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AIR COMBAT COMMAND

CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

FOR

ENDURANCE

UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

 

Prepared By:

GREG S. LAMB, Major, USAF

TONY G. STONE, Major, USAF

Project Officers

 

Reviewed By:

HAROLD H. BARTON, JR, Colonel, USAF

Chief Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Directorate of Operations

 

Submitted By:

LEE A. DOWNER, Major General, USAF

Director of Operations

Approved By:

RICHARD E. HAWLEY, General, USAF

Commander

 

3 Dec 1996

Version 2

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION

1.1 Purpose 1-1

1.2 Missions Need Statement 1-1

1.3 Operations Requirement Document 1-2

1.4 Background 1-2

1.5 General 1-3

1.6 Threat 1-3

SECTION 2 - DESCRIPTION

2.1 Mission 2-1

2.2 Task 2-1

2.3 Endurance UAVs 2-2

2.4 Medium Altitude Endurance UAV "Predator" Description/Capabilities 2-2

2.5 High Altitude Endurance UAV "Global Hawk" Description/Capabilities 2-7

2.6 Low Observable High Altitude Endurance UAV "DarkStar" Description/Capabilities 2-14

2.7 Future UAV Payload Modifications 2-17

SECTION 3 - OPERATIONS

3.1 General 3-1

3.2 Organization 3-1

3.3 Basing 3-2

3.4 Deployment/Redeployment 3-3

3.5 Employment 3-5

 

3.6 Theater Air Component Responsibilities 3-10

3.7 Air Combat Command Responsibilities 3-11

3.8 Environmental Considerations 3-12

3.9 Air Tasking Order (ATO) Process 3-12

3.10 Airspace Management and Deconfliction 3-13

3.11 Safety of Flight/Flight Termination 3-14

3.12 Force Structure 3-14

3.13 UAV Manpower 3-15

SECTION 4 - COMMAND AND CONTROL RELATIONSHIP STRUCTURE

4.1 Command and Control of Air Force Endurance UAVs 4-1

4.2 Peacetime Operations 4-1

4.3 Crisis or Wartime Operations 4-3

4.4 Single Integrated Operational Plan 4-3

4.5 Joint Force Commanderís (JFC) Guidance 4-4

4.6 Joint Force Air Component Commander Relationship 4-4

SECTION 5 - INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT

5.1 General 5-1

5.2 Collection Management 5-1

5.3 Collection Management Tasking 5-2

5.4 Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) 5-3

5.5 Collection Management Automation 5-4

5.6 Sensor Data Links 5-4

5.7 Exploitation 5-4

SECTION 6 - COMMUNICATION INTEGRATION AND INTEROPERABILITY

6.1 General 6-1

6.2 Predator 6-1

6.3 Global Hawk and DarkStar 6-5

SECTION 7 - SECURITY

7.1 General 7-1

7.2 Classification Guidance 7-1

7.3 Classification of Sensor Products 7-1

7.4 Physical Security 7-1

7.5 Information Security 7-1

7.6 Operations Security 7-2

SECTION 8 - TRAINING

8.1 General 8-1

8.2 Formal Training 8-1

8.3 Continuation Training 8-4

8.4 Exercise Participation 8-4

8.5 Simulation 8-4 

SECTION 9 - LOGISTICS

9.1 Logistics 9-1

9.2 Maintenance Environment 9-1

9.3 Program Decision Factors 9-3

9.4 Maintenance Requirements 9-3

9.5 Maintenance Concept Updates 9-5

9.6 Supply Support 9-6

 REFERENCES 10-1

ANNEXES

ANNEX A - DISTRIBUTION A-1 

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE PAGE

2-1 HAE Launch and Recovery Element 2-11

3-1 Endurance UAV Organization Chart 3-1

3-2 Current 11 RS with Predator UAVs 3-2

3-3 Predator (Tier II) Mission Profile 3-6

3-4 Notional Global Hawk (Tier II+) Mission Profile 3-6

3-5 Notional DarkStar (Tier III-) Mission Profile 3-7

3-6 Notional Predator Mission Concept 3-9

3-7 Notional Global Hawk Split-Site Mission Profile 3-9

3-8 Notional DarkStar Split-Site Mission Profile 3-10

4-1 Predator Endurance UAV Peacetime Tasking Flow 4-2

4-2 JCS Reconnaissance Schedule Approval/Execution Process "Book Process" 4-2

4-3 Endurance UAV Wartime Tasking Procedures 4-3

4-4 Endurance UAV Single Integrated Operational Plan Tasking Procedures 4-4

5-1 The Collection Management Process 5-2

6-1 Predator Communication Concept 6-1

6-2 Global Hawk Support to Military Operations (via Ku Band SATCOM) 6-6

6-3 Global Hawk Support to Military Operations (via Common Data Links) 6-6

8-1 Notional Endurance AVO Training 8-2

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE

2-1 Predator Operational Planning Factors 2-5

2-2 Global Hawk Operational Planning Factors 2-12

2-3 DarkStar Operational Planning Factors Flight Characteristics 2-16

2-4 Comparison of Endurance UAV Key Capabilities 2-18

3-1 Predator and Global Hawk UAVs Required Per Orbit 3-15

3-2 DarkStar UAVs Required For One Sortie Per Day 3-15

3-4 Manpower Deployment Requirements By Vehicle Type 3-18

6-1 Predator Internal Communications 6-4

6-2 Objective Predator External Communications 6-5

6-3 HAE UAV Communications 6-9

6-4 Objective HAE External Communications 6-10

8-1 Maintenance Personnel Requirements 8-3