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Overseas Presence: Staffing at U.S. Diplomatic Posts

(Fact Sheet, 12/28/94, GAO/NSIAD-95-50FS)


In response to a request, GAO assembled information on the size,
location, and costs of the diplomatic presence maintained by the State
Department and over 35 other U.S. government agencies at 260 posts in
about 170 countries around the world. Among the information included is
the number of employees at embassies, consulates, and other diplomatic
offices located in almost every country in the world, the size of that
presence on a country-by-country basis, trends in staffing levels, and
the amount of money spent by 10 agencies surveyed by GAO for salaries,
benefits and allowances for staff.

--------------------------- Indexing Terms -----------------------------

 REPORTNUM:  NSIAD-95-50FS
     TITLE:  Overseas Presence: Staffing at U.S. Diplomatic Posts
      DATE:  12/28/94
   SUBJECT:  Americans employed abroad
             International relations
             Compensation
             Housing allowances
             Administrative costs
             Embassies
             Consulates
             Federal employees
             Employment of foreign nationals
             Personnel management

             
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Cover
================================================================ COVER


Report to the Chairman, Legislation and National Security
Subcommittee, Committee on Government Operations, House of
Representatives

December 1994

OVERSEAS PRESENCE - STAFFING AT
U.S.  DIPLOMATIC POSTS

GAO/NSIAD-95-50FS

Overseas Presence


Abbreviations
=============================================================== ABBREV

  DIA - Defense Intelligence Agency
  DOD - Department of Defense
  FAS - Foreign Agricultural Service
  USAID - U.S.  Agency for International Development
  US&FCS - U.S.  and Foreign Commercial Service
  USIA - U.S.  Information Agency

Letter
=============================================================== LETTER


B-259202

December 28, 1994

The Honorable John Conyers, Jr.
Chairman, Legislation and National
 Security Subcommittee
Committee on Government Operations
House of Representatives

Dear Mr.  Chairman: 

In response to your request, we are presenting information on the
size, location, and costs of the diplomatic presence maintained by
the State Department and over 35 other U.S.  government agencies at
260 posts in about 170 countries around the world.  We reported
earlier on State's process for deciding how many of its staff to
assign to each post.\1

We will report separately on the overall management issues associated
with overseas staffing. 


--------------------
\1 State Department:  Overseas Staffing Process Not Linked to Policy
Priorities (GAO/NSIAD-94-228, Sept.  20, 1994). 


   RESULTS IN BRIEF
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :1

Staffing data maintained by the State Department show the following: 

The U.S.  government employs approximately 37,800 personnel overseas,
including about 18,900 U.S.  direct-hire and 18,870 foreign national
direct-hire personnel,\2 at its embassies, consulates, and other
diplomatic offices located in almost every country in the world. 
This total does not include large numbers of personnel who are paid
directly or indirectly by the U.S.  government and involved in U.S. 
government activities overseas.  For example, it does not include
military personnel under the command of a U.S.  area military
commander.  In addition, State and many other agencies contract with
U.S.  and foreign national personnel for a variety of services. 
State and other agencies do not have accurate data on the number of
contract hires.  However, in a report issued by a State management
task force, it was estimated that in 1992, U.S.  agencies employed
2,415 U.S.  personal services contractors and 38,465 foreign national
contractors overseas.\3

The size of the U.S.  presence in countries varies greatly.  For
example, there is 1 American foreign service officer at the U.S. 
liaison office in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, about
100 U.S.  direct hires assigned to 1 post in the Dominican Republic,
nearly 500 assigned to
3 posts in Thailand, and over 1,000 assigned to 7 posts in Germany. 
About one-third of the posts and personnel are in Europe. 

The median staffing level for a country is about 100 personnel--50
U.S.  direct hires and 50 foreign service national employees.  That
is, half of the countries with a U.S.  presence are staffed with 100
or more employees, and the remaining half have fewer than 100
employees. 

There are multiple posts in 35 countries--15 countries in Europe, 8
in East Asia and the Pacific, 5 in North and South America, 3 in the
Near East, 2 in Africa, and 2 in South Asia.  For example, a total of
nine posts are in Mexico--eight consulates or consulates general in
addition to the embassy in Mexico City. 

Overall, U.S.  direct-hire staffing levels have increased by 19
percent over the past 10 years, although the pace of growth has
generally slowed in the 1990s.  (Direct-hire foreign national
staffing levels have remained constant.) State officials indicated
that the data probably understated the number of Defense personnel
assigned to diplomatic posts in the mid-1980s.  Because of
uncertainties over the data on Defense personnel, State indicated
that using this data to depict the overall staffing trend may not
accurately portray the growth rate.  Excluding Defense personnel,
U.S.  direct-hire levels have grown by about 6 percent since 1984. 
Most of this growth has been in nonforeign affairs agencies, which
include the Departments of Justice, Treasury, and Transportation. 
Nonforeign affairs agencies, excluding the Department of Defense,
increased from about 1,600 U.S.  direct-hire employees in 1984 to
2,300 in 1994.  The staffing growth experienced by these agencies
reflects the increasingly global character of their missions. 

State's U.S.  direct-hire staffing levels have increased slightly but
not as much as some other agencies it supports overseas.  In 1994,
State represented 38 percent of U.S.  direct-hire staffing overseas. 

Cost information we obtained showed the following: 

In fiscal year 1993, the 10 agencies we surveyed spent approximately
$1.3 billion for salaries, benefits, and allowances for staff.  They
spent nearly an additional $1.3 billion in associated overseas
operating costs. 

The costs of stationing U.S.  government personnel overseas are high. 
Some agencies estimate that it costs roughly two to three times more
to keep a person abroad than in Washington.  For example, a recent
analysis conducted by the U.S.  Agency for International Development
estimated the average cost per agency U.S.  direct-hire employee
overseas at approximately $352,000--or about three times the $109,000
average cost for a Washington-based employee.  These figures are
based on allocating the agency's total operating expenses (including
the costs of foreign service nationals and personal services
contractors) to U.S.  direct hires only. 

Much of the difference is due to compensatory and incentive
allowances and benefits, such as the costs for post travel,
educational allowance, hardship pay, cost-of-living adjustment,
language incentive, rest and recuperation travel, rent, and other
expenses.  For internal budgeting purposes, the State Department has
estimated the cost of allowances and benefits for a new American
position overseas at roughly $93,000 in the first year.  Adding an
average of $60,000 for salary and $75,000 for other operating
expenses such as household and office furnishings and security, State
has used $228,000 as the estimated cost in the first year to add a
new American position overseas. 

Appendix I provides information on the number and location of the
U.S.  government's overseas personnel, as well as trends over the
last 10 years.  Appendix II provides data on costs associated with
the U.S.  overseas presence. 


--------------------
\2 These types of positions and other key terms are defined in the
glossary. 

\3 U.S.  Department of State, State 2000:  A New Model for Managing
Foreign Affairs, Report of the U.S.  Department of State Management
Task Force (Dec.  1992). 


   SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :2

To obtain staffing information, we interviewed officials and reviewed
data from the Department of State, Bureau of Finance and Management
Policy.  This Bureau is responsible for providing guidance on issues
dealing with the authority of the Chiefs of Mission over policy
implementation, the number of personnel assigned to their posts, and
the activities of all U.S.  government agencies, except for those
under a U.S.  area military commander.  According to these officials,
State's databases are the only centralized source of current and
historical U.S.  government overseas staffing data. 

We have conducted a review of overseas diplomatic staffing, including
State's staffing of its posts abroad and the overall management
weaknesses associated with overseas staffing.  As part of our review,
we conducted work at selected diplomatic posts.\4 We compared
staffing data developed by the post and by agencies' headquarters as
a basis for validating the data from State's databases. 

To obtain cost information, we interviewed budget officials and
compiled data from headquarters organizations in Washington, D.C.,
including the Department of State, Defense Security Assistance
Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Drug Enforcement Administration,
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Foreign Agricultural Service,
Immigration and Naturalization Service, U.S.  Agency for
International Development, U.S.  and Foreign Commercial Service, and
U.S.  Information Agency.  We did not verify the cost data that
officials provided from their records and data systems. 

We conducted our work between April and September 1994 in accordance
with generally accepted government auditing standards. 

As you requested, we did not obtain written agency comments on this
fact sheet.  However, we shared a draft of this fact sheet with
officials from State's Bureau of Finance and Management Policy, our
primary source of information.  We also shared a draft of this fact
sheet with headquarters officials from each organization we reviewed. 
We considered the comments we received from these officials and,
where appropriate, incorporated their comments in preparing our final
report.  Where there were significant differences between the
staffing data reported by an agency and State (i.e., U.S.  Agency for
International Development and U.S.  Information Agency), we did not
attempt to reconcile the variances.  However, we have annotated the
pertinent tables and charts to alert the reader to the differences. 
We also annotated the tables and charts, where appropriate, to
reflect adjustments we have made to address the limitations of the
data, particularly for the Department of Defense. 


--------------------
\4 We conducted work at diplomatic posts in Benin, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Denmark, Guyana, France, Morocco, Nepal, the Philippines,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, and Tunisia. 


---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :2.1

As agreed with your office, unless you publicly announce this fact
sheet's contents earlier, we plan no further distribution until 30
days from its issue date.  At that time, we will send copies to
appropriate congressional committees; the Secretary of State; the
Director, Office of Management and Budget; and other interested
parties.  We

Please contact me at (202) 512-4128 if you or your staff have any
questions concerning this fact sheet.  Major contributors to this
fact sheet are listed in appendix III. 

Sincerely yours,

Joseph E.  Kelley
Director-in-Charge
International Affairs Issues


STAFFING DATA
=========================================================== Appendix I


   LIMITATIONS ON DATA
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:1

For this report, we used staffing data from the databases maintained
by the Department of State, Bureau of Finance and Management Policy,
which is the only centralized source of current and historical
overseas staffing data.  However, State's data do not fully capture
the total workforce of the U.S.  government overseas.  The staffing
data provided in this report are authorized full-time U.S. 
direct-hire and foreign national positions that are under the
authority of the Chief of Mission, usually the U.S.  ambassador to a
country.  However, the staffing data do not include large numbers of
personnel who are paid directly or indirectly by the U.S.  government
and involved in U.S.  government activities overseas.  For example,
State and many other agencies hire U.S.  and foreign national
personnel through contracts for a variety of services.  State and
other agencies do not have accurate data on the number of contract
hires.  However, in a report issued by a State management task force,
it was estimated that in 1992, there were 2,415 U.S.  personal
services contractors and 38,465 foreign national contractors
overseas.  These contractors exceed the total number of U.S.  direct
hires and foreign service national employees covered in this fact
sheet. 

In addition to American and locally hired personal services
contractors, the following U.S.  government employees overseas are
not included in this report: 

U.S.  military and civilian personnel and their civilian dependents
under the command of a U.S.  area military commander;\1

nonexecutive branch government employees such as employees of GAO and
the Library of Congress;

part-time intermittent, temporary employees; and

U.S.  government employees assigned overseas on temporary duty for up
to a year. 

Because there is no central source of information on overseas
staffing levels, State obtains data for a given agency from a variety
of sources, such as agency staffing patterns and cables from posts. 
Using these sources, State analysts then construct post staffing
profiles for each agency.  However, State does not have a validation
process that enables each agency to routinely verify the data for
accuracy.  We validated the State Department's staffing data for
selected posts and found some discrepancies between the data
maintained by headquarters and the posts.  In addition, because State
used three different databases to provide the staffing data, there
were some inconsistencies in worldwide totals.  However, these
differences were not significant. 

Although they acknowledge the inadequacies of the overseas staffing
data, State officials maintain that the data are useful in reviewing
overall staffing trends.  The staffing data presented in this report
are also useful as a point of reference.  However, specific staffing
levels should be verified with agency and post officials when precise
information is essential, such as when the information is used to
make critical management decisions. 

Particular caution should be exercised in analyzing Department of
Defense (DOD) data.  According to State officials, over the years,
State diligently tried to improve the accuracy of its database on DOD
employees to record the number of U.S.  direct hires under Chief of
Mission authority as opposed to those under a U.S.  area military
command.  They told us that data reported for the early years of our
review (mid-1980s) did not accurately capture all DOD personnel that
came under Chief of Mission authority--a condition that State
officials assert was corrected in the last several years.  State's
data probably understated the number of personnel DOD had assigned
overseas.  Thus, it is difficult to determine how much of the
increases reported for DOD on a year-to-year basis reflect a real
growth in staffing levels and how much are the result of accounting
for positions that had not been previously reported.  For this
reason, when reviewing DOD's staffing trends, we focused on those DOD
agencies whose historical numbers were judged by State and DOD to be
reasonably reliable.  These are the Defense Intelligence Agency,
Defense Security Assistance Agency, Marine Corps security guards, and
Naval Support Unit (Seabees).  Where applicable, tables and charts
showing DOD data are footnoted to indicate whether the data reflect
DOD-wide or selected Defense agencies' numbers. 

For purposes of this report, foreign affairs agencies are those
utilizing the foreign service personnel system and include the
Department of State, U.S.  Information Agency (USIA), U.S.  Agency
for International Development (USAID), Foreign Agricultural Service
(FAS), and U.S.  and Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS).  We have
also included the Peace Corps in this category.  Nonforeign affairs
agencies include DOD, the Departments of Justice, Transportation,
Treasury, and subordinate agencies within these departments; the
Departments of Agriculture and Commerce (excluding FAS and US&FCS,
respectively); and other federal agencies. 


--------------------
\1 As of March 31, 1994, there were approximately 290,663 uniformed
military personnel, 223,678 command-sponsored military dependents,
16,579 DOD civilian personnel, and 17,471 civilian dependents
assigned overseas.  By law, these individuals are not under the
authority of the Chief of Mission. 


   TREND SHOWS GRADUAL UPWARD
   CLIMB IN OVERSEAS STAFFING
   LEVELS
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:2

The U.S.  government employs a total of about 37,800 personnel
overseas--split evenly between U.S.  direct-hire employees and
foreign service national employees. 

Because of uncertainties regarding the accuracy of the data on DOD
personnel assigned to diplomatic posts in the mid-1980s, it is
difficult to determine the real growth in staffing levels.  However,
based on the information provided to us, we found that the growth in
staffing has been among the U.S.  direct hires, not the locally hired
workforce.  The number of U.S.  direct hires increased in relatively
small but steady increments of about 2 percent each year--from about
15,900 in 1984 to 18,940 in 1994, for an overall increase of 19
percent.  Excluding DOD due to data accuracy concerns, U.S. 
direct-hire levels went from about 11,540 in 1984 to 12,200 in 1994,
an increase of about 6 percent.  The number of foreign service
national employees has remained constant at around 18,900 over the
years.  Notwithstanding data limitations, we have used State's data
on DOD personnel in the following figures and tables.  Figure I.l
depicts the staffing trend since 1984, and table I.l provides the
number of U.S.  direct-hire positions by agency since 1984. 

   Figure I.1:  Ten-Year Trend in
   U.S.  Staffing Overseas (1984
   to 1994)

   (See figure in printed
   edition.)



                                                                      Table I.1
                                                       
                                                         U.S. Direct Hires Overseas by Agency
                                                                    (1984 to 1994)

                                                                                                                                              Percent
                                                                                                                                               change
                                                                                                                                                 from
                                                                                                                                                 1984
AGENCY                            1984      1985      1986      1987      1988      1989      1990      1991      1992      1993      1994    to 1994
----------------------------  --------  --------  --------  --------  --------  --------  --------  --------  --------  --------  --------  ---------
State                            7,119     7,200     7,275     7,282     7,282     7,305     7,313     7,309     7,240     7,224     7,168        0.7
Agriculture\a                      263       270       287       290       290       287       287       287       246       251       250       -4.9
Commerce\a                         244       247       262       243       245       247       244       259       258       258       266        9.0
USAID                            1,516     1,554     1,526     1,500     1,495     1,497     1,490     1,371     1,264     1,292     1,254    -17.3\b
USIA                               846       846       889       904       903       888       886       867       896       912       878      3.8\c
Defense\a                        4,359     4,553     5,031     5,674     5,757     5,820     5,792     5,770     5,876     6,298     6,735      5.2\d
Justice\a                          453       498       556       556       556       563       560       766       797       805       881       94.4
Transportation\a                   374       374       421       411       411       411       411       407       407       408       492       31.6
Treasury\a                         347       366       416       411       411       403       403       400       403       413       418       20.5
Peace Corps                        171       171       172       172       172       173       173       222       240       291       300       75.4
Other agencies\e                   209       203       206       266       268       269       269       271       279       290       298       42.6
=====================================================================================================================================================
Subtotal for non-State           8,782     9,082     9,766    10,427    10,508    10,558    10,515    10,620    10,666    11,218    11,772          \
 agencies
=====================================================================================================================================================
Total                           15,901    16,282    17,041    17,709    17,790    17,863    17,828    17,929    17,906    18,442    18,940
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source:  U.S.  Department of State, Bureau of Finance and Management
Policy. 

\a These agencies have subordinate agencies represented overseas. 
For example, the Department of Commerce includes US&FCS, Bureau of
Census, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S.  Travel
and Tourism Administration, and other subordinate agencies.  The
Department of Agriculture primarily includes Foreign Agricultural
Service, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and Agricultural
Research Service.  The Department of Justice includes Drug
Enforcement Administration, Federal Bureau of Investigation,
Immigration and Naturalization Service, and other subordinate
agencies. 

\b Data provided by USAID showed 1,133 U.S.  direct-hire positions
authorized in 1994,
121 positions less than the number reported from State's database. 

\c Data provided by USIA showed its U.S.  direct-hire positions
decreasing from 914 in 1984 to 860 in 1994--a decrease of 6 percent. 

\d This percentage is based on four DOD agencies whose historical
numbers were judged by State and DOD to be reasonably reliable: 
Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Security Assistance Agency,
Marine Corps security guards, and Naval Support Unit (Seabees).  For
these agencies, the number of U.S.  direct hires increased from 2,464
in 1984 to 2,591 in 1994. 

\e Other agencies include American Battle Monuments Commission, Arms
Control and Disarmament Agency, Department of Energy, Environmental
Protection Agency, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Federal
Emergency Management Agency, General Services Administration,
Department of Health and Human Services, Trade and Development
Program, Department of Interior, Japan-U.S.  Friendship Commission,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science
Foundation, U.S.  Trade Representative, and Department of Veterans
Affairs. 


   STATE'S PERCENTAGE OF OVERALL
   PRESENCE IS SHRINKING
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:3

The overall percentage of U.S.  direct hires overseas who are State
employees has decreased since 1984.  In 1984, State represented about
45 percent of diplomatic staffing overseas; today, it accounts for
only 38 percent.  Similarly, staffing of other foreign affairs
agencies--USIA, USAID, FAS, US&FCS, and the Peace Corps--has also
declined, down from 18 percent in 1984 to 15 percent in 1994.  Figure
I.2 shows the U.S.  direct-hire staffing levels by agency, and figure
I.3 compares State's staffing level to other agencies. 

   Figure I.2:  Distribution of
   U.S.  Direct Hires by Agency
   (as of April 1994)

   (See figure in printed
   edition.)

Note:  DOD's presence is comprised of security assistance and
security assistance associated personnel, 42 percent; Marine Corps
security guards, 18 percent; Defense Intelligence Agency, 11 percent;
and other Defense personnel (e.g., naval research medical units, Air
Force veterinarians, and fuel supply units), 29 percent. 

   Figure I.3:  State, Other
   Foreign Affairs Agencies, and
   Nonforeign Affairs Agencies as
   a Percentage of All U.S. 
   Direct Hires for U.S.  Agencies
   Overseas

   (See figure in printed
   edition.)

Note:  Other foreign affairs agencies are FAS, USAID, US&FCS, USIA,
and the Peace Corps.  Nonforeign affairs agencies are DOD, Justice,
Transportation, Treasury, Agriculture (excluding FAS), Commerce
(excluding US&FCS), and other agencies. 


   STAFFING LEVELS INCREASED IN
   NONFOREIGN AFFAIRS AGENCIES
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:4

Nonforeign affairs agencies accounted for the increased levels of
U.S.  direct hires overseas.  In the last 10 years, the number of
U.S.  direct hires authorized for nonforeign affairs agencies
overseas (excluding DOD) went from 1,578 to 2,265, an increase of
nearly 44 percent, while the U.S.  direct-hire staffing levels of
foreign affairs agencies remained relatively constant.  (See figs. 
I.4 and I.5.)

   Figure I.4:  Trend in U.S. 
   Direct-Hire Staffing Levels
   (1984 to 1994)

   (See figure in printed
   edition.)

Note:  Data for FAS and US&FCS, both foreign affairs agencies, were
obtained for 1984 and 1994 only.  Therefore, for 1984 and 1994, other
foreign affairs agencies included FAS and US&FCS, in addition to
USIA, USAID, and the Peace Corps.  For the intervening years, from
1985 through 1993, other foreign affairs agencies included the
Departments of Agriculture and Commerce since a break out of FAS and
US&FCS data was not readily available.  However, this does not
significantly affect the slope of the trend line depicted in this
figure. 

   Figure I.5:  Change in U.S. 
   Direct-Hire Staffing Levels
   (1984 to 1994)

   (See figure in printed
   edition.)

Note:  Other foreign affairs agencies include FAS, USAID, US&FCS,
USIA, and the Peace Corps.  Nonforeign affairs agencies include DOD,
Justice, Transportation, Treasury, Agriculture (excluding FAS),
Commerce (excluding US&FCS), and other agencies. 

The agencies with the largest increases over the years were Justice,
94 percent; Transportation, 32 percent; and Treasury, 21 percent. 
The Department of Justice has consistently reported increases every
year for the past 10 years, going from 453 U.S.  direct hires in 1984
to 881 in 1994.  Similarly, other nonforeign affairs agencies have
increased their staffing levels. 

There are two exceptions to the upward trend in staffing.  First, the
Department of Agriculture and USAID have reported a decline in U.S. 
direct hires in the last 10 years.  Second, the number of U.S. 
direct hires USAID has authorized overseas is the lowest it has been
in the last 10 years--1,254 in 1994 compared to a high of 1,554 in
1985. 

Despite downsizing efforts announced by several federal agencies,
since last year, overall U.S.  direct-hire staffing levels overseas
have not significantly changed.  As shown in table I.1, between 1993
and 1994, total U.S.  direct-hire employees overseas (excluding DOD)
increased slightly.  Some foreign affairs agencies, including USIA
and USAID, reported decreases of less than 4 percent.  State cut
nearly 60 positions, which is less than a l-percent decrease. 
Despite these decreases, overall U.S.  direct-hire levels grew by
about 3 percent because of offsetting increases in agencies such as
Transportation (21 percent) and Justice (9 percent). 

The expansion of the overseas presence of nonforeign affairs agencies
mainly reflects the increasing "globalization" of U.S.  national
interests.  As a result, the functional scope of diplomatic posts has
broadened, reflecting the diverse interests of U.S.  domestic
agencies in fields such as environmental protection, science and
technology, energy, education, health, and transportation.  Moreover,
federal functions--including criminal law enforcement, customs,
payment of veterans' and social security benefits, and immigration
control--have contributed to the increased staffing in these areas
overseas.  (For a description of the missions and programs of U.S. 
agencies with personnel overseas, see
app.  II.) This escalation in U.S.  presence abroad has increased the
demand for management and logistical services, provided by the State
Department, to support the workforce at overseas posts. 

Table I.2 lists the number of U.S.  direct-hire positions each agency
has assigned to each country. 



                                                                      Table I.2
                                                       
                                                         U.S. Direct-Hire Position Levels by
                                                              Country and Agency (1994)

                                                            Agricultur                                Justice\  Transportatio  Treasu   Peace  Other\
          Country                Total     State   USAID\a         e\b  Commerce\c  USIA\d     DOD\e         f              n      ry   Corps       g
--------  ------------------  --------  --------  --------  ----------  ----------  ------  --------  --------  -------------  ------  ------  ------
=====================================================================================================================================================
          Africa                 2,126     1,003       439          14          14     136       365         3              3      11     124      14
1         Kenya                    206        67        73           3           1       9        46         0              0       0       6       1
2         South Africa             150        87        14           2           3      16        26         0              0       2       0       0
3         Cote d'Ivoire            137        53        39           3           2       6        24         0              0       2       3       5
4         Nigeria                  115        65         5           3           5      13        19         3              0       0       2       0
5         Senegal                   98        33        35           1           0       6        16         0              2       0       5       0
6         Zaire                     81        59         1           0           0       9        10         0              0       0       0       2
7         Cameroon                  64        26        15           0           1       4        12         0              0       0       6       0
8         Ethiopia                  60        38        10           0           0       3         9         0              0       0       0       0
9         Zimbabwe                  60        31        13           0           0       3         9         0              0       0       4       0
10        Botswana                  58        19         7           0           0      13        12         0              0       0       7       0
11        Liberia                   57        30         3           0           0       3        14         0              1       6       0       0
12        Sudan                     56        35         7           0           0       2        12         0              0       0       0       0
13        Niger                     56        19        18           0           2       1         9         0              0       0       7       0
14        Zambia                    49        27        10           1           0       3         6         0              0       0       2       0
15        Ghana                     49        25        11           0           0       4         6         0              0       0       3       0
16        Mali                      49        21        16           0           0       1         6         0              0       0       5       0
17        Mozambique                49        20        18           0           0       2         9         0              0       0       0       0
18        Uganda                    46        19        16           0           0       2         6         0              0       0       3       0
19        Chad                      46        17         9           1           0       1        15         0              0       0       3       0
20        Guinea                    45        19        14           0           0       1         7         0              0       0       4       0
21        Madagascar                42        17        10           0           0       3         9         0              0       0       3       0
22        Tanzania                  40        20         8           0           0       2         7         0              0       0       3       0
23        Malawi                    40        13        17           0           0       1         6         0              0       0       3       0
24        Gabon                     36        10         0           0           0      13         6         0              0       0       7       0
25        Togo                      34        16         5           0           0       2         6         0              0       1       4       0
26        Swaziland                 30         9        12           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       3       5
27        Sierra Leone              28        15         0           0           0       1         6         0              0       0       5       1
28        Burundi                   28         9         9           0           0       1         6         0              0       0       3       0
29        Burkina Faso              27        15         5           0           0       1         6         0              0       0       0       0
30        Congo                     26        13         0           0           0       2         8         0              0       0       3       0
31        Namibia                   25        14         5           0           0       1         2         0              0       0       3       0
32        Djibouti                  24        16         0           0           0       0         8         0              0       0       0       0
33        Rwanda                    23         8        11           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       3       0
34        Somalia                   21        21         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       0       0
35        Mauritania                21        11         0           0           0       0         6         0              0       0       4       0
36        Central African           20        10         1           0           0       0         6         0              0       0       3       0
           Republic
37        Mauritius                 18        11         0           0           0       1         6         0              0       0       0       0
38        Benin                     18         9         5           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       3       0
39        Guinea-Bissau             15         7         5           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       3       0
40        Angola                    14        13         0           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       0       0
41        Lesotho                   13         5         4           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       3       0
42        Gambia                    13         5         6           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       2       0
43        Eritria                   11        10         0           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       0       0
44        Seychelles                10         5         0           0           0       0         4         0              0       0       1       0
45        Cape Verde                 9         5         2           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       2       0
46        Equatorial Guinea          8         5         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       3       0
47        Comoros*                   1         0         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       1       0
=====================================================================================================================================================
          East Asia and the      2,932     1,105       129          39          76     158     1,019       108            171      37      44      54
           Pacific
1         Japan                    561       132         0           7          23      25       189         7            147      11       0      20
2         Thailand                 493       172        18           1           2      16       210        55              1       3       5      10
3         Philippines              344       125        42           2           5      30       105         9              1       7       5      13
4         Korea                    279        93         0           4           8      17       143         6              0       3       0       5
5         Indonesia                220        78        40           6           5      14        76         0              1       0       0       0
6         China                    217       134         0           6          12      24        35         0              1       2       3       0
7         Singapore                185        45        22           2           4       2        89         5             14       2       0       0
8         Hong Kong\h              169        80         0           2           5      10        47        13              0       7       0       5
9         Australia                163        73         0           4           7       7        61         7              1       2       0       1
10        Malaysia                  89        42         0           2           3       4        35         3              0       0       0       0
11        Burma                     47        32         0           0           0       2        10         3              0       0       0       0
12        New Zealand               38        20         0           1           1       2        14         0              0       0       0       0
13        Fiji                      32        12         6           0           0       1         2         0              0       0      11       0
14        Papua New Guinea          18        11         0           0           0       1         2         0              0       0       4       0
15        Cambodia                  18        16         0           0           0       1         1         0              0       0       0       0
16        Laos                      13        10         0           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       2       0
17        Mongolia                  11         7         1           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       2       0
18        Marshall Islands          11         4         0           0           0       0         0         0              5       0       2       0
19        Micronesia                10         3         0           2           1       0         0         0              0       0       4       0
20        Brunei                     5         5         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       0       0
21        Western Samoa              4         1         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       3       0
22        Solomon Islands*           3         0         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       3       0
23        Palau                      2         2         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       0       0
=====================================================================================================================================================
          Near East              2,986       692       173          18          22      83     1,893         3             36      14       6      46
1         Saudi Arabia           1,395        92         0           5          11       9     1,219         0             17      11       0      31
2         Egypt                    488       102       110           4           4      13       251         3              0       1       0       0
3         Israel                   156        69         1           0           1       6        74         0              0       0       0       5
4         Kuwait                   137        41         0           0           2       2        71         0             15       2       0       4
5         Morocco                  137        53        25           2           1      20        34         0              0       0       2       0
6         Jordan                   116        52        15           0           0       6        39         0              0       0       0       4
7         United Arab               93        34         0           3           1       1        54         0              0       0       0       0
           Emirates
8         Tunisia                   90        47         7           2           0       6        24         0              0       0       2       2
9         Bahrain                   75        28         0           0           0       1        42         0              4       0       0       0
10        Oman                      64        23         4           0           0       2        35         0              0       0       0       0
11        Syria                     49        34         0           0           0       4        11         0              0       0       0       0
12        Yemen                     49        23        10           0           0       3        11         0              0       0       2       0
13        Algeria                   45        24         0           2           1       5        13         0              0       0       0       0
14        Jerusalem\h               33        25         0           0           0       2         6         0              0       0       0       0
15        Lebanon                   28        21         1           0           0       0         6         0              0       0       0       0
16        Iraq                      12         9         0           0           1       2         0         0              0       0       0       0
17        Qatar                     10         6         0           0           0       1         3         0              0       0       0       0
18        Afghanistan*               9         9         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       0       0
=====================================================================================================================================================
          Europe and Canada      6,609     2,482        74          67         104     278     2,491       333            274     283      72     151
1         Germany                1,081       322        10           6          13      34       557        25             65      21       0      28
2         Canada                   637        98         0           5          11       6       179       170              0     167       0       1
3         United Kingdom           523       125         0           4           7       9       257        15             50      20       0      36
4         Italy                    402       140         4           7           8      15       119        27             58      18       0       6
5         France                   391       204         4           6          11      15       101        14              2      24       0      10
6         Belgium                  382       138         0           8           4      12       158         7             44       4       0       7
7         Spain                    341        72         0           2           4      11       215         5             30       0       0       3
8         Turkey                   341        91         0           1           3       9       208         9             20       0       0       0
9         Russia                   293       148        10           3           9      22        68         3              1       4      13      12
10        Greece                   263       142         0           1           4      26        78        11              1       0       0       0
11        Austria                  196        95         0           3           3      17        53        12              2       3       0       8
12        Switzerland              186       112         0           4           6       4        32         7              0       1       0      20
13        Poland                   154        79         9           3           2      18        33         0              0       0       5       5
14        Netherlands              151        42         0           7           4       3        76         6              0       9       0       4
15        Portugal                 118        47         2           2           1       3        63         0              0       0       0       0
16        Denmark                   83        26         0           1           1       2        49         3              1       0       0       0
17        Hungary                   81        41         0           0           2       6        27         0              0       0       4       1
18        Romania                   74        40         5           0           1       7        18         0              0       0       3       0
19        Czech Republic            65        31         0           0           1       7        22         0              0       0       4       0
20        Finland                   65        36         0           0           3       2        24         0              0       0       0       0
21        Cyprus                    64        32         0           0           0       1        19         5              0       0       0       7
22        Sweden                    60        37         0           1           3       3        16         0              0       0       0       0
23        Serbia-Montenegro         58        31         0           0           1       8        18         0              0       0       0       0
24        Ukraine                   58        29         9           1           0       3        10         0              0       0       6       0
25        Norway                    53        29         0           0           1       2        21         0              0       0       0       0
26        Bulgaria                  52        27         4           0           0       5        14         0              0       0       2       0
27        Ireland                   38        23         0           0           1       1         8         5              0       0       0       0
28        Kazakhstan                32        16         6           1           0       2         2         0              0       0       5       0
29        Croatia                   30        17         1           0           0       2        10         0              0       0       0       0
30        Bermuda                   26         3         0           1           0       0         0         9              0      12       0       1
31        Slovak Republic           23        12         4           0           0       2         3         0              0       0       2       0
32        Uzbekistan                22        15         0           0           0       2         0         0              0       0       5       0
33        Albania                   21        12         2           0           0       2         2         0              0       0       3       0
34        Armenia                   21        14         0           0           0       2         2         0              0       0       3       0
35        Luxembourg                20        12         0           0           0       0         6         0              0       0       0       2
36        Malta                     20        13         0           0           0       1         6         0              0       0       0       0
37        Belarus                   19        11         0           0           0       2         2         0              0       0       4       0
38        Iceland                   18        10         0           0           0       1         7         0              0       0       0       0
39        Latvia                    17        11         1           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       4       0
40        Georgia                   15        13         0           0           0       2         0         0              0       0       0       0
41        Lithuania                 14         9         2           0           0       1         2         0              0       0       0       0
42        Holy See                  14         8         0           0           0       0         6         0              0       0       0       0
43        Kyrgyzstan                14        10         0           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       3       0
44        Moldova                   13        10         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       3       0
45        Turkmenistan              13        10         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       3       0
46        Azerbaijan                13        11         0           0           0       2         0         0              0       0       0       0
47        Estonia                   10         8         1           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       0       0
48        Tajikistan                10        10         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       0       0
49        Slovenia                   6         5         0           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       0       0
50        Bosnia-                    6         5         0           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       0       0
           Hercegovina
51        Former Yugoslav            1         0         0           0           0       1         0         0              0       0       0       0
           Republic of
           Macedonia
=====================================================================================================================================================
          Latin America and      3,442     1,455       303         107          43     151       823       404              8      70      51      27
           the Caribbean
1         Mexico                   479       210         1          62          18      23        64        82              0      14       0       5
2         Brazil                   257       131         2           3           5      28        70        11              2       5       0       0
3         Colombia                 211        96         2           2           1       7        49        54              0       0       0       0
4         Honduras                 202        61        31           3           1       5        87         7              0       0       7       0
5         El Salvador              188        66        38           0           0       6        65        11              0       0       2       0
6         Bolivia                  183        57        28           0           0       4        37        53              0       0       3       1
7         Venezuela                161        69         0           3           3       7        51        15              1       8       0       4
8         Peru                     152        73        19           1           1       7        30        21              0       0       0       0
9         Bahamas                  150        17         0           2           0       1        34        61              0      35       0       0
10        Panama                   149        56        10           2           2       5        45        11              1       5       2      10
11        Guatemala                132        48        21          11           1       5        30         9              0       0       4       3
12        Argentina                116        53         0           3           2       9        39         7              1       0       2       0
13        Ecuador                  116        50        17           1           1       6        28        10              0       0       2       1
14        Dominican Republic       108        56        17           3           1       2        21         4              0       1       3       0
15        Costa Rica               108        45        25           4           1       8        14         6              2       0       3       0
16        Jamaica                  100        50        19           1           2       2        16         4              0       0       5       1
17        Chile                     99        48         1           3           3       5        31         5              0       0       2       1
18        Nicaragua                 94        43        30           0           0       3        16         0              0       0       2       0
19        Haiti                     86        42        17           2           0       3        17         2              1       0       2       0
20        Barbados                  71        33        16           0           0       2        14         6              0       0       0       0
21        Uruguay                   60        27         1           0           0       2        14        12              0       2       2       0
22        Paraguay                  51        21         1           0           0       3        15         3              0       0       3       5
23        Cuba                      38        27         0           0           0       1        10         0              0       0       0       0
24        Belize                    33        13         6           1           0       3         5         2              0       0       3       0
25        Trinidad and              30        20         0           0           1       1         8         0              0       0       0       0
           Tobago
26        Guyana                    28        20         1           0           0       1         6         0              0       0       0       0
27        Suriname                  21        13         0           0           0       0         8         0              0       0       0       0
28        Netherlands               11         4         0           0           0       0         0         7              0       0       0       0
           Antilles
29        Antigua and                5         3         0           0           0       2         0         0              0       0       0       0
           Barbuda*
30        Grenada                    3         3         0           0           0       0         0         0              0       0       0       0
=====================================================================================================================================================
          South Asia               727       348       136           5           7      63       128        29              0       3       6       2
1         Pakistan                 261       124        57           1           1      14        38        22              0       3       0       1
2         India                    259       139        14           4           6      28        61         7              0       0       0       0
3         Bangladesh                84        34        34           0           0       5        10         0              0       0       0       1
4         Sri Lanka                 69        28        17           0           0      13        11         0              0       0       0       0
5         Nepal                     54        23        14           0           0       3         8         0              0       0       6       0
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Source:  U.S.  Department of State, Bureau of Finance and Management
Policy. 

(*)State has closed these posts.  However, other agencies may
continue to maintain staff at some of these locations.  In addition,
State may continue to carry position data in its database because (1)
it is anticipated that the post might reopen, (2) data from other
agencies have not been updated, or (3) corrections have not been made
to the data system to assign remaining positions to another post. 

\a Staffing data provided by USAID showed that it had 1,133 U.S. 
direct-hire positions in 1994, 121 less than the 1,254 authorized
level reported from State's database.  In addition, there were some
discrepancies in the distribution of these positions.  For example,
according to USAID officials, no positions are authorized for the
following countries:  Central African Republic, Portugal, Togo, and
Zaire.  However, as shown above, information from State's database
continues to reflect USAID presence in these locations.  Agency
officials also told us that USAID plans to reduce or eliminate
positions authorized for several countries in which the agency
currently maintains a presence. 

\b The Department of Agriculture includes primarily the Foreign
Agricultural Service, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and
Agricultural Research Service. 

\c The Department of Commerce includes US&FCS, Bureau of Census,
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S.  Travel and
Tourism Administration, and other subordinate agencies. 

\d Staffing data provided by USIA showed that, in general, its 1994
figures were comparable to those reported from State's database. 

\e DOD includes Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Mapping Agency,
Marine Corps security guards, Naval Support Unit (Seabees), security
assistance and associated personnel, and other defense personnel. 

\f The Department of Justice includes Drug Enforcement
Administration, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Immigration and
Naturalization Service, and other subordinate agencies. 

\g Other agencies include American Battle Monuments Commission, Arms
Control and Disarmament Agency, Department of Energy, Environmental
Protection Agency, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Federal
Emergency Management Agency, General Services Administration,
Department of Health and Human Services, Trade and Development
Program, Department of Interior, Japan-U.S.  Friendship Commission,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science
Foundation, U.S.  Trade Representative, and Department of Veterans
Affairs. 

\h The consulates general in Hong Kong and Jerusalem are independent
foreign service posts. 


   STAFFING CHANGES IN THE REGIONS
   VARIED
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:5

The largest staffing decrease between 1993 and 1994 was in the Latin
America and the Caribbean region, with an overall decrease of over 90
positions, or about a 3-percent reduction.  Africa and South Asia
both show smaller decreases.  The Near East region showed the largest
increase--up by nearly 400 positions or an increase of 15 percent. 
The U.S.  presence in Europe and Canada grew by about 300 positions
due primarily to increases in nonforeign affairs agencies such as the
Departments of Justice and Transportation.  Staffing levels in East
Asia and the Pacific went up by about 60 positions or a 2-percent
growth.  (See fig.  I.6.)

   Figure I.6:  Change in U.S. 
   Direct-Hire Staffing Levels by
   Region Between 1993 and 1994

   (See figure in printed
   edition.)


   STAFFING LEVELS VARY WIDELY
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:6

The United States maintains a presence in 169 countries:  51
countries in Europe and Canada, 45 in Africa, 29 in Latin America and
the Caribbean, 22 in East Asia and the Pacific, 17 in the Near East,
and 5 in South Asia.  Staffing levels vary widely, ranging anywhere
from a l-person post in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to
about 1,100 U.S.  direct-hire and 800 foreign service national
employees in Germany.  The median staffing level for a country is
about 100 personnel--50 U.S.  direct hires and 50 foreign service
national employees.  That is, half of the countries with a U.S. 
presence are staffed with 100 or more employees, and the remaining
half have fewer than 100 employees. 

Based on the number of U.S.  direct hires and locally hired staff,
8 countries have staffing levels that exceed l,000--Germany, Saudi
Arabia, the Philippines, Japan, Mexico, Thailand, Egypt, and France. 
The U.S.  presence in Saudi Arabia is the second largest, primarily
because of DOD.  The largest locally hired workforce is in the
Philippines where 8 agencies employ over 1,000 foreign service
nationals.  In the top 25 countries, the workforce consists of 380
employees or more U.S.  direct-hire and foreign service national
employees.  About one-third of the countries have 30 or less American
direct hires working at post. 

Figure I.7 shows the countries with the largest U.S.  direct-hire and
foreign service national staffing, while table I.3 provides the U.S. 
direct-hire and foreign service national staffing levels for each
country with a U.S.  presence. 

   Figure I.7:  The Top 25
   Countries With the Largest
   Staffing

   (See figure in printed
   edition.)



                                    Table I.3
                     
                     List of Countries in Rank Order Based on
                              the Level of Staffing