Approval Date:

01 Mar 96

Document:


OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT (ORD)


FOR


AN UNDERWATER RECONNAISSANCE CAPABILITY (URC)


(NO. LOG 34)


1.  General Description of Operational Capability

    a.  Mission Area 
      
        (1) General capability addressed in Mission Area (MA) 12 (Intelligence).

   (2) Marine Corps Master Plan (MCMP) 1994-2004, under MA 12 paragraph 12.4.1.

    b.  System Type.  An Underwater Reconnaissance Capability (URC) will enable Marine divers to increase underwater time, distance, capabilities, and safety while improving individual and team survivability in the conduct of amphibious and riverine reconnaissance.  Five elements are required to develop the URC:
   
        (1) Closed Circuit Underwater Breathing Apparatus System (UBAS).
       
        (2) Oxygen Transfer Pump System (OTPS).

        (3) Diver Propulsion Device (DPD).

        (4) Tactical Hydrographic Survey Equipment (THSE).

        (5) Transportable Recompression Chamber System (TRCS).

    c.  Operational Concept.  The URC will be employed per the doctrine, procedures, and techniques prescribed in the U.S. Navy Diving Manual, Volumes 1 and 2.

   (1) Wartime Mission Scenarios.  The requirements for a typical mission are described below.  Times will vary depending
on the mission, enemy situation, and environment.  Divers will normally be inserted and recovered by small boat.

         (a) Tactical Hydrographic Survey.  Enter water/
transit to objective area (0:45), perform underwater tasks in objective area (0:30), and transit to rendezvous with recovery platform (0:45).

  (b) Beach Reconnaissance.  Enter water/transit underwater to objective area (1:00) and reenter water/transit to rendezvous with recovery platform (1:00).

    d.  Support Concept.  See paragraph 4.b.

2.  Threat.  The system threat assessment is promulgated in the Marine Corps Mid-Range Threat Estimate (1995 to 2005) of November 1994.     

3.  Shortcomings of Existing Systems

    a.  Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA).
The currently fielded diving equipment used by reconnaissance units, the open-circuit, Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA):

   (1) Heavy, cumbersome, and cannot be carried once ashore.

        (2) Divers can only remain underwater 30 minutes/1000 meters.
  
        (3) Allows exhaled air bubbles to rise to the surface, potentially disclosing the presence of divers to the enemy.

    b.  Gas Charging Systems.  There is no deployable facility for Marine reconnaissance units to safely charge and maintain closed circuit oxygen diving equipment.  Lack of facility degrades the ability of deployed reconnaissance units to provide MAGTFs with  tactical diving capability over extended periods.

    c.  Diver Propulsion Systems.  The Marine Corps does not have a standardized Diver Propulsion System that meets the requirement.

    d.  Hydrographic Survey Equipment

   (1) Commercially available hydrographic survey equipment is too large and must be transported and employed by boat.

   (2) No means of recording and transmitting data exists to provide on-line, near real-time information to the MAGTF commander.
     
        (3) Present NAVSPECWAR systems are cumbersome and do not provide on-line, near real-time access to information.
 
   (4) Present methods are primitive, inaccurate, time-
consuming, and expose Marines to detection.

    e.  Recompression Chamber System

   (1) The Marine Corps does not own recompression chambers.  When diving accidents occur, the injured Marine is transported by helicopter to the nearest recompression facility.  Transport at altitude, (decreased atmospheric pressure) exacerbates injury and reduces the chances of full recovery.

   (2) Existing military/civilian treatment chambers, typically facility-based, are large, heavy, and require large amounts of gas for operation.  In addition, all available systems require lifting equipment for transport and initial setup.

4.  Capabilities Required

    a.  System Performance/Characteristics.  The URC will meet the following performance requirements for both operational effectiveness and suitability:

   (1) Common Characteristics

  (a) Maximum commonality with support equipment that is already in use by Fleet Marine Force (FMF) reconnaissance units.

  (b) Capable of effective employment under anticipated environmental conditions including:  extremes of temperature and pressure, high humidity and the accelerated corrosive effects of salt water, reduced visibility and mobility, and difficulties in orientation and other physiological effects.  The URC will not be degraded by any of these environmental conditions to the point that it cannot be effectively employed for its intended missions.

  (c) Authorized for Navy use by Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) (OOC) (NAVSEA 10560-series Instruction germane).  

  (d) When conducting an amphibious beach reconnaissance, the URC must enable the diver to function underwater for a minimum of 120 minutes at 70 degrees Fahrenheit (oF) and (21 degrees centigrade).  The objective is 200 minutes during day or night.  

  (e) The UBAS and OTPS must meet Department of Transportation and Department of the Navy "oxygen safe" standards.  The UBAS consists of the UBA and a Life Vest/Buoyancy Compensator (LV/BC) which the diver wears while being propelled by the DPD.  The DPD will also act as a navigation platform for global positioning and a Tactical Hydrographic Survey Equipment platform.

  (f) The OTPS, UBAS, and TRCS must have electrical power systems that are compatible with existing garrison, shipboard, and field generator power( 110/220 volts) UBA supplies.

  (g) The OTPS, UBAS, and TRCS, must enable Reconnaissance Marines to accomplish mission tasks under low visibility conditions (e.g., night/murky water).

  (h) The UBAS will enable Marines to operate in the First Atmosphere Absolute (1st ATA) at a maximum depth of 10 meters (33 feet) of sea water, 16 meters (50 feet) objective.

  (i) All items must conform to U.S. Navy shipboard qualification requirements.

     (2) UBA

     (a) The UBA must have a smaller magnetic signature than the open circuit SCUBA it will replace.  As measured by a Magnetometer under identical water conditions.
      
  (b) The UBA must not emit bubbles that are visible from the surface (threshold) nor restrict the diver's vision (threshold).

  (c) When ready for use, the UBA must not weigh more than 15.9 kg (35 pounds) threshold, 9.0 kg (20 pounds) objective.

   (3) Oxygen Transfer Pump System (OTPS) 

  (a) The OTPS will have sufficient room to store oxygen bottles and tools, and enable two Marines to concurrently perform maintenance on URC items (threshold).

  (b) The OTPS must include an oxygen transfer pump that is approved by NAVSEA(threshold).

  (c) The OTPS will be modular and housed within the smallest available oxygen safe container (threshold).

  (d) The OTPS will be capable of charging UBAS bottles and oxygen bottles used for military high-altitude parachuting (threshold).

  (e) The OTPS must be deployable on amphibious shipping.  It will be durable enough to remain on the weather deck of an amphibious ship for six months (one year objective) without any performance degradation (threshold).

  (f) The OPTS will be easily lifted and maneuvered by deck cranes of amphibious ships (threshold).

   (4) Transportable Recompression Chamber System (TRCS)  

  (a) The TRCS must be supportable within present manpower requirements.  It must not generate any new military occupational specialties.

  (b) The TRCS will be operated by Navy medical personnel certified by the Commanding Officer, Naval Diving and Salvage Training Center, Panama City, Florida.

  (c) The TRCS must be capable of rapid pressurization to 5060 millibars (73.4 psi) threshold, (6894 millibars (100 psi) objective).

  (d) The TRCS must be large enough to hold both a patient and an attendant.  

  (e) The TRCS length must allow a 95th percentile male patient (threshold) to lay in a fully extended supine position.  The weight of the unit must be able to be handled and lifted by six average men (50th percentile male Marines) (four men objective), without a patient or an attendant inside.  The design must allow the attendant full range of medical treatment to include a neurological examination.

  (f) The TRCS must use standard gas racks to provide treatment capability up to and including Tables 1, 2, 3, and 6 of Navy Standard Decompression Tables published in NAVSEA 0994-LP-001-9010 (threshold).  The TRCS must also be compatible with standard SCUBA bottles (objective).

  (g) The TRCS must be capable of being tilted at different angles to accommodate the treatment of various symptoms (threshold).

  (h) The TRCS must have a Removable Transfer Lock (TL) to change attendants and transfer medical supplies (threshold).  The TL must be transportable by aircraft (threshold).

  (i) The TRCS must be self-contained.

   (5) Diver Propulsion Device (DPD)

  (a) The DPD must enable the average combat-equipped diver to sustain a threshold speed of .5 knots (1.5 knots objective) for a period equal to the canister duration limits of the UBAS.  Per the Navy Technical Manual, water temperature and depth will affect underwater time for the MK 25 Mod 2.  Maximum DPD duration in less than 6 meters (20 feet) of sea water at 21 degrees centigrade (70 degrees F) is 120 minutes threshold (200 minutes objective).

  (b) The DPD must not emit bubbles that are visible from the surface (threshold).

  (c) The DPD must not restrict the diver's vision, endanger the diver or other unit personnel, or otherwise jeopardize successful execution of the mission (threshold).

  (d) The DPD shall be capable of modular attachment/
detachment of the THSE and/or navigational equipment (threshold).  

   (6) Tactical Hydrographic Survey Equipment (THSE)

  (a) The THSE is required to perform confirmatory hydrographic surveys at proposed or designated landing beaches.

  (b) The THSE must be capable of measuring and storing survey data, including bottom conditions, beach gradients, depth, wave height and period, and location with the precision of a 6-digit Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid coordinate (8-digit accuracy objective) of natural or man-made obstacles.

  (c) The THSE must be fully functional while mounted on the DPD (threshold).

  (d) The THSE must be capable of single team member operation (threshold).  For example, if a team is using the DPD, then the individual must be able to simultaneously operate the THSE.  Hydrographic Survey Controls must be capable of simultaneous operation by personnel using the DPD (threshold).

  (e) The THSE must be battery operated, waterproof, miniaturized, and lightweight (threshold).

  (f) The THSE must be transportable in a rugged, hand-carried, lightweight casing, which can also accommodate all its accessories.

  (g) The THSE must be able to be easily mounted on the DPD by reconnaissance divers.

  (h) The THSE must be electromagnetically compatible with current U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps communications equipment (threshold).  This requirement will facilitate the transmission of collected data to the appropriate intelligence agencies on line and in real time.
  
  (i) The THSE must have a protective coating in order to withstand the corrosive effects of salt spray (threshold).

    b.  Logistics and Readiness

   (1) The URC must be supportable within the Marine Corps three level maintenance structure.

   (2) Sub-components, filters, O-rings, and sub-assembly controls, seals, and fittings will be accessible for inspection, servicing, adjustment repair, and replacement.  Ease of maintenance provisions will incorporate features that ensure operating clearances and facilitate maintenance and service operations.
   
   (3) Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM)
     (a) Reliability

                1 UBAS.  For a mission time of two hours, the UBAS will demonstrate a reliability of 0.90 (threshold)/0.95 (objective).

                2 OTPS.  For a mission time of six hours, the OTPS will demonstrate a reliability of 0.90 (threshold)/0.95 (objective).

                3 DPD.  For a mission time of two hours, the DPD will demonstrate a reliability of 0.90 (threshold)/0.95 (objective).

                4 THSE.  For a mission time of four hours, the THSE will demonstrate a reliability of 0.90 (threshold)/0.95 (objective).

      5 TRCS.  The TRCS must demonstrate a reliability greater than or equal to that required by the U.S. Navy and as outlined in the U.S. Navy Diving and Manned Hyperbaric Systems Safety Certification Manual.

  (b) Availability.  The URC must demonstrate an operational availability of 0.92 (threshold)/0.98 (objective).

  (c) Maintainability.  To meet operational requirements, the URC must demonstrate maintainability less than or equal to the values indicated below:

                 MTTR (OLM)       MTTR (ILM)         MTTPM                     THRESHOLD/OBJ   THRESHOLD/OBJ    THRESHOLD/OBJ                     HOURS            HOURS            HOURS  

UBAS        4/2 6/4   3/2
OTPS 4/2 6/4   4/2
DPD 2/1 4/3 3.5/2
THSE 2/1 4/2    3.5/2
TRCS 8/6 10/6    6.5/4

        (4) Formal training for users and maintenance personnel will be accomplished at the U.S. Marine Corps Combatant Diver Course at the Naval Diving and Salvage Training Center (NDSTC), Panama City, Florida.  TRCS formal school training will take place at the Special Amphibious Reconnaissance Independent Duty Corpsman Course, NDSTC, Panama City, Florida.  Qualification requirements will be inculcated into the instruction program.  New equipment training support teams will be provided by Coastal Systems Station (COASTSYSTA), Panama City, Florida.

   (5) Logistics Management Support for the URC's five main elements will be provided by a combination of organic U.S. Marine Corps assets and COASTSYSTA, Panama City, Florida.

    c.  Critical System Characteristics

   (1) Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC).  The five components of the URC are not required to be nuclear hardened; however, all five (UBAS, OTPS, TRCS, DPD, and THSE) should be decontaminable of biological and chemical agents using current decontamination methods.  The OTPS and TRCS must be operated by Marines protected to Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) Level IV gear.

   (2) Mobility and Transportability

  (a) UBAS.  The UBAS will be man-transportable.  Marines must be able to wear/carry normal combat equipment and Table of Organization (T/O) weapon while diving with these systems to facilitate rapid transition from underwater swimming to operations ashore, and vice versa.

  (b) OTPS.  The OTPS must be ground and air transportable via a Logistics Vehicle System (LVS), 5-Ton truck w/ISO bed (or Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement), CH-53,V-22 (external threshold,internal objective), and military aircraft (C-130)(treshold).  It must have liftpoints to facilitate movement.

  (c) DPD.  The DPD will be transportable by a four man team.

  (d) THSE.  The THSE will be hand carried by a single Marine and must be enclosed in ruggedized carrying cases.

  (e) TRCS.  The TRCS must be both air and ground transportable.  By land, it will utilize all organic vehicles;  5-ton truck (or MTVR) and larger.  By air, the TRCS will be transported by UH-1, CH-46, Medium Lift Replacement Aircraft, CH-53, and C-130.  It must have tiedowns to secure it safely during transport.  The TRCS design must enable occupants to fly at any altitude without aggravating the afflicted diver's condition.  

   (3) Natural Environmental Factors.  See paragraph 4a(1)(b).

        (4) Electromagnetic Compatibility.  The GPS and sonar equipment, as part of the DPD's overall design configuration, must not interfere with the THSE and its ability to transmit the collected data to the appropriate intelligence agencies.

   (5) Safety.  The URC's five elements will not present undue safety threats to the users and maintenance personnel.

5.  Integrated Logistics Support (ILS)

    a.  Maintenance Planning

   (1) Organizational Level Maintenance (OLM).  All preventive and scheduled maintenance will be conducted at OLM.  It is desired that as much maintenance as possible be performed at the organizational level.  First and Second echelon maintenance will be performed by using unit operators.

   (2) Intermediate Level Maintenance (ILM).  ILM tasks will include major repairs to the URC's five components (UBAS, OTPS, DPD, THSE, and TRCS).  Third and Fourth echelon maintenance will be provided by the appropriate maintenance personnel at the organizational level if at all possible rather than by the Intermediate Maintenance Activity (IMA).

   (3) Depot Level Maintenance (DLM).  N/A.

    b.  Support Equipment

   (1) Standard Support Equipment.  The URC's five components will be designed for compatibility with existing standard support equipment.

   (2) Special Tools and Test Equipment.  To the greatest extent possible, the five elements should be compatible with presently existing specialized dive related tools and test equipment.

    c.  Human Systems Integration

   (1) Users and Maintenance Training Concept.  No change.

   (2) Human Engineering.  The URC will provide an environment which fosters effective procedures, work patterns, and personnel safety and minimizes discomfort, distraction, and any other factor which degrades human performance or increases error.

   (3) Safety.  The URC will not present undue safety threats to the users and maintenance personnel when in use.  


   (4) Manpower, Personnel, and Training (MPT).  No effect.

   (5) Force Structure Constraints.  None.

    d.  Computer Resources.  None.

    e.  Other Logistics Considerations

   (1) Provisioning Strategy.  Spares/replacement parts will be fulfilled via Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures (MILSTRIP) requisitions to the designated source of supply.

   (2) Facilities.  N/A.

   (3) Packaging, Handling, Transportation, and Transportability (PHTT).  No special handling will be required.

   (4) Data Requirements.  N/A.

6.  Infrastructure Support and Interoperability.  Since the U.S. Army and Navy have similar requirements, a joint potential designation of "joint interest" is assigned.

    a.  Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence.  No changes to or additional demands are necessary.

    b.  Transportation and Basing.  The URC's five components will be compatible with existing transportation and basing assets.

    c.  Standardization, Interoperability, and Commonality.  To the maximum extent possible, the URC design will incorporate standardized components and parts for all assemblies.

    d.  Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Support.  None required.

    e.  Environmental Support.  Not required.

7.  Force Structure

    a.  System Distribution.  The following chart depicts the quantities and projected delivery dates by fiscal year for the units listed below:

   (1) UBAS

ORGANIZATION     FY94    FY95    FY96  TOTALS

I MEF          160  160
II MEF    160            160
III MEF    110            110
MARRESFOR     80        80
TOTALS    510       510

   (2) OTPS

ORGANIZATION    FY94    FY95    FY96     TOTALS

I MEF 3 2 5
II MEF 3 2 5
III MEF 2 1 3
MARRESFOR 3 3
NDSTC, FL 1 1
TOTALS 9 8    17


   (3) TRCS

ORGANIZATION    FY94    FY95   FY96   TOTALS

I MEF 2 3 5
II MEF 2 3 5
III MEF 2 1 3
MARRESFOR 3 3
NDSTC, FL 1 1
TOTALS 7 10    17

   (4) DPD

ORGANIZATION    FY94    FY95   FY96   TOTALS

I MEF          36         36
II MEF   36         36
III MEF   36         36
MARRESFOR   18        18
TOTALS  126        126


   (5) THSE

ORGANIZATION    FY94    FY95   FY96   TOTALS

I MEF        18         18
II MEF   18         18
III MEF   18         18
MARRESFOR    9          9
TOTALS   63         63

   b.  Fielding Milestones

  (1) IOC - FY96

  (2) FOC - FY98

8.  Schedule Considerations

    a.  Initial Operational Capability (IOC) Requirements

   (1) Quantity.  IOC is FY96.  Quantities are as follows:

  (a) UBAS - 80

  (b) OTPS -  2

  (c) TRCS -  2

  (d) DPD  - 14

      (e) THSE - 14

   (2) Personnel Requirements.  None.

   (3) Facility Requirements.  None.

   (4) Logistics Support Requirements.  COASTSYSTA
willprovide all Logistics Support for the URC to meet FOC.

    b.  Full Operational Capability (FOC) Requirements.  The FOC is FY98.  Relative to other programs in the Mission Area, the URC is a medium priority program.

   (1) Quantity.  Quantities are as follows:

     (a) UBA  - 510

  (b) OTPS -  17

  (c) TRCS -  17

  (d) DPD  - 126

  (e) THSE - 63


   (2) Personnel Requirements.  No changes are envisioned.
   (3) Facility Requirements.  No additional requirements.

   (4) Logistics Support Requirements.  CPS/SPCC will be available to fully support the URC for FOC.

   (5) Capability Upgrading.  The URC is designed as an evolutionary requirement.  This ORD forms the basis to maintain and upgrade the requirement from FY94 through FY10 to keep pace with the threat and technology.