         and

    g.   Define procedures for conducting inventories and daily
         administrative checks.

5.  CATEGORY I QUANTITIES OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL.

    a.   In Process.  Material shall be used or processed within Material
         Access Areas.  DOE 5633.3A, page III-3, paragraph 3b(1) requires a
         material surveillance program to detect unauthorized material flows
         and transfers.  Any location within a Material Access Area that
         contains unattended Category I quantities of special nuclear
         material in use or process shall be equipped with intrusion
         detection systems or other effective means of detection approved by
         the cognizant local Departmental authority for safeguards and
         security.

===========================================================================
|  SPECIAL NUCLEAR  |  MINIMUM LEVEL OF ACCESS  |          REMARKS        |
| MATERIAL CATEGORY |  AUTHORIZATION REQUIRED   |                         |
|-------------------|---------------------------|-------------------------|
|         I         |             Q             | Hands-on access or      |
|                   |                           | transportation of       |
|                   |                           | Category I quantities   |
|                   |                           | of SNM may require      |
|                   |                           | additional measures,    |
|                   |                           | such as Personnel       |
|                   |                           | Security Assurance      |
|                   |                           | Program participation   |
|                   |                           | and/or enhanced         |
|                   |                           | material surveillance   |
|                   |                           | procedures, to further  |
|                   |                           | reduce the probability  |
|                   |                           | of insider acts.        |
|-------------------|---------------------------|-------------------------|
| II with credible  |             Q             |                         |
|   rollup to I     |                           |                         |
|-------------------|---------------------------|-------------------------|
|   II and III      |             L             | Unless special circum-  |
|                   |                           | stances determined by   |
|                   |                           | site vulnerability      |
|                   |                           | assessment require Q    |
|                   |                           | access authorization to |
|                   |                           | minimize risk. Document |
|                   |                           | in Site Safeguards and  |
|                   |                           | Security Plan.          |
|-------------------|---------------------------|-------------------------|
|        IV         |           None            | Unless special circum-  |
|                   |                           | stances determined by   |
|                   |                           | site vulnerability      |
|                   |                           | assessment require      |
|                   |                           | access authorization to |
|                   |                           | mitigate risk. Document |
|                   |                           | in Site Safeguards and  |
|                   |                           | Security Plan.          |
|===================|===========================|=========================|
                                  TABLE II-1
                       ACCESS AUTHORIZATION REQUIREMENTS


    b.   Storage.  Material shall be stored within a Material Access Area.

         (1)  When not in process or when unattended, material falling under
              Attractiveness Level A shall be stored in a vault.  Storage
              facilities for Category I special nuclear material
              Attractiveness Level A, constructed after the date of this
              Manual, shall be underground or below-grade construction.

         (2)  Material falling under Attractiveness level B shall be stored
              in a vault or be provided enhanced protection that exceeds
              vault-type room storage (e.g., collocated protective force
              response station and/or activated barrier(s)).

         (3)  Material falling under Attractiveness Level C shall, as a
              minimum, be stored in a vault-type room.

    c.   In-Transit.  Protection requirements for material in transit shall
         be as follows:

         (1)  Domestic offsite shipments of Category I quantities of special
              nuclear material shall be made by the Transportation
              Safeguards System, operated under the auspices of the
              Albuquerque Operations Office.

         (2)  Packages or containers containing special nuclear material
              shall be sealed with tamper-indicating devices.

         (3)  Protection measures for movements of material between
              Protected Areas at the same site, or between Protected Areas
              and staging areas at the same site, shall be under direct
              surveillance by the number of Security Police Officers
              necessary to protect against threats as established in the
              Department's threat policy (See paragraph 3, page I-1).

6.  CATEGORY II QUANTITIES OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL.

    a.   In Process.  Material shall be used or stored only within a
         Protected Area.  All such matter shall be under material
         surveillance procedures.

    b.   Storage.  When not in process or when unattended, material shall be
         stored in a vault or a vault-type room located within a Protected
         Area.

    c.   In Transit.  Shipments shall conform to the shipment requirements
         for Category I quantities of special nuclear material (See
         paragraph 4c above).

7.  CATEGORY III QUANTITIES OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL.

    a.   In Process.  Category III quantities of special nuclear material
         shall be processed within a Security Area that provides, at a
         minimum, the protection of a Limited Area.

    b.   Storage.  When not in process or when unattended, material shall be
         stored, at a minimum, within a Limited Area and secured within a
         locked security container locked room.  The container or locked
         room containing the matter shall be under the protection of an
         intrusion detection system or protective patrol at intervals not to
         exceed 8 hours.

    c.   In Transit.

         (1)  Domestic offsite shipments of classified configurations of
              Category III quantities of special nuclear material may be
              made by Transportation Safeguards System.

         (2)  Methods of shipping unclassified configurations:

              (a)  Truck or Train.  Truck or train shipments shall meet the
                   following requirements:

                   1    Government-owned or exclusive-use truck, commercial
                        carrier, or rail may be used to ship Category III
                        quantities of special nuclear material.

                   2    A detailed inspection of the transport vehicle shall
                        be conducted before loading and shipment.  Cargo
                        compartments shall be locked and sealed while en
                        route.

                   3    Personnel assigned to escort shipments shall
                        maintain periodic communication with a control
                        station operator who can request appropriate local
                        law enforcement agency response, if needed.

                   4    Shipments shall be made without intermediate stops
                        except for emergency reasons, driver relief, meals,
                        refueling, or transfer of cargo.

              (b)  Air Shipment.  Air shipments of Category III quantities
                   of special nuclear material may take place if not
                   otherwise prohibited by statute or otherwise limited by
                   implementing instructions.  The shipments shall be under
                   the direct observation of the authorized escorts during
                   all land movements and loading and unloading operations.

         (3)  Movements of Category III quantities of special nuclear
              material between Security Areas at the same site shall be
              according to the appropriate locally-developed security plan.

8.  CATEGORY IV QUANTITIES OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL.

    a.   Processing and Storage.  Material shall be in a locked area when
         not in use, and shall be received, processed, and stored according
         to procedures approved by the cognizant local Departmental
         authority for safeguards and security.

    b.   In Transit.

         (1)  Domestic offsite shipments of classified configurations of
              Category IV quantities of special nuclear material may be made
              by means of the Transportation Safeguards System, under
              procedures approved by the Albuquerque Operations Office as
              deemed appropriate, and by agreements between the Manager,
              Albuquerque Operations Office, and the respective Heads of
              Field Elements.

         (2)  Shipments of unclassified configurations of material may be
              made by truck, rail, or water, in commercial, for-hire, or
              leased vehicles.  If not otherwise prohibited by State or
              Federal laws, Category IV quantities of special nuclear
              material may also be shipped by air.

              (a)  Shipments (except laboratory analysis samples or
                   reference materials) shall be arranged with a capability
                   to trace and identify, within 24 hours of request, the
                   precise location where a shipment went astray, in the
                   event that it fails to arrive at the destination at the
                   prescribed time.

              (b)  Shipper shall be required to give the consignee an
                   estimated time of arrival before dispatch, and followup
                   with a written confirmation not later than 48 hours after
                   dispatch.

              (c)  Consignee shall promptly notify the shipper by telephone
                   and written confirmation upon determination that a
                   shipment has not arrived by the scheduled time.

9.  VITAL EQUIPMENT.  Site Safeguards and Security Plans shall define
    applicable threats and measures to protect Vital Equipment from hostile
    actions.