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Alternative Work Schedules: Many Agencies Do Not Allow Employees the Full Flexibility Permitted by Law

(Letter Report, 03/29/94, GAO/GGD-94-55)


The law has authorized the use of alternative work schedules for federal
workers for years, and large numbers of employees in many organizations
use them to help balance their working lives with their personal needs
and family situations. At the same time, many employees are not allowed
to use alternative work schedules, and few organizations allow their
employees to use the options offering the greatest flexibility, such as
gliding schedules with credit hours. More supportive management would
make alternative work schedules more widely available to workers. GAO
believes that federal agencies would benefit by expanding the use of
alternative work schedules. GAO believes that it would make sense for
all federal agencies to capitalize on the alternative work schedule
program and use it to their advantage to attract and retain quality
employees. GAO's findings clearly support the National Performance
Review's suggestion that the President, by executive order, require
agencies to use alternative work schedules.

--------------------------- Indexing Terms -----------------------------

 REPORTNUM:  GGD-94-55
     TITLE:  Alternative Work Schedules: Many Agencies Do Not Allow 
             Employees the Full Flexibility Permitted by Law
      DATE:  03/29/94
   SUBJECT:  Personnel management
             Federal employees
             Flexible work schedules
             Labor-management relations
             Employee benefit plans
             Working conditions
             Occupational surveys
             Agency missions
             Productivity
             Fringe benefits
IDENTIFIER:  National Performance Review
             
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Cover
================================================================ COVER


Report to Congressional Committees

March 1994

ALTERNATIVE WORK SCHEDULES - MANY
AGENCIES DO NOT ALLOW EMPLOYEES
THE FULL FLEXIBILITY PERMITTED BY
LAW

GAO/GGD-94-55

Alternative Work Schedules


Abbreviations
=============================================================== ABBREV

  ACF - Administration for Children and Families
  AFB - Air Force Base
  AWS - Alternative Work Schedule
  BIA - Bureau of Indian Affairs
  BLM - Bureau of Land Management
  BOM - Bureau of Mines
  BOR - Bureau of Reclamation
  DOI - Department of the Interior
  DOT - Department of Transportation
  EEOC - Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
  FAA - Federal Aviation Administration
  FCA - Farm Credit Administration
  FHWA - Federal Highway Administration
  FRA - Federal Railroad Administration
  FTA - Federal Transit Administration
  FWS - Fish and Wildlife Service
  HCFA - Health Care Financing Administration
  HHS - Department of Health and Human Services
  MARAD - Maritime Administration
  MMS - Minerals Management Service
  NCS - National Cemetery System
  NHTSA - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
  NPR - National Performance Review
  NPS - National Park Service
  OPM - Office of Personnel Management
  OSM - Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement
  PHS - Public Health Service
  RSPA - Research and Special Programs Administration
  SEC - Securities and Exchange Commission
  SSA - Social Security Administration
  U.S.C.  - United States Code
  USGS - U.S.  Geological Survey
  VA - Department of Veterans Affairs
  VBA - Veterans Benefits Administration
  VHA - Veterans Health Administration

Letter
=============================================================== LETTER


B-249743

March 29, 1994

The Honorable John Glenn
Chairman, Committee on
 Governmental Affairs
United States Senate

The Honorable William V.  Roth, Jr.
Ranking Minority Member
Committee on Governmental Affairs
United States Senate

The Honorable William L.  Clay
Chairman, Committee on
 Post Office and Civil Service
House of Representatives

The Honorable John T.  Myers
Ranking Minority Member
Committee on Post Office and Civil Service
House of Representatives

This report presents the results of our review of the extent to which
selected federal agencies are allowing employees to use alternative
work schedules (AWS) authorized by the statute.\1 We did the review
as part of our continuing assessment of the effectiveness of federal
employment policies in helping agencies recruit and retain quality
employees now and in the future. 

The review was prompted in large part by our findings in earlier
reports that addressed work scheduling issues.  In 1991, we reported
the results of a survey of employment practices in large companies\2
that showed, among other things, that about 60 percent of the
companies allowed AWS for their employees, and another 10 percent
were considering adopting such scheduling.  In April 1992, we
reported that leading nonfederal employers had found that allowing
employees flexibility in their working arrangements, including work
schedules, helped employees better deal with work/family concerns and
improved employee recruitment, retention, and productivity.\3 In a
June 1992 report on the results of a governmentwide survey of federal
employees,\4 we reported that less than half (41 percent) of all
respondents said they worked alternative schedules.  Of those
respondents who did not use AWS, nearly 77 percent said their
agencies either did not allow them to participate in an AWS program
or did not have an AWS program.  Fifty-five percent of the
respondents who did not participate in AWS said they would prefer to
have more work schedule flexibility. 

Thus, our basic objective was to determine why AWS is not more widely
available to federal employees. 

We discussed AWS issues with personnel officials of 59 organizations
in 9 departments and agencies.  Although the results cannot be
generalized to the government as a whole, we believe the review was
sufficiently broad to provide a good indication of how the AWS
program is being carried out in the government.  (See app.  I for a
listing of the organizations we visited and app.  II for a
description of the AWS policies and practices being followed in each
of the organizations at the time of our review.) The objectives,
scope, and methodology of our review are discussed in detail in
appendix I. 


--------------------
\1 Under the Federal Employees Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules
Act of 1978 (P.L.  95-390) that authorized AWS as an experimental
program in 1978 and was made permanent in 1985 (P.L.  99-196),
federal agencies can allow employees the flexibility to vary their
daily arrival and departure times and, under some options, to vary
the length of their workday or workweek.  In all cases, full-time
employees are required to work 80 hours each biweekly pay period,
unless on approved leave. 

\2 Workforce Issues:  Employment Practices in Selected Large Private
Companies (GAO/GGD-91-47, Mar.  13, 1991). 

\3 The Changing Workforce:  Comparison of Federal and Nonfederal
Work/Family Programs and Approaches (GAO/GGD-92-84, Apr.  23, 1992). 

\4 Federal Employment:  How Federal Employees View the Government as
a Place to Work (GAO/GGD-92-91, June 18, 1992). 


   RESULTS IN BRIEF
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :1

The statute permits, rather than requires, agencies to institute AWS
programs.  The AWS policies promulgated by agencies' headquarters
tended to be general and delegated to the operating units
decisionmaking authority on the type of AWS program allowed and which
employees were eligible to participate. 

Two of the 59 organizations we visited had no AWS program, and the
majority of the others generally limited work schedule flexibility. 
Many of these organizations allowed relatively few employees to
participate in AWS because their managers believed employees needed
to follow the same work schedules to accomplish the organization's
work.  Some managers feared they might not be able to adequately
supervise their subordinates' work under an AWS program. 

In notable contrast, the organizations that permitted large numbers
of employees considerable work schedule flexibility reported no
adverse effects of AWS on agency operations and, in fact, often found
that AWS enhanced their ability to serve customers' needs.  Officials
in these organizations said top management leadership and support of
the AWS program were the key reasons for its success.  The officials
acknowledged that employee work schedule flexibility requires
managers to change the manner in which they supervise employees,
schedule meetings, and permit employees to carry out their work
responsibilities.  They said mutual trust and cooperation between
supervisors and employees were critical to the success of any AWS
program. 

A September 1993 report by the National Performance Review (NPR)
recommended that the President issue an executive order supporting
AWS.  In the event that this action is taken and it causes agencies
to liberalize their AWS programs, use of AWS should increase. 


   HISTORY AND PURPOSE OF THE AWS
   PROGRAM IN THE FEDERAL
   GOVERNMENT
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :2

For years, traditional employment policies required all employees in
an organization to work a 5-day week schedule with the same fixed
arrival and departure times.  However, in 1967, a German aerospace
company successfully tried a flexible work schedule arrangement for
its employees to alleviate heavy traffic congestion on highways near
its plant.  In 1971, the concept of flexible work schedules was
introduced in the United States.  Shortly thereafter, on the basis of
studies showing that flexibility was generally beneficial to
companies and employees, federal agencies began to experiment by
allowing their employees some flexibility in scheduling their daily
workhours. 

In a 1974 report\5 recounting the evidence cited by federal and
nonfederal employers that AWS increased productivity and morale, we
concluded that there was no apparent reason why AWS should not be
established throughout the government. 

Subsequent to our findings, The Federal Employees Flexible and
Compressed Work Schedules Act of 1978 (P.L.  95-390) was enacted,
calling for a controlled 3-year experiment of AWS in federal
agencies.  The act specified that the experimental program was to
assess the positive and negative effects of AWS on (1) the efficiency
of government operations; (2) mass transit facilities and traffic;
(3) levels of energy consumption; (4) service to the public; (5)
increased opportunities for employment; and (6) employees' morale,
welfare, and family life.  In 1982, the program was extended for 3
years, and in 1985, legislation providing permanent authorization for
agencies to use AWS was enacted.\6

In a 1985 report,\7 we presented the results of a survey of federal
employees and the views of agency managers on AWS.  The employee
survey covered a random sample of all permanent employees in the
executive branch.  The employees' responses showed widespread support
for the use of AWS in the government.  For example, of the
respondents who said they were using AWS, 72 percent said AWS gave
them greater flexibility to meet family obligations, and 74 percent
said AWS had a favorable or very favorable effect on their morale. 
Overall, 74 percent of all respondents supported continuation of AWS. 

Similarly, the interviews with agency managers (personnel and labor
relations officials in 11 agencies) showed positive attitudes toward
AWS.  The managers said AWS had resulted in improved (1) service to
the public, (2) employee morale, (3) efficiency of agency operations,
and (4) employment opportunities.  All the managers said employees
were able to devote more time to their families and personal
interests as a result of AWS. 


--------------------
\5 Legal Limitations on Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules for
Federal Employees (B-179810, Oct.  21, 1974). 

\6 P.L.  99-196, Dec.  23, 1985. 

\7 Alternative Work Schedules for Federal Employees (GAO/GGD-85-63,
July 19, 1985). 


   TYPES OF AWS AUTHORIZED BY THE
   1985 STATUTE
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :3

The term "alternative work schedules," as described in the statute,
encompasses two different work-schedule variations--flexible and
compressed.  Guidance provided by the Office of Personnel Management
(OPM) suggested five flexible schedule and three compressed schedule
programs agencies might use. 

A flexible schedule can split the workday into two distinct kinds of
time--core hours and flexible hours or bands.  Under most flexible
schedule arrangements, all employees must be at work during core
hours, but they may establish their arrival and departure times
during the flexible bands.  Under the statute, flexible schedule
programs may allow employees to earn credit hours.\8

However, the statute gave agency heads the discretion not to include
the credit hours option in a flexible schedule program. 

Compressed schedules are fixed schedules in which employees can
complete the 40-hour workweek in fewer than 5 days or the 80-hour
biweekly pay period in fewer than 10 days.  The statute does not
permit credit hours to be earned under compressed schedules. 


--------------------
\8 Credit hours are hours worked in excess of an employee's basic
work requirement.  An employee elects to work the extra hours in
order to shorten the length of another workday or workweek. 
Employees do not receive overtime pay for the extra hours worked. 


      FIVE FLEXIBLE-SCHEDULE
      MODELS
---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :3.1

The five flexible-schedule models suggested by OPM are described
below.  However, these models are not all-inclusive; agencies may
adapt the models to fit their specific needs. 

  Flexitour allows an employee to select arrival and departure times
     within a flexible band; however, once selected, the hours become
     the employee's regular work schedule.  Flexitour programs have
     one set of core hours that include a standard lunch period.  The
     basic work requirement is the traditional 8 hours a day, 40
     hours a week, and 80 hours in a biweekly pay period.  However,
     in flexitour programs with a credit hours provision, employees
     can fulfill the basic work requirement in fewer than 10 days in
     a pay period.  Without a credit hours option, flexitour is the
     most rigid of the flexible schedules. 

  Gliding schedule allows employees to vary their daily arrival and
     departure times within the agency's established flexible band. 
     Agencies may establish one or two sets of core hours.  A single
     core hour set includes a standard lunch period, generally 30
     minutes, and a double set of core hours allows for flexible
     hours at midday.  For example, a double set of core hours may be
     9:00 a.m.  to 11:00 a.m.  and 1:30 p.m.  to 3:30 p.m., with
     flexible hours of 6:00 a.m.  to 9:00 a.m.; 11:00 a.m.  to 1:30
     p.m.  (midday); and 3:30 p.m.  to 6:00 p.m.  The basic work
     requirement is the same as under flexitour.  With a credit hours
     provision, gliding schedule allows employees added flexibility. 

  Variable-day schedule requires employees to work 40 hours a week,
     but allows them to vary the number of hours worked each day. 
     For example, an employee may work 10 hours on Monday, 7 hours on
     Tuesday, 10 hours on Wednesday, 8 hours on Thursday, and 5 hours
     on Friday.  In addition, agencies may allow employees to be
     absent during core hours and make up those hours during the
     flexible band as long as the time is made up in the same week of
     the biweekly pay period. 

  Variable-week schedule allows employees to vary the length of their
     workweek as well as their workday.  The basic work requirement
     is 80 hours in a biweekly pay period.  Similar to the
     variable-day schedule, agencies may allow employees to be absent
     during established core periods and make up those hours at any
     time during the same pay period. 

  Maxiflex schedule allows employees to vary the number of hours
     worked each day and the number of days worked each week. 
     Similar to the variable-week schedule, the basic work
     requirement is 80 hours during the pay period.  However, an
     agency may establish core hours for fewer than 10 workdays; or,
     to provide maximum flexibility, it may choose not to establish
     core hours. 


      THREE COMPRESSED-
      SCHEDULE MODELS
---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :3.2

The three compressed-schedule models described by OPM are as follows: 

  The 3-day workweek allows employees to work a maximum of 13 hours
     and 20 minutes a day in a 40-hour workweek.  Agencies that use
     the 3-day workweek generally require employees to work six
     12-hour days and one 8-hour day each biweekly pay period. 

  The 4-day workweek or "4/10" schedule allows employees to work 10
     hours a day, 40 hours a week, with 1 nonworkday each week of the
     pay period. 

  The "5-4/9" plan allows employees to complete the pay period in
     eight 9-hour days and one 8-hour day with 1 nonworkday each pay
     period. 


   WORK SCHEDULE FLEXIBILITY IS
   LIMITED IN MOST ORGANIZATIONS
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :4

Other than prescribing that AWS was a proper subject for collective
bargaining with federal employee unions, the statute allowed, rather
than required, agencies to establish AWS programs.  Using the
discretion allowed by the statute, the departments and agencies in
our review established AWS policies that varied widely.  In general,
the policies did not permit the maximum work scheduling flexibility
authorized by the statute. 

In the majority of the nine departments and agencies included in our
review, headquarters offices delegated AWS policy implementation,
including determination of whether individual employees could
participate in AWS, to their operating organizations.  In many cases,
implementation authority was further delegated to organizations'
supervisors. 

All but 2 of the 59 organizations we visited had some type of AWS
program in use.  However, the approaches taken by the 57
organizations in implementing AWS were often different.  For
instance, the statute authorized agencies to allow employees on
flexible work schedules to carry over as many as 24 credit hours from
one biweekly pay period to the next.  Fifteen organizations allowed
the maximum 24-hour carryover for eligible employees, but 37
organizations prohibited employees from earning credit hours.\9 The
other five organizations had varying restrictions on the number of
credit hours that could be carried over.  For example, employees in
the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) could carry over a
maximum of 4 credit hours. 

The only flexibility permitted by 14 organizations was to allow
employees to select arrival and departure times within a flexible
band.  These employees were required to work 8 hours a day, 5 days a
week.  Fourteen organizations also limited AWS participation to
particular employee groups.  For example, the Securities and Exchange
Commission (SEC) offered compressed schedules to employees in its
computer operations center and printing plant facility only.  At the
other extreme, seven organizations permitted at least some of their
employees to work maxiflex schedules, which basically allowed the
employees to create their own work schedules with supervisory
approval. 

We found a number of reasons for the differing approaches taken by
the 57 organizations.  Variations sometimes occurred because union
and nonunion employees were treated differently.  Nonunion employees
were not always given the same AWS options that union employees
received in contracts negotiated by unions and organization
management.  For example, the negotiated agreement for union
employees in the Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS)
Office of the Secretary allowed eligible employees to work compressed
schedules or flexible schedules with credit hours.  However, some
nonunion employees in the same organization were not allowed to work
compressed schedules.  They could participate in a flexible work
schedule program but were prohibited from earning credit hours.  The
reverse was also true.  At the Air Education and Training Command
activity at Lackland AFB, employees in the civilian personnel office,
who were nonunion, had been allowed to work compressed work schedules
for several years.  However, employees working elsewhere on the base,
who were represented by a union, were generally required to maintain
traditional work schedules.\10

In other organizations, we were told by personnel officials that AWS
practices differed greatly depending on individual managers'
attitudes toward allowing employees work schedule flexibility.  For
example, at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center in
Denver, the nursing staff was allowed to select either a 3-day or a
4-day week compressed work schedule, but employees outside the
nursing units were not permitted to participate in AWS.  The chief
nurse said that a participative style of management was used in the
unit, whereby staff decided what type of work schedule would allow
them to accomplish their mission and balance their work/family lives. 
A personnel official said the compressed work schedules have helped
the medical center remain competitive in recruiting and retaining
nurses. 

Some officials told us that AWS was implemented in their
organizations after a change in leadership occurred.  For example, a
personnel official at the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM)
Sacramento office said the region had a "progressive" leader who
valued diversity and wanted to accommodate employees' work and family
responsibilities by giving them more choices in their work schedules. 
In another organization, the Farm Credit Administration (FCA), nearly
half the employees could work compressed schedules only during April
through October--daylight savings time.\11 According to an agency
official, the compressed work schedule program was not widely
supported by the organizations' managers and the "on/off" policy was
considered to be a reasonable compromise.  However, after a new
agency head was appointed, the compressed schedule program was
offered year-round to all full-time employees effective November
1993.  The agency head believed compressed schedules afforded
participants greater job satisfaction because it provided employees
the opportunity to arrange work schedules more suited to their
personal needs. 

The officials from organizations that had liberal AWS programs, such
as maxiflex, or had several work schedule options available to
employees generally said they had managers who were interested in a
family-friendly environment.  In contrast, the officials from
organizations that had more restrictive AWS programs often told us
they had "old line" or conservative managers who believed employees
must work during the same hours every day to be productive. 

We found that employees in field locations were often allowed greater
work schedule flexibility than employees in headquarters offices. 
However, we also found exceptions.  For example, the Maritime
Administration, an operating division of the Department of
Transportation (DOT), allowed its headquarters' employees to work AWS
but required its regional employees to work traditional schedules. 

We also found instances where organizations with employees in
multiple locations had different AWS practices.  One example of this
was the Air Force Intelligence Command.  The Command's headquarters
is located at Kelly AFB in San Antonio.  A field unit is located at
Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton.  According to a headquarters
official, both locations did similar work and had about the same
number of employees.  However, headquarters employees worked
traditional schedules, whereas employees at Wright-Patterson were
allowed to work flexible schedules.  The official said
Wright-Patterson was the only facility under the Command's authority
that allowed its employees to participate in AWS. 

In some cases, we were told that variations in AWS policies created
employee recruitment difficulties.  For example, although most of the
bureaus and services within the Department of the Interior (DOI) were
headquartered in the Department's building in Washington, D.C., each
organization had a different AWS policy.  Also, AWS policies
sometimes differed within the DOI organizations.  A personnel
official in an organization that allowed limited flexibility in
employees' work schedules believed that job candidates did not apply
for positions in the organization because vacancy announcements
stated the work schedules employees had to follow. 


--------------------
\9 Of these, three organizations prohibited specific groups of
employees from earning credit hours under their flexible schedule
programs.  Also, three other organizations used only compressed
schedules that, under the statute, do not allow credit hours to be
earned. 

\10 In June 1993, hospital nurses were authorized to work a
compressed schedule.  In addition, an official told us negotiations
were under way with the union to authorize compressed work schedules
for the remaining employees. 

\11 Examiners, who represent over 50 percent of the agency, were
allowed to work compressed schedules year round to accommodate their
travel requirements. 


   OFFICIALS' SUGGESTIONS ON HOW
   TO SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENT AWS
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :5

During our review, officials in the organizations that allowed
considerable work schedule flexibility described their experiences in
implementing AWS programs and discussed approaches they had found to
be successful in helping these programs run smoothly.  According to
these officials, AWS programs will not succeed if implemented in the
manner of "business as usual." Rather, organizations must make a
concerted effort to develop and implement AWS programs that will
allow organizations to serve their customers while enhancing the
quality of life of their employees. 

Some of the suggested changes in the manner organizations do business
to accommodate AWS included (1) routinely scheduling meetings on days
other than Mondays or Fridays when most employees who work compressed
schedules are not present, (2) seeking greater cooperation between
organizations that regularly work together, and (3) cultivating the
same patience and tolerance for accommodating employees' work
schedules as is required for accommodating employees' vacations and
official travel. 

One official told us that managers in his organization held meetings
on the first and third Thursdays of the month rather than on Fridays
because of employees' compressed schedules.  Several officials told
us their organizations limited the number of employees who could be
away from work on any given day under the compressed schedule
program.  For example, a regional office of the Minerals Management
Service (MMS), an organization within DOI, allowed no more than 20
percent of its employees who worked compressed schedules to be off
work on the same day.  Another official told us his organization
cross-trained employees, where appropriate, to ensure that adequate
coverage was maintained on particular employees' nonworkdays. 

According to some officials, effective communication between
employees and supervisors is absolutely essential to the success of
an AWS program.  In fact, an official at the San Francisco VA medical
center said the key reason for the AWS program's success in that
organization was good communication.  We also noted that AWS programs
in the organizations with more liberal policies generally specified
responsibilities for both supervisors and employees that encouraged
communication.  For example, the Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) promulgated an order that required supervisors and their
subordinates to develop work schedules that ensured sufficient
personnel were present on any workday to carry out normal business
activities.  The order also required that supervisors give employees
advance notice of at least one pay period when operational priorities
required a change in employees' schedules, except in unusual
circumstances such as fire or natural disaster. 

Many officials also said trust between supervisors and employees is
critical if an AWS program is to succeed.  Supervisors may not always
be present during an employee's entire workday, especially if the
employee follows a compressed schedule.  In those situations, the
supervisor must be able to trust that the employee will be working
either before the supervisor arrives or after the supervisor leaves
for the day.  One official expressed the opinion that 2 percent of
all employees will always "abuse the clock," no matter what measures
are used to prevent abuse, and the organization decided to implement
the AWS program for the benefit of the other 98 percent who were
trustworthy. 

Similarly, personnel officials told us that cooperative efforts among
employees working alternative schedules are important, particularly
when direct contact with other organizations or the public is
required.  An official at the U.S.  Geological Survey (USGS) in
Denver explained that one division, which includes a sales counter,
must be staffed during customer service hours.  That division allowed
its employees to arrange their work schedules to ensure customer
service hours were covered.  At one of the cemeteries under the
authority of the National Cemetery System (NCS),\12 burial crew
employees worked a compressed schedule.  Because the employees had to
work together in doing their jobs, cooperation in scheduling
nonworkdays was vital.  As evidence of the importance of employee
cooperation to AWS success, one organization we visited was forced to
cancel its compressed schedule program because employees were
unwilling to provide customer service coverage during other
employees' absences. 

The officials also stressed that an AWS program must be well planned
and controlled if it is to work successfully and not cause an adverse
impact on the agency.  These officials suggested that, when initially
introduced, the AWS program should be concrete and fully developed,
and parameters should be set that tailor the program to the
individual organization but at the same time allow employees as much
flexibility over their work schedules as possible.  The officials
also said a training program that teaches supervisors and staff how
an AWS program works and specifies their responsibilities is
imperative and should be mandatory for participants in the program. 

According to officials from several organizations, even when
employees are allowed to vary their daily arrival times, most
employees tended to work the same schedules every day.  They said
they had found that most employees were "creatures of habit" and
adhered to the same schedules once these schedules were established. 
In fact, in the organizations with liberal AWS policies, only about
half the employees who worked AWS chose the options with the greatest
flexibility, such as a gliding schedule with credit hours or
maxiflex.  Because of considerations like commuting arrangements or
child care needs, other employees preferred more traditional work
schedules. 


--------------------
\12 NCS is an organization within VA. 


   NPR FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATION
   ON AWS
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :6

In its September 1993 report entitled From Red Tape to Results: 
Creating a Government That Works Better and Costs Less, the NPR\13
expressed concern about the federal government's limited use of
family-friendly workplace options.  According to the report, "Many
agencies do not fully advocate or implement flexible work policies."
Among other things, the report recommended that the President issue
an executive order requiring all agencies to adopt AWS, part-time,
and job sharing programs.  At the time we prepared this report, the
executive order had not yet been issued. 


--------------------
\13 The NPR, chaired by Vice President Al Gore, was tasked by the
President in March 1993 to seek ways to improve federal government
operations by "enhancing employees' ability to work better while, at
the same time, reducing costs."


   CONCLUSIONS
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :7

The law has authorized the use of AWS for the federal workforce for
many years, and large numbers of employees in many organizations are
allowed to use them to help balance their working lives with their
personal needs and family situations.  However, many employees are
not allowed to use AWS, and few organizations allow their employees
to use the options offering the greatest flexibility, such as gliding
schedules with credit hours or maxiflex. 

More supportive management would make AWS more widely available to
employees.  In the organizations where managers were committed to
addressing work/family issues, AWS programs tended to be more
liberal.  A supportive attitude cannot be mandated, but it is
imperative to the success of any AWS program. 

For the most part, we believe federal organizations would benefit by
expanding the use of AWS.  We believe it would make sense for all
federal organizations to capitalize on the AWS program and use it to
their advantage to attract and retain quality employees for the
federal workforce. 

Our findings clearly support the NPR's recommendation that the
President, by executive order, require agencies to use AWS.  If an
executive order causes agencies to liberalize their AWS programs,
employee use of AWS should increase. 


   AGENCY COMMENTS
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :8

We provided a draft of this report to the nine departments and
agencies and met with personnel officials from each of them between
November 15 and 22, 1993, to obtain their comments.  The officials
generally concurred with our findings and agreed that we accurately
described their AWS programs.  They also offered updated information
about their programs that we incorporated into the report. 


---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :8.1

Copies of this report are being sent to parties interested in federal
employment matters and will be available to others on request. 

The major contributors to this report are listed in appendix III.  If
you have any questions about this report, please call me on (202)
512-2928. 

Nancy Kingsbury
Director
Federal Human Resource
 Management Issues


OBJECTIVES, SCOPE, AND METHODOLOGY
=========================================================== Appendix I

Our objectives were to determine what types of AWS federal agencies
made available to their employees and to identify any limitations or
restrictions imposed by the agencies on employee use of the AWS
program. 

Specifically, we reviewed selected departments' and agencies'
experiences in administering the AWS program.  We chose 9 departments
and agencies for the study from 3 groups--small (fewer than 10,000
employees), medium (between 10,000 and 100,000 employees), and large
(over 100,000 employees).\1 Each group contained one department or
agency that reported to OPM\2 that many employees used AWS, one that
reported that few employees used AWS, and one agency that fit an
"other"\3 category. 

We interviewed key personnel officials at (1) the department or
agency level; (2) the headquarters of subordinate organizations
(e.g., FAA within DOT); and (3) at least one regional office for each
of the organizations that had personnel officials in the field.  In
total, we visited 59 organizations (see table I.1).  We also
discussed the AWS program with the manager of OPM's Work & Family
Program Center. 

At each organization, we reviewed AWS policies and discussed with
personnel officials the kinds of AWS programs being used and the
extent of employee participation. 

Because our review did not cover all agencies, the results cannot be
generalized to the government as a whole.  However, the agencies
selected represent a broad cross-section of federal employment and
AWS policies being followed.  Accordingly, we believe our review
results provide a good indication of how the AWS program is being
carried out in the government. 

We did our work from July 1992 through November 1993 in accordance
with generally accepted government auditing standards. 



                          Table I.1
           
             Organizations Included in Our Review

Departments/agencies           Operating organizations
-----------------------------  -----------------------------
Department of the Air Force    Air Education and Training
                               Command\a

                               Intelligence Command\a

                               Materiel Command\a

Environmental Protection
Agency\b

Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission\c

Farm Credit Administration\c

Department of Health and       Administration for Children
Human                          and Families\b
Services\b

                               Health Care Financing
                               Administration\b

                               Public Health Service\b

                               Social Security
                               Administration\b

Department of the Interior     Bureau of Indian Affairs\c

                               Bureau of Land Management\d

                               Bureau of Mines\e

                               Bureau of Reclamation\d

                               Fish and Wildlife Service\e

                               Minerals Management Service\f

                               National Park Service\d

                               Office of Surface Mining
                               Reclamation and Enforcement\e

                               U.S. Geological Survey\e

Securities and Exchange
Commission\c

Department of Transportation   Coast Guard\d

                               Federal Aviation
                               Administration\b

                               Federal Highway
                               Administration\e

                               Federal Railroad
                               Administration\c

                               Federal Transit
                               Administration\c

                               Maritime Administration\c

                               National Highway Traffic
                               Safety Administration\c

                               Research and Special
                               Programs
                               Administration\c

Department of Veterans         National Cemetery System\d
Affairs\g

                               Veterans Benefits
                               Administration\d

                               Veterans Health
                               Administration\d
------------------------------------------------------------
\a Activities in Brooks, Kelly, Lackland, and Randolph AFBs, San
Antonio area. 

\b Headquarters and Kansas City regional office. 

\c Headquarters only.  Agency did not have personnel offices in its
field activities. 

\d Headquarters and San Francisco regional office. 

\e Headquarters and Denver regional office. 

\f Headquarters and Los Angeles regional office. 

\g Medical facilities in Denver, Kansas City, San Antonio, and San
Francisco. 


--------------------
\1 Data obtained from OPM's Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics: 
Employment and Trends as of March 1992. 

\2 Data obtained from OPM's Directory of Federal Agency Dependent
Care Programs, July 1992. 

\3 The "other" category included VA because we were interested in the
use of AWS by employees in medical occupations; the DOI because it
had a variety of missions within its bureaus and services; and FCA
because it allowed all its employees to work compressed schedules but
only during daylight savings time. 


AWS POLICIES AND PRACTICES IN 59
FEDERAL ORGANIZATIONS
========================================================== Appendix II

The following describes the AWS policies and practices we found in
our visits to the 59 organizations included in our review. 
Individual organizations are discussed in alphabetical order under
the department or agency of which they are a part.  For example, the
Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is discussed in the section on the
Department of the Interior.  Table II.1 on page 56 summarizes our
findings. 


   DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:1

Most units of the Air Force reported to 1 of 11 major commands.  Our
review included Air Force headquarters in Washington, D.C., and five
units of three commands--Intelligence; Air Education and Training;
and Materiel--in the San Antonio area. 

The Air Force did not have a specific written AWS policy.  Rather, it
used OPM guidance, which provided suggestions to agencies on the
administration of flexible and compressed work schedules as its
departmental policy.  Authority for implementing AWS was delegated to
installation commanders. 


      HEADQUARTERS
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:1.1

Headquarters employees were not allowed to have an AWS.  In
explaining the lack of flexibility permitted, an agency official said
the employees worked on policy issues.  He said policy work was not
conducive to AWS because the employees needed to be consistently
available during the same hours.  Another official said that the
small number of employees, as few as two, assigned to a number of
offices was another reason AWS was not used in headquarters. 


      AIR EDUCATION AND TRAINING
      COMMAND, LACKLAND AFB
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:1.2

The Lackland facility did not have a written AWS policy.  Similar to
headquarters, it used OPM guidance. 

According to a command official, each major command has had authority
to approve flexible or compressed work schedules since 1988. 
However, it was not until 1990 that any organization at Lackland
approved AWS schedules.  At that time, the civilian personnel office,
whose employees were not union members, implemented both the 5-4/9
and the 4/10 compressed work schedules. 

At the time of our visit, 55 employees worked in the personnel
office; 42 worked a 5-4/9 schedule and 6 worked a 4/10 schedule.  The
other seven employees worked traditional schedules.  Flexible
schedules were not authorized.  The official said compressed
schedules were favored because they made employees' work schedules
more predictable and employees favored the extra day(s) off. 

The approximately 2,750 other employees at Lackland were in
bargaining units represented by a union.  The union contracts did not
provide for AWS.  However, in June 1993, agreement was reached with
the union for the nursing staff at the base's hospital to work a
compressed schedule of six 12-hour days and one 8-hour day during
each biweekly pay period.  We were told that over one-third of the
650 nurses at the hospital used the compressed work schedule after it
became available.  According to an agency official, the compressed
schedule had reduced overtime hours with no loss of productivity. 

Negotiations were also under way to authorize compressed work
schedules for other employees at the facility.  However, the official
said the negotiations were at an impasse in part because of disputes
over how AWS would be implemented for these employees.  However, he
said there were no disagreements by the parties involved about the
merits of adopting an AWS program. 

According to the official, many of the base's organizations had
mixtures of military personnel, nonunion civilians, and civilian
employees represented by a union.  He said it was difficult obtaining
consensus among these groups on the types of AWS schedules to
implement. 


      AIR EDUCATION AND TRAINING
      COMMAND, RANDOLPH AFB
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:1.3

Randolph employed approximately 3,500 civilian employees.  Since
1982, the command has allowed most civilian employees to work
flexitour schedules.  Under this program, employees could establish
working hours between 6:00 a.m.  and 6:00 p.m.  Employees could not
earn credit hours. 

Employees in one unit of the command who design, develop, and
construct training devices have worked a 5-4/9 compressed schedule
since 1980.  According to command officials, this unit was
self-contained and did not interact with other groups on the base. 
All 66 employees in the unit, including the military personnel,
worked the same schedule.  One Friday of the pay period was the
8-hour day, and the other was the nonworkday.  According to the head
of the unit, the program has always worked well. 

In April 1993, another unit implemented a 5-4/9 compressed work
schedule program for the unit's 27 employees.  A personnel official
indicated it was sometimes difficult to coordinate work schedules,
but there had been no problems interacting with other base functions. 
The official also said that the unit was able to expand its hours of
operation because of the program.  Another unit of approximately 50
employees had been approved for the 5-4/9 work schedule, but it was
awaiting union acceptance before implementation. 

A command official said he believes more employees were not allowed
to use compressed work schedules because they need to interact with
other base functions.  In addition, he said higher level managers
expected all employees to be responsive to their immediate needs, and
this would be difficult under compressed schedules when, in many
areas, only one employee with the necessary expertise would be
available. 


      AIR FORCE INTELLIGENCE
      COMMAND, KELLY AFB
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:1.4

Approximately 1,200 of the command's employees worked at Kelly.  None
of these employees were allowed to have AWS. 

According to a command official, approximately 1,200 command
employees worked at Wright-Patterson AFB in Ohio.  They were allowed
to work flexible schedules for many years when the facility was part
of another command, and the program was continued when the facility
became part of the Intelligence Command.  The official said these
employees did work similar to that of employees at Kelly.  He said
over 90 percent of the employees at Wright-Patterson worked flexible
schedules. 

According to the official, Wright-Patterson was the only Intelligence
Command facility to participate in AWS.  He said AWS had not been
made available at other locations because the last two commanders
were reluctant to change work schedules without a clear showing that
AWS would in some way significantly enhance accomplishing the
command's work.  He said an advisory council planned to reevaluate
the possibility of establishing an AWS program at Kelly in about a
year.  However, he said a major reorganization was to occur in late
1993, and he believed AWS might not be seriously considered until the
new organization was fully in place. 


      MATERIEL COMMAND, BROOKS AFB
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:1.5

Of approximately 1,600 civilian employees at Brooks, about 150
employees in one directorate participated in AWS.  They were allowed
to work flexitour schedules.  Under the flexitour program, credit
hours were not allowed.  All other employees were required to work
traditional schedules. 

Employees at Brooks do research in areas such as air space medicine
and artificial intelligence.  According to a command official, this
kind of work does not lend itself well to AWS. 

The official said one laboratory tested a 4/10 compressed schedule
from April 1991 to July 1992.  He said the employees liked the
compressed schedule, and no production problems had arisen, but the
test was canceled because of an increased workload assigned to the
laboratory.  The official said management believed the increased
workload could be handled better with traditional work schedules. 


      MATERIEL COMMAND, KELLY AFB
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:1.6

The San Antonio Air Logistics Center at Kelly employed approximately
12,000 civilian employees.  The facility required all employees to
work 8-hour days.  However, starting and ending times could be set
within the flexible band of 6:00 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m.  Employees could
extend their lunch times up to 2 hours for educational purposes,
fitness programs, or other appropriate reasons and make up the
difference at the end of the day, with the prior approval of their
supervisors.  Employees could also alter their preset arrival and
departure times by 1 hour without supervisory approval.  Nonunion
employees could carry over a maximum of 16 credit hours, but union
members were not allowed to earn credit hours.  According to a center
official, the flexitour program has worked well at Kelly because
supervisors have always been able to ensure that sufficient numbers
of employees were available to meet customers' needs during the
established customer service hours of 7:30 a.m.  to 5:00 p.m. 

Generally, the only employees not participating in the center's AWS
program were those working in the industrial area on a production
line operation.  Center management determined this area was not
suitable for AWS because management wanted all employees to be
available during the same hours. 

The center piloted a four 10-hour day compressed schedule in several
units.  However, because of downsizing, organization mergers, and
other realignments, only two units were still testing the 4/10
schedule as of July 1993.  A center evaluation of the compressed
schedule test showed no substantial productivity improvements had
occurred, but a definitive conclusion was not possible because other
factors had influenced the indicators and the results were mixed.  A
center official said the center would probably not test any more
compressed schedules until the organizational situation stabilized. 


   ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:2

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had about 17,000 employees
nationwide, including 6,000 located in headquarters.  EPA
headquarters and regional offices each developed their own AWS
programs. 

AWS was used extensively in EPA.  Almost all EPA components
implemented flexible schedule (flexitour) programs under the
experiment allowed by the 1978 legislation and subsequently adopted
compressed schedule programs as well.  With few exceptions, the
compressed schedule option used was the 5-4/9.  EPA's field
components have been using compressed schedules since the mid-1970s,
and the headquarters offices have been participating since 1988.  As
of August 1992, over 60 percent of all EPA employees were working
compressed schedules.  In addition, employees at several of EPA's
small research laboratories were allowed to work maxiflex schedules. 


      HEADQUARTERS
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:2.1

According to the EPA handbook entitled Flexitime in EPA:  A Handbook
for Supervisors and Employees, the headquarters flexitour schedules
program was implemented to (1) improve the quality of life for
employees by giving them a new measure of freedom and control over
their personal and work lives, (2) improve productivity through
factors such as the elimination of tardiness by allowing employees to
select their personal starting times and allowing employees to take
advantage of "quiet" hours at the beginning or end of the day, and
(3) increase service to other agencies and to the public through the
use of staggered hours and a longer workday. 

The headquarters' policy permitted employees working flexitour
schedules to select hours of arrival and departure within a flexible
band of 7:00 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m.  EPA also had a customer band from
8:00 a.m.  to 4:30 p.m., when it guaranteed a full range of services
to the public.  Employees working a flexitour schedule could carry
over a maximum of 24 credit hours. 

All employees, except those designated "key",\1 such as staff office
heads were eligible for the flexitour schedule program.  However, key
employees were allowed to set individual schedules that gave them the
maximum practical amount of flexibility consistent with their duties. 

Of the 12 components in EPA headquarters, 11 also allowed their
employees the option of working compressed schedules.  However, the
11 components had somewhat different programs.  Six had differing
core hour requirements, and five did not have core hours at all. 
Eight allowed employees to take their compressed day off any time
within the pay period, while three allowed only Mondays and Fridays
as off days.  In seven components, only full-time employees could
work compressed schedules; the other four allowed both full- and
part-time employees to participate.  According to a headquarters
personnel official, all employees not working compressed schedules
were considered to be on flexitour schedules. 


--------------------
\1 Key designees were those employees whose duties required
responsiveness at all hours of the workday to other EPA employees,
federal officials, or the public. 


      KANSAS CITY, KANSAS,
      REGIONAL OFFICE
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:2.2

EPA's regional office had approximately 600 permanent full- and
part-time employees.  The region allowed both flexitour and
compressed work schedules.  Under both schedules, all employees were
required to work during the core hours of 9:00 a.m.  to 3:00 p.m. 
The public service hours were 7:30 a.m.  to 5:00 p.m.  daily. 

The region's flexitour schedule program allowed employees to choose
their starting times between 7:00 a.m.  and 9:00 a.m., with
corresponding departure times 8-1/2 hours later.  Unlike the
headquarters program, regional employees could not earn credit hours. 

The compressed work schedule used by the region was the 5-4/9 option. 
All permanent full- and part-time employees who worked at least 32
hours a week could participate.  Under the program, employees could
request starting times as early as 6:30 a.m.  and departure times up
to 6:00 p.m.  Temporary employees were also included in the program
to the extent possible.  Employees working compressed schedules could
request any day in the pay period as their day off.  Approximately 75
percent of the employees in the region worked a compressed schedule. 

According to a personnel official, all organizational units in the
region had to participate in and could not withdraw from the
compressed work schedule program. 


   EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY
   COMMISSION
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:3

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) had over 2,800
employees nationwide, including approximately 700 in its headquarters
office.  The EEOC AWS program included both flexible and compressed
work schedules.  Over 1,400 employees participated. 

EEOC negotiated an overall AWS policy with its national union. 
Within the parameters of the national policy, local units negotiated
their own policies covering such issues as core times, flexible time
bands, grace periods for arrivals and departures, and off days. 
Nonunion employees were given the same options as those negotiated
for union employees. 

The EEOC flexible work schedule program offered employees two
options--flexitour and gliding schedules.  Both schedules split the
workday into a flexible band and core time between 6:00 a.m.  and
6:00 p.m.  Flexitour allowed employees to select their arrival and
departure times within a flexible band, but once workhours were
selected, employees could not change them.  The gliding schedule, on
the other hand, allowed employees to vary their arrival times each
day.  Both flexible schedule options permitted employees to earn and
carry over 4 credit hours. 

Under the compressed schedule program, full-time employees could work
a 5-4/9 or a 4/10 schedule.  Similar to flexible work schedules, both
compressed schedules included a flexible time band and core time. 
According to an agency official, only one headquarters office worked
a 4/10 schedule. 

Under the overall AWS policy, each headquarters and district or field
office could generally select one flexible and one compressed work
schedule program for its employees.  To encourage managers to support
the AWS program, EEOC required the chairman's written approval of any
unit's decision to exclude its employees from program participation. 
An agency official told us that over the years, a few units had
considered terminating AWS but they all were able to overcome their
difficulties and retain the programs. 

An agency official said the AWS program is working well in EEOC, and
no office has reported problems such as employee abuse or an overall
reduction in productivity.  In addition, the official told us that
supervisory and management officials, who were excluded from the AWS
program, had increasingly expressed their desire to participate in
AWS. 


   FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:4

The Farm Credit Administration (FCA) employed about 440 staff
members.  Farm Credit had a centralized AWS policy that applied to
all headquarters and field employees in the agency.  It included a
flexitour program and a 5-4/9 compressed schedule program; both were
initially adopted in 1983. 

Under the flexitour program, employees could select their arrival and
departure times within a flexible band of 7:30 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m. 
Credit hours were not allowed.  The core period, when all employees
had to be present, was 9:00 a.m.  to 4:00 p.m., and all units had to
be operational during the customer service hours of 8:30 a.m.  to
5:00 p.m.  According to an agency official, the flexitour program has
always worked well. 

We were told by an agency official that a newly appointed chairman
terminated the compressed schedule program in 1986 because he did not
think such schedules were appropriate.  In 1987, a 5-4/9 compressed
schedule was reinstated but limited to agency examiners at GM-14
levels and below who traveled at least half the time.  Examiners
represent about 57 percent of the agency's workforce.  In 1991, 5-4/9
compressed schedules were again allowed for all other full-time
employees.  However, under the 1991 program, these employees were
allowed to work compressed schedules only between April and
October--daylight savings time.  During the other months of the year,
these employees had to return to traditional or flexitour schedules. 
About 95 percent of all full-time employees worked compressed
schedules during April through October. 

Managers and supervisors had to schedule either the first Friday or
the second Monday of the pay period as their nonworkday.  However,
other employees could schedule their nonworkday for any Monday or
Friday. 

According to an FCA official, compressed work schedules caused strong
emotions among the agency's managers.  The official said a few
managers strongly favored compressed schedules; some strongly
disliked them; and most were lukewarm, at best, in their support of
the program.  Hence, the "on/off" policy was considered to be a
reasonable compromise to accommodate all views. 

When a new chairman was appointed in August 1993, he implemented a
year-round compressed schedule program for all full-time managers and
employees effective November 1993.  According to an agency official,
the new chairman saw that the summer compressed schedule program
provided employees the opportunity to arrange work schedules more
suited to their personal needs without sacrificing the efficiency of
the agency's operations.  A personnel official said that without the
change in leadership, a year-round program would not have been
implemented. 


   DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
   SERVICES
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:5

The Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) responsibilities
were administered by its four operating organizations--Administration
for Children and Families (ACF), Health Care Financing Administration
(HCFA), Public Health Service (PHS), and Social Security
Administration (SSA).  The AWS policies and practices followed at the
departmental level and the operating organizations, including the
regional offices we visited, are discussed below. 


      HHS HEADQUARTERS
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:5.1

The Office of the Secretary employed approximately 2,250 workers. 
According to an HHS official, over 1,000 of the employees
participated in AWS. 

Under agreements negotiated with the employee union, flexitour and
compressed schedule programs were available to union employees in the
Office of the Secretary.\2 The flexitour schedule program permitted
employees to vary the times they arrived and departed work within a
flexible band of 6:00 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m.  Core hours were 9:30 a.m. 
to 3:30 p.m.  Employees working flexitour schedules could also earn
and carry over up to 20 credit hours.  The compressed schedule
program was limited to the 5-4/9 option.  Employees could begin work
between 6:30 a.m.  and 9:00 a.m.  on the 9-hour days and between 7:00
a.m.  and 9:30 a.m.  on the 8-hour day. 

A much more limited AWS program was available to some nonunion
employees.  They could work flexitour schedules, but credit hours
were not allowed.  However, they could not work compressed schedules. 

Implementation of the headquarters AWS policy was delegated to the
various assistant secretaries, and the offices of the Inspector
General, Civil Rights, and General Counsel in the Office of the
Secretary.  Each of these units implemented AWS in a different
manner.  For example, the Inspector General's office allowed its
employees to work flexitour schedules only, while employees in the
Offices of Civil Rights and the Assistant Secretary for Personnel
Administration could work flexitour or compressed schedules. 
Employees in the Office of Consumer Affairs had fixed work schedules
of 9:00 a.m.  to 5:30 p.m.  daily, unless they were able to arrange
AWS in individual written agreements with their supervisors. 


--------------------
\2 Flexitour and compressed schedules have been available to union
employees since 1985.  Flexitour schedules have been available to
nonunion employees since 1986. 


      HHS KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI,
      REGIONAL OFFICE
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:5.2

The AWS program for the Kansas City regional office applied to
regional employees of the Office of the Secretary, PHS, ACF, and
HCFA, and some SSA employees.  Approximately 300 employees were
eligible to participate in the region's AWS program.  The majority of
SSA employees in the region were covered under a separate arrangement
that is discussed on page 30. 

Under the region's AWS program, employees could choose a flexitour
program or the 5-4/9 compressed schedule program.  The flexitour
program allowed employees to vary their daily arrival and departure
times within a flexible band of 6:30 a.m.  to 5:30 p.m.  The core
hours were 9:00 a.m.  to 3:00 p.m.  Regional office employees working
either flexitour or traditional schedules could earn up to 20 credit
hours each pay period and carry over a maximum of 24 credit hours. 
Employees were allowed to use credit hours to work a de facto
compressed schedule.  Employees in field offices could not earn
credit hours.  Under the 5-4/9 compressed schedule program, employees
could vary their daily arrival and departure times within the
established flexible band.  However, once established, these
schedules could not be changed without supervisory approval. 


      ACF
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:5.3

ACF employed about 1,100 people, including about 600 in headquarters. 
Its AWS program included both gliding schedules and 5-4/9 compressed
schedules.  The AWS program was negotiated with the union for
bargaining unit employees.  Some features were also made available to
other employees. 

The gliding schedule program included a flexible band of 7:00 a.m. 
to 6:00 p.m.  Employees could change their arrival and departure
times each day if they desired.  The program allowed employees to
earn up to 2 credit hours each regular workday and up to 8 hours
during work on weekends and holidays, to a maximum of 16 hours each
pay period.  The compressed schedule program also allowed employees
to vary their daily arrival and departure times within the flexible
bands.  The nonworkdays had to be on Mondays or Fridays. 

Nonunion employees were allowed to work gliding schedules.  However,
some could not earn credit hours or participate in the compressed
schedule program. 


      HCFA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:5.4

HCFA had approximately 4,000 employees nationwide, with about 2,800
of these employees in the headquarters office. 


         HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:5.4.1

Employees in HCFA's headquarters offices could participate in either
a gliding schedule program or a 5-4/9 compressed schedule program. 

The gliding schedule program was implemented in 1984.  Employees
could vary their arrival times each day within the flexible band of
7:00 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m., although some employees were allowed to
begin work as early as 6:30 a.m.  Core hours were 9:30 a.m.  to 3:30
p.m.  Since May 1991, program participants have been allowed to earn
up to 2 credit hours a day, with a maximum carryover of 24 hours. 

HCFA called its 5-4/9 compressed schedule the "extended flex
program." It was implemented in February 1987.  Unlike a regular
compressed work schedule, the extended flex program allowed employees
to vary their daily arrival and departure times within the same
flexible band established under the gliding schedule program.  Credit
hours were not allowed.  We were told by officials that the objective
of the extended flex program was to increase employee morale and
improve productivity because management believed the benefits from
employee participation in the program far outweighed any
inconveniences it might cause the agency. 

According to an agency official, about 95 percent of the employees
participated in one of the AWS programs.  The official also said that
employees not participating in AWS generally were those employees
whose work was of a critical nature and required their presence each
day during regular working hours. 


      PHS
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:5.5

PHS employed approximately 52,725 staff nationwide, including
approximately 950 people in headquarters. 


         HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:5.5.1

PHS' AWS program included gliding schedules and a 5-4/9 compressed
schedule.  According to personnel officials, most employees worked
gliding schedules. 

Under the gliding schedule program, the flexible band was 7:00 a.m. 
to 6:00 p.m.  Core hours were 9:30 a.m.  to 3:30 p.m.  Employees
could earn a maximum of 12 credit hours each pay period and carry
over a maximum of 24 hours.  All full-time union employees were
eligible to participate in the 5-4/9 compressed schedule program, but
nonunion employees could participate only with the approval of their
office directors.  Employees working the 5-4/9 schedule could arrive
at work as early as 6:30 a.m., but once their schedules were set,
they had to maintain the same arrival and departure times and take
the same day off each pay period. 


      SSA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:5.6

SSA employed about 65,000 people nationwide, including about 15,000
employees in the headquarters offices.  A personnel official said
that approximately 50,000 SSA employees participated in the AWS
program. 

SSA began to experiment with the concept of flexible work schedules
in the mid-1970s and authorized them for all headquarters offices in
1978.  A compressed schedule program was added in 1990. 

Several SSA offices had separate memoranda of understanding with
employee unions covering AWS programs.  For example, the Office of
Hearings and Appeals, Program Service Center, Data Operations
Centers, field offices and teleservice centers, and the Office of
Regional Program and Integrity Reviews all had separate union
contracts describing how their AWS programs were to operate. 


         SSA HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:5.6.1

Headquarters employees could work either gliding schedules or 5-4/9
compressed schedules.  In addition, a small number of employees in
one office could work a 4/10 compressed schedule.  Employees on
gliding schedules could earn up to 12 credit hours each pay period
and carry over a maximum of 24 credit hours.  Supervisors were
expected to approve employee requests to work 5-4/9 compressed
schedules but could not allow more than 10 percent of employees on
such schedules to be off on the same day.  After consideration of
operational needs, conflicts in nonworkday requests were to be
resolved in favor of employees with the earliest service computation
dates. 

In SSA headquarters, each unit head could determine the flexible band
and core hours that would be used within the hours of 6:30 a.m.  to
6:00 p.m.  Unit heads were expected to ensure sufficient employee
coverage at all times to accomplish the work and to ensure employees
had adequate supervision. 


         SSA KANSAS CITY REGIONAL
         OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:5.6.2

The region employed about 3,600 people in its various district,
branch, and field offices.  The regional office established AWS
policies for its nonunion employees and negotiated policies for union
employees not covered by the HHS regional office AWS program. 

Most SSA units in the region had flexitour schedules and a 5-4/9
compressed schedule.  However, a number of differences existed among
the units.  For example, employees in the district and branch offices
could not earn credit hours under the flexitour program.  For the
most part, the other employees in the regional offices could earn and
carry over a maximum of 24 credit hours under the flexitour program,
but the number of hours they could earn during any pay period varied
from 10 to 24, depending upon where they were assigned.  In addition,
two units allowed employees working 5-4/9 compressed schedules to
vary their arrival and departure times within the established
flexible schedule band.  Flexible working hours were not allowed for
other regional employees working 5-4/9 compressed schedules.  Staff
attorneys in the region were allowed to work gliding schedules with
credit hours, or 5-4/9 or 4/10 compressed schedules, under their
negotiated union agreement. 

A regional official told us the region's position was that all
employees were eligible to participate in the AWS program.  However,
he acknowledged that some unit managers had decided not to allow
their employees to participate fully.  For example, employees working
in the computer operations area were not allowed to have flexitour or
compressed schedules because of the tight time frames involved in
their work.  The only flexibility they were allowed was to earn and
use credit hours. 


   DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6

The Department of the Interior (DOI) carries out its responsibilities
through a number of organizations, including the Office of the
Secretary, other departmental offices, and the following bureaus and
services:  (1) Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), (2) Bureau of Land
Management (BLM), (3) Bureau of Mines (BOM), (4) Bureau of
Reclamation (BOR), (5) Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), (6) Minerals
Management Service (MMS), (7) National Park Service (NPS), (8) Office
of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), and (9) U.S. 
Geological Survey (USGS).  Most of the organizations were
headquartered in the DOI building in Washington, D.C. 

We obtained information on AWS policies from the departmental level
headquarters offices of each of the bureaus and services and from the
regional offices we visited. 


      HEADQUARTERS/OFFICE OF THE
      SECRETARY
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:6.1

The Department used OPM guidance, along with departmental
instructions, as its AWS policy.  The AWS policy allowed most
headquarters employees to work flexitour, gliding schedules, or 5-4/9
compressed schedules.  In addition, one office allowed employees to
work 4/10 compressed schedules, and one office allowed employees on
travel status to work maxiflex and carry over 10 credit hours. 
However, the headquarters units were not required to allow their
employees to participate in AWS, and some units chose not to allow
participation in either the flexible or compressed schedule program. 
Credit hours were not allowed under the flexitour or gliding schedule
programs. 

According to an agency official, many managers in the Office of the
Secretary did not believe AWS was appropriate for headquarters
employees.  Yet, the official said employee interest in work schedule
flexibility was high, and AWS was viewed favorably in units where it
was allowed.  Also, the official said several units were considering
implementing AWS. 


      BIA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:6.2

BIA employed approximately 14,000 people nationwide, including about
410 in the headquarters offices.  We did not review AWS practices in
any BIA area offices. 

BIA negotiated a bureauwide AWS policy agreement with an employee
union.  The agreement authorized both flexible and compressed
schedules.  Regional offices and other BIA units could select from
among six work schedule options included in the agreement. 

The six agreement options included (1) traditional 8-hour schedules
or official business hours; (2) flexitour schedules whereby employees
worked 8 hours each day, but had set arrival and departure times; (3)
gliding 8-hour schedules whereby employees could vary their daily
arrival and departure times within a flexible band; (4) maxiflex
schedules whereby employees could complete the 80-hour pay period in
fewer than 10 days by earning and carrying over up to 24 credit
hours; (5) 5-4/9 compressed schedules; and (6) 4/10 compressed
schedules.  Credit hours could be earned only under the maxiflex
program. 

Most headquarters employees were limited to the flexitour option, and
no credit hours were allowed.  Less than 10 percent of BIA
headquarters employees were authorized to work 5-4/9 compressed
schedules, and no headquarters employees were allowed to work 4/10
compressed schedules.  The personnel official told us that, for the
most part, BIA headquarters units did not authorize compressed
schedules because managers did not like these schedules. 


      BLM
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:6.3

BLM employed approximately 10,000 permanent employees nationwide,
including approximately 400 in headquarters. 

BLM implemented an AWS policy in July 1990 that allowed flexible and
compressed work schedules.  The flexible schedule program policy
allowed the gliding, variable day, variable week, and maxiflex
options.  Compressed schedule options were the 5-4/9 and 4/10.  In
addition to allowing employees to select which schedules they would
work, the policy also allowed management to require employees to
convert to AWS, if necessary, for work-related reasons. 

The AWS policy recommended that units use a flexible band of 6:00
a.m.  to 6:00 p.m.  and a core time of 9:30 a.m.  to 2:30 p.m.,
excluding lunch.  The policy allowed employees on flexible schedules
to carry over a maximum of 24 credit hours from pay period to pay
period and to use their credit hours to vary the length of the
workday or workweek. 


         BLM HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.3.1

Headquarters employees could work a maxiflex schedule or a 5-4/9 or
4/10 compressed schedule.  A personnel official told us that most
employees (about 370) worked maxiflex schedules so they could earn
credit hours, and about 25 worked compressed schedules.  A BLM
official said the AWS program was a helpful employee recruitment and
retention tool.  According to the official, BLM headquarters
employees generally worked on policy matters, which the official
thought was particularly conducive to work schedule flexibility
because the employees were not dependent on other employee groups. 
The official added that a few employees did not work AWS because they
(1) had heavy workload requirements, (2) were being disciplined by
management, or (3) preferred to work traditional schedules. 


         BLM SACRAMENTO STATE
         OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.3.2

BLM employed approximately 1,000 people in California, including
about 300 at the Sacramento state office.  All the flexible work
schedules allowed under BLM's AWS policy were allowed in the state
office.  All employees, including top management, could participate
in the AWS program. 

A personnel official said that more than half the employees used AWS. 
The majority were on maxiflex schedules, a large number worked 5-4/9
compressed schedules, and a few worked 4/10 compressed schedules. 
The remaining employees worked traditional schedules.  Although
employees could vary their daily arrival and departure times, the
official said that most employees tended to work the same hours each
day.  Supervisors were encouraged to cross-train staff to provide
backup for employees on their nonworkdays.  The official told us that
employees had become "self-policing" and reported employees they
suspected were abusing the program. 

The personnel official said the state director was a progressive
manager who was very interested in looking at new issues, listening
to employees, and making necessary changes.  The official said the
office valued workforce diversity and believed giving employees
choices in their work schedules helped them better accommodate their
family responsibilities. 


      BUREAU OF MINES
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:6.4

The Bureau of Mines (BOM) employed about 2,000 persons.  Its
headquarters personnel office developed the BOM AWS policy that all
BOM offices had to follow, unless deviations were approved by
headquarters. 

BOM policy allowed most employees to use gliding schedules but did
not authorize credit hours.  However, six field offices received
approval for their employees to earn credit hours.  Of the
approximately 2,000 BOM employees nationwide, about 1,900 worked
gliding schedules. 


         BOM HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.4.1

Headquarters employees have been able to work gliding schedules since
1979.  Under this program, employees could arrive and leave work any
time during the flexible band of 6:30 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m.  as long as
they accounted for a full 8 hours of work or took approved leave. 
Employees could vary their schedules day by day without prior
supervisory approval.  Core hours were 9:00 a.m.  to 3:30 p.m.  The
official office hours were 7:45 a.m.  to 4:15 p.m. 

In June 1993, headquarters started a 1-year test of a 5-4/9
compressed schedule.  Of the 440 employees in headquarters, over 230
were participating in the test.  All other employees worked gliding
schedules. 


         BOM DENVER FIELD OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.4.2

In the 1970s, the Denver office participated in the government's AWS
experiment.  During the experiment, employees were allowed to work
maxiflex, gliding schedules, or 5-4/9 and 4/10 compressed schedules
to help cut down on traffic congestion during peak commuting times. 
Subsequently, all programs but gliding schedules were terminated
because of management's concern that supervisors could not properly
control employees' work schedules under more flexible approaches.  An
office official explained that it was difficult to have supervisors
present during all the various duty hours employees could have, and
management's view was that many employees would abuse their work
schedules if they were not supervised. 

Under the gliding schedule program, the flexible band was 6:30 a.m. 
to 6:00 p.m.  Core hours were 9:00 a.m.  to 3:00 p.m.  and credit
hours were not allowed.  Most of the approximately 375 employees in
the Denver office were eligible for the gliding schedule program. 

However, one unit, whose employees worked in remote locations,
received permission to use a 5-4/9 compressed schedule.  We were told
by the personnel official that the unit was pleased with the schedule
because it helped to decrease overtime pay. 

An office official said some units had asked about adding credit
hours to the gliding schedule program.  The personnel office
responded by citing the following difficulties it associated with
credit hours:  (1) determining how and when credit hours could be
taken to ensure adequate office coverage, (2) ensuring the presence
of a supervisor to monitor and verify that employees worked late to
earn credit hours, (3) avoiding labor relations entanglements during
implementation, (4) understanding the use of credit hours when
employees were traveling or in training, and (5) system abuses. 

In October 1993, the Denver regional office implemented a gliding
schedule program with credit hours.  Under this program, employees
could carry over up to 24 credit hours and use them to vary the
length of a subsequent workday or workweek. 


      BUREAU OF RECLAMATION
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:6.5

The Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) was headquartered in Denver.  It had
about 8,000 employees nationwide, including 2,000 in the Denver area. 


         BOR HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.5.1

The AWS policy authorized both gliding and compressed schedule
programs.  The gliding schedule allowed employees to vary their daily
arrival and departure times within a flexible band of 6:30 a.m.  to
6:00 p.m., except where different arrival times were established
because of operational requirements.  Core hours were 9:00 a.m.  to
3:00 p.m.  Employees could earn and carry over up to 24 credit hours. 
Under the compressed schedule program, employees could work a 5-4/9
schedule with fixed arrival and departure times and a fixed
nonworkday. 

Of the 2,000 employees, about 1,900 worked gliding schedules, and
about 100 worked 5-4/9 compressed schedules.  We were told by a BOR
official that some employees would like to work a 5-4/9 compressed
schedule and still be allowed gliding time and credit hours; however,
the statute does not permit this.  Employees on the gliding schedule
could effectively work out such a plan with their supervisors through
the use of credit hours, but employees preferred to have it as an
established choice.  The personnel official said that some
supervisors did not like to arrange de facto compressed schedules,
preferring the employees work a 5-4/9 schedule under the compressed
schedule program.  In this way, the employees' work schedules were
fixed. 

Offices had to meet specific BOR criteria if they wanted to terminate
a person or a group from the AWS program.  Terminations had to be
based on operational need, cost effectiveness, or abuse.  A BOR
official said AWS had great potential as a recruitment tool, and its
availability was mentioned in vacancy announcements.  The official
said BOR tried to accommodate employees' preferred work schedules as
much as possible. 

According to the BOR official, the agency believed AWS programs were
very important in today's society and fully supported AWS as a means
to accommodate employee and management needs.  The official said BOR
had not seen any evidence of abuse any greater than under any other
work schedule program.  He said most supervisors liked or at least
accepted AWS, although a few feared loss of control under AWS and
preferred the traditional arrangement whereby all employees worked 8
hours at the same time. 

To gain acceptance and understanding of the AWS program, the BOR
official told us that extensive training was provided to employees
and supervisors before the program was implemented.  The training
described supervisor and employee responsibilities and helped them
comprehend the program's parameters. 


         BOR SACRAMENTO REGIONAL
         OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.5.2

The Sacramento region had approximately 800 employees; half were in
the regional office and half were in field locations. 

In 1991, the regional office implemented a gliding schedule with
credit hours.  The regional program used the same flexible band and
core hours as did headquarters.  The regional program also allowed
employees to use their credit hours to effectively work 5-4/9 or 4/10
compressed schedules with supervisory approval. 

According to a regional official, the office trusts its employees and
believes the AWS program helps reward good employees for the work
they do.  He said the impetus for implementing AWS was the arrival of
new management that wanted to make the region a better workplace and
help employees accommodate their work/family responsibilities. 

Over 600 of the region's employees participated in the AWS program. 
However, one union did not want its members to earn credit hours, so
approximately 170 employees were excluded.  A regional evaluation of
the AWS program revealed that other employees were not participating
for personal reasons, such as car pool and child care arrangements or
outside commitments. 


      FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:6.6

The Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) employed about 9,500 people
nationwide, about 650 of whom were in headquarters. 


         FWS HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.6.1

The headquarters AWS policy authorized individual units to implement
gliding and compressed schedules.  Some units allowed their employees
to work gliding schedules, some allowed 5-4/9 or 4/10 compressed
schedules, and some did not allow work schedule flexibility.  Credit
hours could not be earned.  According to FWS officials, headquarters
units generally had small staffs and allowing compressed schedules
would not provide adequate coverage for the office.  Of the 293
employees participating in AWS, 107 used gliding schedules and 186
used compressed schedules. 

An FWS official said more employees would probably participate in AWS
if it were more widely offered. 


         FWS DENVER REGIONAL
         OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.6.2

The regional office employed about 1,250 people in 8 states,
including about 260 located in the Denver area. 

The office allowed most employees to work either a flexitour or a
5-4/9 compressed work schedule.  The flexitour program had three
tours of duty from which employees could select:  (1) 7:00 a.m.  to
3:30 p.m., (2) 7:30 a.m.  to 4:00 p.m., and (3) 8:00 a.m.  to 4:30
p.m.  The flexitour program also allowed employees to extend their
lunch periods up to 1 hour and add the extra time at the end of the
day--no credit hours were allowed. 

The 5-4/9 compressed schedule has been allowed since the mid-1970s. 
It required employees to limit their schedules to the hours of 7:00
a.m.  to 4:30 p.m., with no extension of their lunch periods.  An
office official said the building lease did not provide for services,
such as heating or janitorial support, before 7:00 a.m.  or after
5:00 p.m.  Thus, additional hours of operation would be an added cost
to the office. 

The official said managers have learned to accommodate the 5-4/9
schedule by scheduling meetings on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday,
when most employees were at work.  Of the Denver regional employees
who participated in the AWS program, over 100 worked a flexitour
schedule, and nearly 100 worked a 5-4/9 schedule. 


      MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:6.7

MMS employed approximately 2,000 employees nationwide, including
about 440 at headquarters.  The personnel official told us that
virtually all employees worked some form of AWS. 


         MMS HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.7.1

Most headquarters employees were allowed to work gliding or 5-4/9
compressed schedules.  Gliding schedules have been available since
1982, and compressed schedules were authorized in 1989.  Under the
gliding schedule program, the flexible band was 7:00 a.m.  to 6:00
p.m., and the core hours were 9:30 a.m.  to 3:30 p.m.  Credit hours
were not allowed.  Under the compressed schedule program, eligible
employees could select arrival and departure times between 6:00 a.m. 
and 6:00 p.m.  Nonworkdays were staggered throughout the pay period;
however, no more than 20 percent of the employees could be off on any
given day. 


         MMS CAMARILLO,
         CALIFORNIA, AREA OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.7.2

The Camarillo area office employed about 120 people.  Most employees
in the area office were allowed to work flexitour or compressed
schedules. 

Under the flexitour program, the flexible and core hours were the
same as at headquarters.  No credit hours were allowed.  The
compressed schedule program included both the 5-4/9 and 4/10 options. 
Employees primarily selected Mondays or Fridays as their nonworkday. 


      NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:6.8

The National Park Service (NPS) had about 12,000 employees
nationwide, approximately 5,000 of whom participated in an AWS
program. 


         HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.8.1

An NPS handbook entitled Alternative Work Schedules in the National
Park Service, A Handbook for Supervisors described the AWS program
available to NPS employees.  It presented a variety of options from
which employees could choose. 

Three flexible schedule options, flexitour, gliding schedule, and
maxiflex, were available.  Under flexitour, employees could select
their arrival and departure times from a set, written schedule.  Once
selected, the times were fixed and could not vary from day to day. 
Under the gliding schedule, employees could vary their daily arrival
and departure times within a flexible band.  The flexible band was
6:30 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m.  Each day had a set core period during which
all employees had to be present.  The maxiflex schedule was similar
to the gliding schedule, but it also allowed employees to earn and
carry over a maximum of 24 credit hours.  The 5-4/9 and 4/10
compressed schedules were also available.  Credit hours were allowed
only under the maxiflex program. 

We were told that NPS was very supportive of AWS and encouraged its
use.  According to the handbook, "an employee should be given the
opportunity to demonstrate that he/she is responsible enough to
follow the AWS' rules.' However, if the employee then demonstrates
irresponsibility, the supervisor should take immediate action to
correct the abuse or cancel the employee's schedule altogether." In
addition, the handbook stated, "a supervisor may assign any employee
to an alternative schedule if the needs of the Service/organization
are better served by the change."

Most of the approximately 550 employees in NPS headquarters had all
the AWS options available to them.  According to an agency official,
the most prevalent work schedule in headquarters was the 5-4/9
compressed schedule. 


         NPS SAN FRANCISCO
         REGIONAL OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.8.2

The San Francisco regional office was responsible for administering
the national park system in the western part of the country, as well
as certain natural and historical landmark and archeological
programs.  Excluding the summer months, about 2,200 people worked in
the region, including about 200 in the regional headquarters. 

Employees in the regional office had to work either a traditional
8-hour schedule or a maxiflex schedule.  Under maxiflex, employees
could work up to 11-1/2 hours a day, carry over a maximum of 24
credit hours, and vary their daily arrival and departure times. 
According to a regional official, nearly all regional office
employees opted to use maxiflex.  He added that employees often did
not use all the flexibility allowed by the program and tended to work
the same hours every day. 

The official said the only problem that had been experienced with
maxiflex was adjusting to the timekeeping requirements involved when
employees worked varying numbers of hours each day and earned credit
hours.  He said the timekeeping difficulties diminished greatly as
the region became more familiar with the program. 

The region permitted employees in parks and offices to use any or all
of the AWS schedules authorized in the NPS handbook.  However, we
were told that the predominant AWS programs used in the parks were
5-4/9 and 4/10 compressed schedules.  According to the regional
official, these fixed schedules were more compatible with providing
needed services to the public. 

At the time of our review, about 260 regional employees worked
maxiflex schedules; over 700 worked a 5-4/9 schedule, and about 170
worked a 4/10 schedule.  The regional official speculated that other
employees did not participate in AWS because either their local
management had determined that work requirements made it unfeasible
or the employees themselves had decided to continue using traditional
schedules. 


      OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING
      RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:6.9

The Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) had
about 1,060 employees nationwide, including about 240 headquarters
personnel.  According to an agency official, about 600 employees
worked alternative work schedules. 

In 1988, OSM initiated an AWS pilot whereby employees could work a
flexitour or compressed schedule.  Under flexitour, employees could
select their arrival and departure times during a flexible band of
7:00 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m.  Once the times were selected, participating
employees had to adhere to the same schedules.  In 1989, the
flexitour program was expanded to allow employees to carry over up to
10 credit hours.  By using credit hours, employees were able to vary
the length of their workdays or their workweeks. 

Under the pilot compressed schedule, employees could choose to work
either a 5-4/9 or 4/10 option.  With supervisory approval, employees
could designate any day in the pay period as their nonworkday.  The
pilot AWS policy also allowed supervisors to assign employees to AWS
if it suited the needs of the organization. 

According to an evaluation of the pilot program completed in 1990,
the AWS program was successful and should be continued.  The
evaluation concluded that one of the most compelling reasons to
continue the program was the positive impact it had on employee
morale.  However, the evaluation also showed there had been
occasions, especially on Mondays and Fridays, when employees were not
available when needed.  This difficulty was found to apply mostly to
senior officials and other headquarters staff office heads, and the
program was modified to exclude their participation. 


         OSM HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.9.1

Most headquarters employees were authorized to participate in the
flexitour and compressed work schedules.  Of the 300 employees in
headquarters, 159 worked a 5-4/9 schedule and 36 worked a 4/10
schedule.  All other employees worked either flexitour or traditional
schedules. 

According to a headquarters official, most employees had positive
views of the program; however, careful management was necessary to
make the program work well. 


         OSM WESTERN SUPPORT
         CENTER
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.9.2

The Western Support Center of OSM was located in Denver. 

All employees in the center could work flexitour or compressed
schedules.  Under the flexitour policy, up to 10 credit hours could
be earned.  According to a center official, few employees earned
credit hours under the flexitour program because the center required
a mission-related reason for employees to work beyond their regular
hours of duty.  Of the 243 employees at the center, 114 worked a
flexitour schedule, 118 worked 5-4/9 compressed schedules, and 11
worked 4/10 compressed schedules. 

According to the center official, the center used the AWS program as
a recruiting tool.  He also said the employees tended to police the
program themselves because they viewed AWS as a privilege, and they
didn't want to lose it through employee abuse. 

One office at the center used a local area network system to schedule
leave, travel, and training.  We were told this system also helped
managers to accommodate the AWS programs because they could use the
network to determine when employees were available so they could
schedule meetings.  The center official felt such a network system
was particularly useful to small organizations in managing the AWS
program. 


      U.S.  GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.10

The U.S.  Geological Survey (USGS) employed 10,000 persons
nationwide, including over 2,000 in headquarters.  Most employees
were eligible for the AWS program. 


         HEADQUARTERS
--------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.10.1

USGS has had a gliding schedule program since 1976.  In 1984, a
credit hour feature was added, allowing employees to carry over a
maximum of 24 credit hours.  However, employees were not allowed to
use credit hours to work de facto 5-4/9 or 4/10 compressed schedules. 
The flexible band was 6:30 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m., and the core hours
were 9:00 a.m.  to 3:00 p.m. 

According to an agency official, employees have occasionally inquired
about the possibility of adding a compressed work schedule to the AWS
program, but management has not been amenable to such a change. 


         USGS DENVER REGIONAL
         OFFICE
--------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6.10.2

The region employed approximately 3,000 people, and it used a gliding
schedule with credit hours. 

With supervisory approval, employees could earn credit hours when
circumstances supported continuing work beyond the regular workday. 
Employees could carry over a maximum of 24 credit hours but could not
use credit hours to work de facto 5-4/9 or 4/10 work schedules. 

An official noted that the region's mapping division had a sales
counter that had to be staffed during specific hours.  The official
said employees in the division arranged their schedules to ensure
customer service hours were covered. 

Also, the official said most employees tended to work the same
schedules every day, despite having the option to vary them daily. 


   SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE
   COMMISSION
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:7

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) had approximately 2,600
employees in its headquarters and regional offices.  We only visited
SEC headquarters because the agency administered its AWS program
centrally and had no personnel offices in its regions. 

SEC's AWS program was implemented in 1983, and the program was
initially limited to flexitour schedules.  Employees were allowed to
establish working hours within a flexible band of 7:00 a.m.  to 5:30
p.m. 

The flexitour program was available to a limited number of SEC
employees, and no credit hours were allowed.  Agencywide, division
directors and office heads were allowed to approve no more than 15
percent of employee requests to participate in the program.  Managers
were instructed to give priority to those employees with dependent
care, transportation, or educational needs in determining which
requests to approve.  Managers could also request special approval
from the executive director to exceed the 15-percent limitation in
hardship situations or direct other employees to change their
schedules if telephone coverage or other work was required beyond
their normal duty hours. 

In November 1991, SEC expanded the AWS program to include a 5-4/9
compressed schedule option for employees in its operations center. 
Mondays and Fridays were designated as allowable nonworkdays, and
employees had to schedule their days off in advance.  In November
1992, a second component, the printing and facilities plant,
requested approval for a compressed schedule to allow it to expand
service hours and decrease overtime costs.  The request was approved
on the basis that the component's work and staffing patterns were
amenable to compressed schedules. 

Of the approximately 2,600 full-time employees in SEC, 425 worked
flexitour schedules and 110 worked compressed schedules. 


   DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:8

We visited the Department of Transportation's (DOT) Office of the
Secretary and eight of its component agencies--Coast Guard, Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Federal Transit Administration
(FTA), Maritime Administration (MARAD), National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration (NHTSA), and Research and Special Programs
Administration (RSPA).  We visited the headquarters offices of each
organization and certain field offices of the Coast Guard, FAA, and
FHWA because these organizations had personnel offices in their field
offices. 

DOT first implemented an AWS program in 1979.  It included both
flexible and compressed schedules.  However, we were told that
subsequent top level DOT management disliked the program and
terminated it DOT-wide in 1982.  In 1988, DOT management decided to
reinstate AWS, and each DOT organization was authorized to have an
AWS program if specific criteria were met. 

Before implementing AWS, each DOT agency was required to ensure that
its program complied with a DOT directive on AWS issued in June 1990. 
The directive required the agencies to demonstrate that AWS would
result in significant personnel and operational benefits and have no
adverse impact on agency operations.  For example, the directive
required implementation of AWS to save at least 5 percent of the
agency's operating budget before it could be implemented.  A further
requirement specified annual reviews of AWS programs and termination
of any programs failing to meet the criteria. 

At the time of our review, we were told that about 51,000 of DOT's
workforce of 68,500 employees were eligible to participate in some
form of AWS. 

In November 1993, DOT implemented a more liberal AWS policy and
delegated approval of AWS programs to the heads of its operating
administrations.  Under the new AWS policy, the operating
administrations could implement any of the AWS options allowed by
law, as long as the schedules had no adverse impact on the work of
the organization.  The personnel officials from the operating
administrations told us that their organizations planned to expand
their AWS programs in calendar year 1994. 


      HEADQUARTERS/OFFICE OF THE
      SECRETARY
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:8.1

The Office of the Secretary's AWS policy allowed most employees to
work flexitour schedules within the flexible band of 7:00 a.m.  to
6:00 p.m.  Core hours were 9:30 a.m.  to 3:30 p.m., and earning
credit hours was not permitted. 

The Office of Inspector General within the Office of the Secretary
had a separate AWS policy.  It allowed employees to work a 5-4/9
compressed schedule upon written request.  Employees could select
arrival times between the hours of 7:00 a.m.  and 8:30 a.m.  and
leave work 9-1/2 hours later.  Days off had to be Monday or Friday,
but no more than 25 percent of the employees could be off on the same
day. 


      COAST GUARD
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:8.2

The Coast Guard employed about 5,000 civilian employees nationwide,
including 1,200 in headquarters. 


         COAST GUARD HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:8.2.1

All headquarters personnel were eligible for flexitour schedules. 
The program required employees to work 8 hours a day, 40 hours a
week, but they could establish their working hours any time between
7:00 a.m.  and 6:00 p.m.  No credit hours were permitted. 

To help with energy conservation efforts, the Coast Guard placed all
headquarters employees on a 4/10 compressed schedule in the late
1970s.  The office was closed every Friday.  A Coast Guard official
said that, after a period of time, compressed schedules were canceled
to ensure operating hours matched customer service requests. 
Thereafter, headquarters employees were allowed to work flexitour
schedules only. 


         COAST GUARD MAINTENANCE
         AND LOGISTICS COMMAND,
         PACIFIC
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:8.2.2

The Coast Guard Maintenance and Logistics Command, Pacific, was
headquartered in Alameda, California.  The command employed
approximately 1,000 people in Alameda and throughout the Pacific
area.  According to a command official, most employees were eligible
for flexitour and 5-4/9 compressed schedules. 

The command began using flexitour schedules in the 1980s.  Similar to
headquarters, credit hours were not permitted.  In 1990, the command
received approval to experiment with compressed schedules.  The
experiment started in August 1990 at three command locations.  It
allowed employees to work 5-4/9\3

schedules and choose either a Monday or Friday as their nonworkday. 

An evaluation of the first year's experience under the experiment
showed that supervisors and employees overwhelmingly supported the
program.  In January 1992, the program was made permanent.  In a July
1992 report to the Coast Guard Commandant, the command said it
continued to receive only positive comments about the program.  The
report said the most beneficial aspects of the program were the
savings in commuting time and costs, its use as a positive
recruitment tool, and the command's enhanced ability to serve its
customers. 


--------------------
\3 Employees in Valdez, Alaska, could work six 12-hour days and one
8-hour day each pay period.  Employees in Port Angeles, Washington,
could work four 10-hour days each week. 


      FAA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:8.3

The FAA had the most liberal AWS policy in DOT.  Of approximately
55,000 FAA employees nationwide, about 32,000 participated in AWS. 

Since March 1991, FAA has allowed its nonunion employees to use the
AWS options available under the statute.  However, the AWS program
could vary by organizational unit because each regional
administrator, air traffic manager, and associate administrator was
allowed to determine the basic program parameters for the units
reporting directly to them. 

As a result of union negotiations, union employees in several FAA
organizations began experimenting with various types of AWS schedules
in 1989.  For example, air traffic controllers at 45 air traffic
facilities were allowed to work 5-4/9 and 4/10 compressed schedules
in a study of how compressed schedules would affect controller
performance.  During the study, which was still in progress at the
time of our review, other air traffic facilities were permitted to
work a variety of flexible schedules.  In all air traffic facilities,
unions and management negotiated local agreements on who could
participate in AWS and which type of schedules would be permitted. 

FAA officials told us that, in general, the AWS program had been very
well received in the air traffic facilities.  Of all the air traffic
facilities that used AWS, only one or two returned to a traditional
8-hour schedule. 

According to an air traffic management survey completed in 1991, the
AWS program decreased overtime costs, reduced sick leave usage, and
improved employee morale.  The survey found AWS had no effect on such
factors as the level of service provided, employee recruitment, and
the ability to avoid operational difficulties, i.e., errors and
accidents. 


         FAA HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:8.3.1

According to an FAA directive dated May 1992, the AWS program offered
headquarters employees was intended to enhance operational
efficiency, promote FAA program goals, and enrich the employees'
ability to meet both their professional and personal
responsibilities.  The stated AWS program objective was to provide
benefits to management, the general public, and employees.  Of
approximately 4,000 headquarters employees, about 2,350 participated
in AWS. 

Employees at headquarters could work flexible or compressed
schedules.  Under the flexible schedule program, most employees had
their choice, subject to supervisory approval, of flexitour, gliding
schedule, variable day, variable week, or maxiflex.  The flexible
band was 6:00 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m.  Core hours were 9:30 a.m.  to 3:30
p.m.  Employees on flexible schedules could earn up to 2 credit hours
each day and carry over a maximum of 24 credit hours from pay period
to pay period. 

The compressed schedule program included the 5-4/9 and 4/10 options. 
Once employees selected their arrival and departure times and
nonworkday(s), their schedules were fixed until their supervisors
approved changes. 

According to FAA officials, one way adequate office coverage was
maintained under AWS was a system whereby employees arranged to
substitute for each other on their nonworkdays. 


         FAA KANSAS CITY REGIONAL
         OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:8.3.2

FAA's Kansas City, Missouri, regional office had about 3,000
employees.  It allowed two flexible schedule options--flexitour and
gliding schedule--and also permitted 5-4/9 and 4/10 compressed
schedules. 

Under the flexible schedule options, employees could select their
arrival and departure times within the flexible band of 6:30 a.m.  to
5:00 p.m.  Under the flexitour option, once times were selected, the
daily schedules were fixed.  The gliding schedule option permitted
employees to change their daily arrival and departure times. 
Regional officials said a survey of employees on gliding schedules
showed the employees usually arrived within a 15- to 20-minute window
every day.  Both flexible schedules allowed employees to carry over a
maximum of 24 credit hours from pay period to pay period. 

Both the 5-4/9 and 4/10 compressed schedules let employees select any
day of the week as their nonworkday.  Employees on compressed
schedules could select their arrival and departure times within a
flexible band of 6:00 a.m.  and 6:00 p.m. 

About 250 employees participated in AWS.  About half were on gliding
schedules, and half were on compressed schedules.  The most popular
compressed schedule was the 5-4/9; fewer than 10 employees worked a
4/10 schedule. 


      FHWA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:8.4

FHWA employed about 3,700 people nationwide, with about 1,100 in
headquarters. 


         FHWA HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:8.4.1

FHWA's headquarters' AWS policy allowed employees to work flexitour
schedules.  The program required employees to work 8 hours every day
of the week, but they could vary their arrival and departure times
with supervisory approval.  The flexible band was 7:00 a.m.  to 6:00
p.m., and core hours were 9:30 a.m.  to 3:30 p.m.  Credit hours were
not allowed. 

In July 1992, FHWA issued guidance urging supervisors to support the
flexitour program.  According to the guidance, FHWA wanted to give
employees as much flexibility as possible to help them accommodate
their professional and personal obligations. 

The personnel official told us that FHWA planned to implement a
compressed schedule program agencywide in early 1994.  The 5-4/9
schedule will be the option most generally available. 


         FHWA DENVER REGIONAL
         OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:8.4.2

The Denver region included the central office and six divisions that
were located in various states.  The regional office also provided
administrative services to the independently managed Office of Motor
Carriers.  The region employed 150 people, and the Office of Motor
Carriers employed 41. 

The region adopted FHWA headquarters' AWS policy as its guidance.  It
had been using a flexitour program without credit hours for about 14
years.  The region allowed each division to establish its own
flexible band and core hours. 


      FRA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:8.5

FRA had about 700 employees nationwide, including about 280 in
headquarters. 

FRA implemented a flexitour program with no credit hours in 1979.  It
allowed employees to arrange their working hours any time between
7:00 a.m.  and 6:00 p.m.  However, employees were allowed 15 minutes
leeway in their scheduled arrival times each day, with their
departure times adjusted accordingly.  For example, an employee
scheduled to arrive at 7:45 a.m.  could report as early as 7:30 a.m. 
or as late as 8:00 a.m.  and depart 8-1/2 hours later. 

Under the AWS policy, all headquarters employees were eligible to
participate in the flexitour program.  An agency official said it was
difficult to determine the number of employees who actually
participated since approval authority was delegated to the lowest
supervisory level.  The official also said some employees were
required to work standard FRA business hours of 8:30 a.m.  to 5:00
p.m.  to ensure adequate employee coverage for the public.  However,
the official believed that the majority of headquarters employees
used the program. 

In September 1992, FRA's regional office in Portland, Oregon, was
granted approval to pilot a maxiflex program for its safety
inspectors.  Under this program, employees could carry over a maximum
of 24 credit hours, but an employee's daily shift could not exceed 12
hours, including meal breaks.  Of the 66 employees eligible for the
maxiflex program, 62 were participating.  Due to the success of its
maxiflex pilot, FRA had expanded the maxiflex program to another
three regions by November 1993 and planned to implement maxiflex in
its remaining four regions in early 1994. 

The official said AWS helped the agency accomplish its mission.  He
said FRA plans to adjust the program where necessary to meet its
changing needs and the increasing demands expected of a shrinking
workforce.  As of November 1993, FRA was organizing a task force to
evaluate more flexible AWS programs for use throughout FRA. 


      FTA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:8.6

FTA employed approximately 500 employees nationwide, including over
300 in headquarters. 

Like FRA, FTA employees were allowed to work flexitour schedules,
with 15-minutes leeway in their scheduled arrival and departure times
each day.  Credit hours were not allowed. 

According to an FTA official, when the Office of the Secretary of
Transportation polled the various DOT component agencies about their
interest in changing the DOT AWS policy, the FTA administrator
supported liberalizing the policy and allowing each agency maximum
flexibility in determining how AWS would be carried out. 

We were also told by the official that the 5-4/9 compressed schedule
option had been approved for most employees and would be implemented
in early 1994. 


      MARITIME ADMINISTRATION
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:8.7

MARAD employed about 1,100 people, including about 500 in
headquarters. 

Since 1977, MARAD's AWS program has allowed headquarters employees to
work flexitour schedules, whereby they could select their 8-hour
workdays within a flexible band of 7:00 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m.  The
15-minute leeway in arrival and departure times allowed by FRA and
FTA was not permitted.  However, the 30-minute lunch could be
extended for personal needs and the time made up later in the day. 
The flexitour program did not permit credit hours to be earned. 
According to MARAD officials, employees in the regions were not
allowed to participate in the AWS program. 


      NHTSA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:8.8

NHTSA had approximately 640 employees nationwide, including about 540
in headquarters. 

In its June 1984 guidance on AWS, NHTSA required uniform work hours
for all employees but allowed exceptions on a case-by-case basis. 
According to agency officials, in actual practice, everyone was
eligible to participate in a flexitour program.  Under the program,
headquarters employees could arrive as early as 6:30 a.m.  The field
offices also used flexitour; however, their hours of operation could
be different from headquarters.  No credit hours were permitted.  We
were told by NHTSA officials that approximately 90 percent of all
employees worked flexitour schedules. 


      RSPA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:8.9

RSPA employed about 800 people nationwide, including about 260 in
headquarters. 

All RSPA employees could work flexitour schedules.  They could select
arrival and departure times within the flexible band of 7:30 a.m.  to
5:00 p.m.  Once working hours were selected, they became fixed tours
of duty.  Credit hours were not allowed under the flexitour program. 
According to RSPA officials, most headquarters employees chose to
work the regular hours 8:30 a.m.  to 5:00 p.m.  rather than flexitour
schedules. 

In September 1991, RSPA began a pilot test of credit hours in one of
its regional centers.  The test permitted employees to earn and carry
over a maximum of 6 credit hours, which they could use to reduce the
length of a subsequent workday or workweek.  In June 1993, the credit
hours program was made permanent at the regional center. 

In June 1992, an RSPA task force recommended that a 5-4/9 compressed
schedule program be adopted.  According to the task force, a 5-4/9
schedule could be implemented easily, be made available to the
maximum number of employees, be the least disruptive to existing
operations, and provide an excellent "baseline" standard to which
other AWS programs could be attached.  According to an RSPA official,
the 5-4/9 schedule would be implemented because the DOT-wide AWS
policy had been changed to permit it. 


   DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) carries out its mission
through three operating organizations--the National Cemetery System
(NCS), Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), and Veterans Health
Administration (VHA).  We visited the headquarters and one regional
office of each of the operating divisions.  We also visited four
medical facilities. 

VA has two legal employment authorities (Title 38 U.S.C.  and Title 5
U.S.C.) under which it operates.  Title 38 applies to health care
occupations, and title 5 applies to all other occupations.  VA
followed two AWS policies--one for headquarters or central office
employees and one for field employees. 

Under VA's headquarters AWS policy, employees could work flexitour
schedules only.  They could select arrival and departure times within
a flexible band.  Once working hours were selected, they became fixed
tours of duty.  However, employees were allowed 15-minutes leeway in
their arrival times.  For example, an employee selecting 7:30 a.m. 
as a starting time could report for work any time between 7:15 a.m. 
and 7:45 a.m.  and adjust the departure time accordingly.  Credit
hours were not allowed under the flexitour program. 

In September 1993, VA management authorized a compressed schedule
test for all headquarters employees to begin October 3, 1993, and
continue for 1 year.  Organizations were delegated the responsibility
for deciding whether a 5-4/9, a 4/10, or both compressed schedules
would be allowed.  Organizations were to fully implement the test no
later than November 1, 1993.  VA management saw this as an
opportunity to test a program that should maximize efficiency and
productivity and, at the same time, improve the overall morale and
quality of life for employees.  The compressed schedule was expected
to create a work environment that would support the recruitment and
retention of a highly qualified workforce by offering employees the
opportunity to work schedules that provided additional time to
fulfill their personal responsibilities. 

Under VA's field office AWS policy, title 5 employees could work
flexitour schedules in the same manner as headquarters employees. 
However, compressed schedules have always been allowed, although a
unit could not have both flexitour and compressed schedules. 

The policy allowed medical center directors to determine AWS
practices for health care workers, excluding physicians and
dentists,\4 in VHA field locations.  The directors were authorized to
allow employees to work flexitour or compressed schedules.\5


--------------------
\4 VA policy prohibited full-time physicians and dentists from
participating in AWS because they were compensated on a daily basis
and were expected to be available for duty 7 days a week. 

\5 Some medical facilities used the "Baylor plan" for registered
nurses whereby they worked two 12-hour shifts each weekend and were
paid for 40 hours. 


      NCS
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:9.1

NCS employed 1,250 employees nationwide, including about 170 at
headquarters. 

NCS had no national AWS policy.  Each unit was allowed to determine
its own work schedule. 


         NCS HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9.1.1

NCS headquarters offices had used flexitour schedules with no credit
hours since 1987.  The flexible band was 7:00 a.m.  to 6:00 p.m. 
According to an official, the program had not changed since its
inception, and there were no restrictions on who could participate. 

In October 1993, NCS began piloting a compressed schedule for
headquarters employees.  According to an NCS official, evaluations of
the program thus far showed that employees had acted responsibly
about scheduling leave, and productivity had improved.  In addition,
labor/employee relations problems had decreased significantly during
the first month of the pilot. 


         NCS DENVER AREA OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9.1.2

The Denver area office was responsible for 28 VA national cemeteries. 
About 75 percent of the employees were blue-collar workers engaged in
burial duties. 

Fourteen employees worked in the area office and participated in the
program.  They were allowed to work flexitour schedules within a
flexible band of 6:45 a.m.  to 4:45 p.m., and credit hours were not
allowed. 

Most burial work at the cemeteries was performed by interment crews. 
The crews work together, take breaks together, and lunch together. 
Burials occur during the public service hours of 8:30 a.m.  to 3:30
p.m.  According to an area office official, the nature of burial
duties made it difficult for employees to participate in AWS.  For
example, he said most burials were on Mondays and Fridays, and
allowing compressed schedules would cause problems if employees
selected one of those days as their nonworkday.  Thus, most
cemeteries required employees to work traditional schedules. 
Nonetheless, crews at two cemeteries--Fort Snelling, Minnesota, and
Los Angeles, California--were allowed to work compressed schedules. 

The Fort Snelling cemetery has had a 5-4/9 compressed schedule since
1986.  Of 43 employees, 18 worked compressed schedules.  To ensure
continuity of work, no more than four employees should be off on the
same day.  However, the official acknowledged that the cemetery
sometimes experienced problems doing its work on days when greater
numbers of employees were away. 

Unlike other cemeteries under the area office, the Los Angeles
cemetery was a "closed" cemetery.  Its burials were limited to
spouses and cremated remains.  The cemetery has allowed its employees
to work either a 5-4/9 or 4/10 compressed schedule since October
1990.  Thirteen of 21 employees worked the 4/10 schedule; no
employees worked the 5-4/9 option. 


      VBA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:9.2

VBA employed about 12,800 people nationwide, including about 575 in
the central office. 

An agency official said that regional offices in VBA experimented
with compressed schedules in the early 1980s.  However, because of
difficulties encountered in the experiment, the program was
terminated at all but one office.  Two of the difficulties were said
to be increased work backlogs and reduced opportunities for
interaction with customers, particularly at the smaller regional
offices.  He explained that, on the basis of VBA's experience,
management has been opposed to compressed work schedules. 


         VBA HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9.2.1

Employees could work flexitour schedules with no credit hours.  They
were given 15-minute grace periods before they were considered tardy. 

On November 1, 1993, VBA began a compressed schedule program for
full-time employees as part of the VA headquarters' 1-year test. 
Under the test, VBA allowed both 5-4/9 and 4/10 work schedules. 


         VBA SAN FRANCISCO
         REGIONAL OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9.2.2

The regional office employed about 400 people.  It allowed employees
to work flexitour or compressed schedules.  The flexitour program
allowed 15-minute grace periods from employees' scheduled starting
times.  No credit hours were allowed.  The compressed schedule
program was a 5-4/9 arrangement.  Similar to flexitour, employees on
compressed schedules were allowed the 15-minute grace period. 

An agency official told us that the San Francisco regional office was
the only VBA office to continue the compressed schedules after the
experiment ended.  The official said he believed the program worked
in the region because most managers were supportive of the program. 
About 100 of the 400 employees worked 5-4/9 compressed schedules. 


      VHA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:9.3

VHA employed approximately 208,000 employees nationwide, including
about 860 in headquarters. 


         VHA HEADQUARTERS
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9.3.1

Headquarters employees were allowed to work flexitour schedules with
no credit hours.  Employees could select their arrival and departure
times within a flexible band. 

Similar to other VA headquarters components, VHA's participation in
the compressed schedule test began November 1, 1993.  Most employees
could work either the 5-4/9 or 4/10 compressed schedules.  VHA also
allowed title 38 personnel, including physicians, dentists, and
members of the Senior Executive Service, to participate in the
compressed schedule test.  However, they could only work the 5-4/9
schedule. 


         VHA SAN FRANCISCO
         REGIONAL OFFICE
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9.3.2

The regional office was responsible for 29 medical centers, 6
outpatient clinics, and 1 domiciliary.  The San Francisco region had
about 36,000 employees, including about 100 in the regional office. 

In February 1991, the regional office studied various AWS options. 
It piloted a compressed schedule program for 6 months and made the
program permanent in February 1992.  The most predominant compressed
schedule worked was the 5-4/9, but a 4/10 schedule was also allowed. 
According to a regional official, compressed schedules helped the
region in its work with VA offices in the eastern part of the
country.  Employees could also work a flexitour schedule, whereby
employees could select their own arrival and departure times within a
flexible band.  Credit hours were not allowed. 


      VA MEDICAL FACILITIES
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:9.4

We visited VA medical facilities in Denver; Kansas City, Missouri;
San Antonio; and San Francisco.  Each facility employed about the
same number of workers; however, their AWS policies differed widely. 


         DENVER VA MEDICAL CENTER
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9.4.1

The Denver VA medical center employed about 1,700 people.  According
to center officials, the majority of nonmedical employees were not
permitted to work alternative schedules because their work
responsibilities in such areas as laboratories and records management
were interdependent.  They were required to work 8:00 a.m.  to 4:30
p.m.  Monday through Friday. 

Nursing staff at the center could work compressed schedules
consisting of either four 10-hour days or three 12-hour days and one
8-hour day.  Nursing duties were a 24-hour-a-day service, and
adequate coverage had to be maintained.  The chief of the nursing
service believed in participatory management and allowed the nursing
staff in each unit or ward to determine whether they could accomplish
their responsibilities using compressed schedules. 

Before compressed schedules could be implemented, the majority of the
nurses in the unit had to be willing to work the schedules.  Then,
the head nurse of the unit determined which of the compressed
schedule options would provide adequate patient care.  Of the 600
nurses at the center, 120 were eligible to work compressed schedules,
and about 70 chose to participate in them. 

Clerical staff in the nursing units could work flexitour schedules. 
They had to work 8 hours a day, but they could arrive as early as
7:00 a.m.  and leave as late as 5:00 p.m.  No credit hours were
allowed.  A nursing service's review of the AWS program found it
satisfactorily met both patient care and employee needs. 


         KANSAS CITY VA MEDICAL
         CENTER
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9.4.2

The Kansas City VA medical center employed about 1,500 people.  It
had used 5-4/9 and 4/10 compressed schedules since 1989. 

According to a center official, the center director allowed each unit
manager to decide if compressed schedules would be used.  The
director did not allow any units to use flexible work schedules. 


         AUDIE L.  MURPHY MEMORIAL
         VETERANS HOSPITAL
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9.4.3

The Audie L.  Murphy Hospital in San Antonio employed about 2,000
people. 

Nursing staff in the intensive care units had been allowed to work
3-day compressed schedules for a number of years.  They worked six
12-hour days and one 8-hour day each pay period. 

Eleven employees in two other units--inpatient pharmacy and
janitorial services--worked 4/10 schedules. 

According to hospital officials, AWS would not be appropriate in most
other areas of the hospital since they operated on a 24-hour-a-day
schedule.  They said AWS would not allow the hospital to meet its
mission, especially if employees could arrive at any time within a
flexible band.  They believed all employees on the same shifts needed
to work the same hours to be productive. 


         SAN FRANCISCO VA MEDICAL
         CENTER
---------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9.4.4

The San Francisco VA medical center employed about 2,000 people.  The
center's AWS policy made flexitour and compressed schedules available
to most employees, subject to approval by the management of each
unit.  However, a unit could not have both flexitour and compressed
schedules.  Under the flexitour schedule, no credit hours were
allowed.  About 70 percent of all eligible employees participated in
AWS. 

Under the compressed schedule program, the 5-4/9 and 4/10 options
were authorized.  Most units opted for the 4/10 schedule.  Center
officials said employees seldom used flexitour schedules. 

The officials said compressed schedules offered a number of
advantages, including (1) a good recruitment and retention tool, (2)
maximum use of limited office and parking space, and (3) reduction in
the number of cars on the roads commuting to work.  According to the
officials, employees policed the program themselves, and there had
been few abuses.  The officials said the most important factor that
contributed to the AWS program's success was the effective
communication that occurred between employees and management.  They
added that some of the small organizations in the center, where most
positions were unique and highly specialized, did not use AWS to
avoid compromising the quality of patient care. 



                                    Table II.1
                     
                           Organizations' AWS Programs

                              (As of September 1993)


                                                            AWS Availability/
Organizations       Types allowed       Credit hours\a      limitations
------------------  ------------------  ------------------  --------------------
Air Force/          None                                    No AWS program.
headquarters

Air Education and   5-4/9, 4/10                             Civilian personnel
Training                                                    office only.
Command, Lackland   3-day week
AFB                                                         Nursing staff only.

Air Education and   Flexitour           None                Most employees
Training                                                    eligible.
Command, Randolph   5-4/9
AFB                                                         Two units only.

Air Force           None                                    No AWS program.
Intelligence
Command, Kelly AFB

Materiel Command,   Flexitour           None                One unit only.
Brooks AFB

Materiel Command,   Flexitour           None                Union employees.
Kelly AFB
                    Flexitour           16 hours            Nonunion employees.

                                                            Also piloting a 4/
                                                            10 compressed
                                                            schedule in two
                                                            units.

EPA/headquarters    Flexitour           24 hours            Virtually all
                                                            employees eligible
                                                            for flexitour.
                    5-4/9
                                                            Most employees
                                                            eligible for 5-4/9.

EPA Kansas City     Flexitour           None                All employees
regional                                                    eligible for both
office              5-4/9                                   programs.

EEOC/headquarters   Flexitour, gliding  4 hours             Most employees
                    schedule                                eligible.

                    5-4/9, 4/10                             One headquarters
                                                            office worked a 4/
                                                            10 schedule.

FCA/headquarters    Flexitour           None                All employees
                                                            eligible.
                    5-4/9
                                                            Available to most
                                                            employees during
                                                            daylight savings
                                                            time only.\b

HHS/headquarters    Flexitour           20 hours            Some nonunion
                                                            employees could not
                    5-4/9                                   earn credit hours or
                                                            work compressed
                                                            schedules.

HHS Kansas City     Flexitour           24 hours            Most employees
regional                                                    eligible for both
office              5-4/9                                   programs.

ACF/headquarters    Gliding schedule    16 hours            Some nonunion
                                                            employees could not
                    5-4/9                                   earn credit hours or
                                                            work compressed
                                                            schedules.

HCFA/headquarters   Gliding schedule    24 hours            Most employees
                                                            eligible for both
                    Extended flex                           programs.
                    program
                    (5-4/9)

PHS/headquarters    Gliding schedule    24 hours            Most employees
                                                            eligible for gliding
                    5-4/9                                   schedule. Nonunion
                                                            employees may work
                                                            compressed schedules
                                                            only with the
                                                            approval of their
                                                            office directors.

SSA/headquarters    Gliding schedule    24 hours            Most employees
                                                            eligible for both
                                                            programs.
                    5-4/9, 4/10
                                                            Small number of
                                                            employees in one
                                                            office were allowed
                                                            to work a 4/10
                                                            compressed schedule.

SSA Kansas City     Flexitour, gliding  24 hours            District and branch
regional            schedule            (Teleservice        office employees may
office                                  centers employees   not earn credit
                                        earn 20 credit      hours.
                                        hours.)
                    5-4/9, 4/10                             Only staff attorneys
                                                            were eligible for
                                                            gliding schedules
                                                            with credit hours,
                                                            and 5-4/9 or 4/10
                                                            compressed
                                                            schedules.

DOI/headquarters    Flexitour, gliding  None                Most employees
                    schedule                                eligible, although
                                                            some headquarters
                                                            units chose not to
                                                            participate in AWS.
                                        10 hours
                    Maxiflex                                Allowed in one
                                                            office for employees
                                                            on travel status.
                    5-4/9, 4/10
                                                            One office allowed
                                                            employees to work a
                                                            4/10 schedule.

BIA                 Flexitour, gliding  None                Most headquarters
                    schedule                                employees were
                                                            limited to the
                                                            flexitour option.
                                                            AWS program
                                                            restrictions were
                                        24 hours            based on local union
                    Maxiflex                                agreements.

                    5-4/9, 4/10                             Less than 10 percent
                                                            of headquarters
                                                            staff were
                                                            authorized to use
                                                            the 5-4/9 compressed
                                                            schedule. No one in
                                                            headquarters could
                                                            work the 4/10
                                                            compressed schedule.

BLM/headquarters    Maxiflex            24 hours            Most employees
                                                            eligible for both
                    5-4/9, 4/10                             programs.

BLM Sacramento      Maxiflex            24 hours            All employees
State Office                                                eligible.
                    5-4/9, 4/10

BOM/headquarters    Gliding schedule    None                Most employees
                                                            eligible.
                                                            In June 1993,
                                                            headquarters started
                                                            piloting a 5-4/9
                                                            schedule for one
                                                            year.

BOM Denver field    Gliding schedule    None\c              Most employees
office                                                      eligible.
                    5-4/9
                                                            One unit only.

BOR/headquarters    Gliding schedule    24 hours            All employees
(Denver)                                                    eligible for both
                    5-4/9                                   programs.

BOR Sacramento      Gliding schedule    24 hours            Most employees
regional                                                    eligible. Members of
office                                                      one union chose not
                                                            to participate in
                                                            the gliding schedule
                                                            with credit hours
                                                            plan.

FWS/headquarters    Gliding schedule    None                Some units allowed
                                                            gliding schedules;
                    5-4/9, 4/10                             some allowed
                                                            compressed; and some
                                                            did not allow AWS
                                                            schedules.

FWS Denver          Flexitour           None                Most employees
regional office                                             eligible for both
                    5-4/9                                   programs.

MMS/headquarters    Gliding schedule    None                Most employees
                                                            eligible for both
                    5-4/9                                   programs.

MMS Camarillo area  Flexitour           None                Most employees
office                                                      eligible.
                    5-4/9, 4/10


NPS/headquarters    Flexitour, gliding  None                Most employees
                    schedule                                eligible for all
                                        24 hours            programs.
                    Maxiflex

                    5-4/9, 4/10

NPS San Francisco   Maxiflex            24 hours            Most regional office
regional                                                    employees eligible.
office
                    5-4/9, 4/10                             Most park employees
                                                            eligible.

OSM/headquarters    Flexitour           10 hours            Most employees
                                                            eligible for both
                    5-4/9, 4/10                             programs.

OSM Western         Flexitour           10 hours            All employees
Support Center,                                             eligible; however,
Denver              5-4/9, 4/10                             credit hours option
                                                            seldom used.

USGS/headquarters   Gliding schedule    24 hours            Most employees
                                                            eligible.


USGS Central        Gliding schedule    24 hours            Most employees
regional                                                    eligible.
office, Denver

SEC/headquarters    Flexitour           None                Up to 15 percent of
                                                            employees could
                    5-4/9                                   participate
                                                            agencywide.
                                                            Only two groups
                                                            authorized to use
                                                            compressed schedule.

DOT/                Flexitour           None                Most employees
headquarters\d                                              eligible.
                    5-4/9
                                                            Only one office
                                                            authorized to use
                                                            compressed
                                                            schedules.

Coast Guard/        Flexitour           None                All employees
headquarters                                                eligible.

Coast Guard         Flexitour           None                Most employees
Maintenance                                                 eligible for both
and Logistics       5-4/9                                   programs.
Command, Pacific

FAA/headquarters    Flexitour, gliding  24 hours            Most employees
                    schedule, variable                      eligible for all
                    schedules, or                           programs, subject to
                    maxiflex                                management approval.

                    5-4/9, 4/10

FAA Kansas City     Flexitour, gliding  24 hours            Most employees
regional            schedule                                eligible for all
office                                                      programs.
                    5-4/9, 4/10

FHWA/               Flexitour           None                Most employees
headquarters\e                                              eligible.

FHWA Denver         Flexitour           None                All employees
regional office                                             eligible.

FRA\f               Flexitour           None                All employees
                                                            eligible.
                                                            Four regions had a
                                                            maxiflex with 24
                                                            credit hours program
                                                            for safety
                                                            inspectors.

FTA\g               Flexitour           None                Most employees
                                                            eligible.

MARAD               Flexitour           None                Headquarters
                                                            employees only.

NHTSA               Flexitour           None                All employees
                                                            eligible.

RSPA                Flexitour           None                All employees
                                                            eligible, but most
                                                            did not participate.
                                                            One regional center
                                                            allowed a maximum of
                                                            6 credit hours.

VA/headquarters\h   Flexitour           None                All employees
                                                            eligible.

NCS/                Flexitour           None                All employees
headquarters\i                                              eligible.

NCS Western area    Flexitour           None                All area office
office,                                                     employees eligible.
Denver
                    5-4/9, 4/10                             Burial crews at two
                                                            cemeteries were
                                                            eligible for
                                                            compressed
                                                            schedules.

VBA/                Flexitour           None                Most employees
headquarters\j                                              eligible.

VBA San Francisco   Flexitour           None                All employees
regional                                                    eligible for
office                                                      flexitour.
                    5-4/9
                                                            Most employees
                                                            eligible for
                                                            5-4/9.

VHA/                Flexitour           None                All employees
headquarters\k                                              eligible.

VHA San Francisco   Flexitour           None                All employees
regional                                                    eligible.
office              5-4/9, 4/10

Denver VA Medical   Flexitour           None                Clerical staff in
Center                                                      nursing units only.

                    4/10, 3-day week                        Certain nursing
                                                            staff only.

Kansas City VA      5-4/9, 4/10                             Most employees
Medical                                                     eligible.
Center

Audie L. Murphy     3-day week                              Intensive care
Memorial                                                    nursing staff only.
Veterans            4/10
Hospital,                                                   Two nonmedical units
San Antonio                                                 only.

San Francisco VA    Flexitour           one                 Most employees
Medical                                                     eligible for both
Center              5-4/9, N 4/10                           programs; however,
                                                            only one type
                                                            (flexitour or
                                                            compressed) could be
                                                            used in any unit.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a Refers to the maximum number of credit hours employees working
flexible schedules are allowed to carry over from one pay period to
another.  The statute does not permit credit hours to be earned in
compressed schedule programs. 

\b Effective November 1993, all full-time managers and employees were
allowed to work compressed schedules year-round. 

\c In October 1993, the Denver regional office amended the gliding
schedule program to allow 24 credit hours. 

\d In November 1993, DOT implemented a more liberal AWS policy and
delegated approval of AWS programs to the heads of its operating
administrations. 

\e We were told that FHWA would implement a compressed schedule
program agencywide in January 1994. 

\f As of November 1993, FRA was organizing a task force to evaluate
more flexible AWS programs for utilization by headquarters employees
and clerical and administrative personnel located in field offices. 

\g We were told that the 5-4/9 compressed schedule had been approved
for most employees and would be implemented in early 1994. 

\h A 1-year compressed-schedule pilot began for VA's headquarters
employees in October or November 1993. 

\i In October 1993, NCS began piloting a compressed schedule program
for headquarters employees. 

\j In November 1993, VBA began a 5-4/9 and 4/10 compressed schedule
program for its full-time employees. 

\k VHA began a 5-4/9 and 4/10 compressed schedule program in November
1993.  All employees, including title 38 employees, were eligible to
work compressed schedules.  However, Senior Executive Service
employees and their title 38 equivalents could not work 4/10
schedules. 


MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS REPORT
========================================================= Appendix III

GENERAL GOVERNMENT DIVISION,
WASHINGTON, D.C. 

Robert E.  Shelton, Assistant Director, Federal Human Resource
 Management Issues
Laura Shumway, Assignment Manager
Tyra DiPalma, Evaluator-in-Charge
Alexander Jackson, Staff Assistant
Hazel Bailey, Writer-Editor