070296_cia_73924_73924_01.txt
Subject: IRAQ BW PROGRAM

Not Finally Evaluated Intelligence







TO FACILITATE ELECTRONIC ACCESS, THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN

REFORMATTED TO ELIMINATE INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT PERTAIN

TO GULF WAR ILLNESS ISSUES OR THAT IS CLASSIFIED. A COPY OF

THIS REDACTED DOCUMENT, IN ORIGINAL FORMAT, IS AVAILABLE ON

REQUEST.







IRAQ'S BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM:

SADDAM'S ACE IN THE HOLE







AN INTELLIGENCE ASSESSMENT







IRAQ'S BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM:

SADDAM'S ACE IN THE HOLE





KEY JUDGMENTS

INFORMTION AVAILABLE

AS OF 8 AUGUST 1990

WAS USED IN THIS REPORT.



IRAQ'S ADVANCED AND AGGRESSIVE BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (BW) PROGRAM IS THE

MOST EXTENSIVE IN THE ARAB WORLD. THE BW PROGRAM IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF

IRAQ'S HIGH-PRIORITY DRIVE TO BECOME SELF-SUFFICIENT IN THE PRODUCTION OF

UNCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS AND BALLISTIC MISSILES.

WE BELIEVE THAT IRAQ HAS BEEN PRODUCING LARGE QUANTITIES OF THE

AGENTS ANTHRAX AND BOTULINUM TOXIN SINCE 1989. BY THE END OF 1990, THE

IRAQIS PROBABLY WILL HAVE DEPLOYED SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS OF BIOLOGICALLY FILLED

AERIAL BOMBS AND ARTILLERY ROCKETS. IRAQ WILL EVENTUALLY USE BW AGENTS TO

FILL WARHEADS FOR ITS INDIGENOUSLY PRODUCED SCUDS. THE IRAQIS VERY LIKELY

ARE DEVELOPING ADDITIONAL BW AGENTS-PROBABLY VIRUSES AND ADDITIONAL

TOXINS-BUT WE HAVE BEEN UNABLE TO DETERMINE WHICH ONES.



IRAQI OFFICIALS HAVE STATED THAT THE USE OF ANY WEAPON IS JUSTIFIED IN DEFENDING

THEIR TERRITORY. IRAQ, THE FIRST NATION TO USE NERVE AGENTS ON THE BATTLEFIELD,

PROBABLY WOULD NOT HESITATE TO USE BW AGENTS IN EXTREME SITUATIONS. GIVEN

THE POTENTIALLY GREATER THAN THOUSANDFOLD INCREASE IN LETHAL AREA CONTAMINA-

TION FOR CERTAIN BW AGENTS AS COMPARED WITH CW AGENTS, IRAQ PRESUMABLY

WOULD USE BW AGENTS IN EXTREME STITUATIONS, SUCH AS STRATEGIC RETALIATION FOR

NUCLEAR OR CHEMICAL ATTACKS AGAINST IRAQI POPULATION CENTERS.







WESTERN COMPANIES HAVE SUPPLIED THE

MAJORITY OF DUAL-USE EQUIPMENT AND TRAINING. HOWEVER, THE IRAQI PROGRAM

IS NOW SO FAR ADVANCED THAT LITTLE CAN BE DONE TO IMPEDE IT. MUCH OF THE

EQUIPMENT INVOLVED IS DUAL-USE BIOMEDICAL EQUIPMENT



AT LEAST FOUR FACILITIES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE IRAQI BW PROGRAM







IRAQ'S BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM:

SADDAM'S ACE IN THE HOLE







INTRODUCTION



IRAQ'S AGGRESSIVE PURSUIT OF UNCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS-

CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEAR-AND THE MEANS TO

DELIVER THEM (SURFACE-TO-SURFACE MISSILES [SSMS)) UN-

DERSCORE OFFICIAL IRAQI STATEMENTS THAT JUSTIFY THE USE

OF ANY WEAPON TO DEFEND ITS TERRITORY. MOREOVER,

IRAQ'S USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS IN ITS WAR WITH IRAN

SHOWS THAT IRAQ IS PREPARED TO BACK RHETORIC WITH

ACTION-IRAQ WAS THE FIRST COUNTRY EVER TO USE NERVE

AGENTS ON THE BATTLEFIELDS



IRAQ'S EXPERTISE AND EXPERIENCE WITH CHEMICAL WEAP-

ONS ALMOST CERTAINLY HAVE REINFORCED ITS DESIRE TO

DEVELOP ADDITIONAL UNCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS. WE BE-

LIEVE IRAQ VIEWS ITS USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS AGAINST

IRAN AS A DECISIVE FACTOR IN THE OUTCOME OF THE WAR. IN

ADDITION, WE BELIEVE THE IRAQIS WERE PLEASED WITH THE

MINIMAL INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE TO ITS USE OF CHEMICAL

WEAPONS.







BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM TRACED

BACK TO LATE 1970s

IRAQ EVIDENTLY BEGAN DEVELOPING ITS OFFENSIVE BW

CAPABILITY IN THE LATE 1970s, DESPITE HAVING SIGNED THE

1972 BIOLOGICAL AND TOXIN WEAPONS CONVENTION







HIGH-CONTAINMENT LABORATORIES





THE DESIGNATIONS P-1/BL-1 THROUGH P-4/BL-4 REFER TO

(P)ROTECTION OR (B)IOCONTAINMENT (L)EVEL, WITH LEVEL 4

BEING THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF PROTECTION OR CONTAINMENT.

BASICALLY, THESE LEVEL DESIGNATIONS REPRESENT THE NUM-

BER OF PHYSICAL BARRIERS THAT PREVENT AN ORGANISM

FROM ESCAPING TO THE OUTSIDE FROM THE LABORATORY. BY

INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT. P-41/BL-4 IS REQUIRED FOR

WORK ON DANGEROUS AGENTS THAT POSE A HIGH RISK OF

LIFE-THREATENING DISEASE. HIGH-CONTAINMENT LABORATO-

RIES (P-4/BL-4) ARE COSTLY AND DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN;

THERE ARE ONLY A HANDFUL OF THEM AROUND THE WORLD,

WITH THE MAJORITY CONDUCTING LEGITIMATE RESEARCH ON

HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS DISEASES







IT IS NOT NECESSARY

TO HAVE A HIGH-CONTAINMENT FACILITY FOR WORK ON BW

AGENTS. FOR EXAMPLE, PRODUCTION OF BOTULINUM TOXIN

AND ANTHRAX REQUIRES ONLY P-2/BL-2 LEVELS OF CONTAIN

MENT.







BW AGENTS UNDER DEVELOPMENT INCLUDE

BOTULINUM TOXIN AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA

IRAQ

HAS DEVELOPED BOTULINUM TOXIN AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA

AS BW AGENTS (SEE APPENDIX A). BOTULINUM TOXIN IS

NONPERSISTENT, DEGRADING RAPIDLY IN THE ENVIRONMENT.

ANTHRAX SPORES ARE VERY STABLE IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND

CAN BE CONSIDERED PERSISTENT BW AGENTS.







PRODUCTION OF CLOSTRIDIUM VACCINES





THE BACTERIUM CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM IS THE CAUS-

ATIVE AGENT OF BOTULISM, A TYPE OF FOOD POISONING. THE

CLOSTRIDIUM FAMILY OF BACTERIA ALSO PRODUCES TETANUS

AND GAS GANGRENE.



THE FIRST STEP IN THE PRODUCTION OF CLOSTRIDIUM VAC-

CINES. SUCH AS TETANUS, IS TO PRODUCE LARGE QUANTITIES

OF THE TETANUS TOXIN. TO ACCOMPLISH THIS, LARGE QUAN-

TITIES OF CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI ARE GROWN IN FERMENTERS.

AS CELLS DIE AND BURST, THE TETANUS TOXIN IS RELEASED

INTO THE MATERIAL IN WHICH THEY ARE GROWING. THE NEXT

STEP IS TO PUT THE GROWTH MEDIUM-CONTAINING THE

TOXIN-INTO ANOTHER CONTAINER TO WHICH FORMALDEHYDE

IS ADDED. THE FORMALDEHYDE INACTIVATES THE TOXIN,

MAKING IT NONTOXIC BUT STILL CAPABLE OF PRODUCING AN

IMMUNE RESPONSE. (A TOXIN THAT IS INACTIVE BUT THAT

CAN STILL PRODUCE AN IMMUNE RESPONSE IS CALLED A

TOXOID OR AN ANATOXIN.) THE FORMALDEHYDE-TOXIN MIX-

TURE IS STIRRED, AND, AT VARIOUS INTERVALS, SAMPLES ARE

TAKEN OUT AND INJECTED INTO MICE. WHEN NO TOXIC

OBSERVED IN THE MICE, THE TOXIN IS CONSID-

INACTIVE AND READY FOR USE IN PRODUCING

VACCINE







WESTERN ASSISTANCE IN PROVIDING EQUIPMENT AND TRAIN-

ING HAS BEEN CRITICAL TO IRAQ'S EFFORTS TO DEVELOP AN

OFFENSIVE BW CAPABILITY

HAVE SUPPLIED BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION

EQUIPMENT AN HAVE TRAINED IRAQIS IN THE USE OF THAT

EQUIPMENT. WE DO NOT BELIEVE THAT THESE FIRMS WERE

AWARE OF THE END USE OF THE TRAINING OR EQUIPMENT.







CURRENT STATUS OF THE BW PROGRAM







IRAQ PROBABLY BEGAN LARGE-SCALE PRODUC-

TION OF ANTHRAX AND BOTULINUM TOXIN IN 1989.

THAT SOME LIMITED

WEAPONIZATION PROBABLY HAS TAKEN PLACE ALREADY.







PRODUCTION

WE BELIEVE THERE ARE AT LEAST FOUR LOCATIONS IN IRAQ

INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION OF BW AGENTS: SALMAN PAK,

AT TAJI, ABU GHRAIB, AND AL LATIFIYAH







SALMAN PAK-R&D, PRODUCTION AND STORAGE.







WITH CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY,

PILOT-SCALE FERMENTERS OPERATED ON A CONTINUOUS BASIS

COULD PRODUCE ENOUGH TOXINS OR LIVING AGENTS EACH DAY

TO LETHALLY CONTAMINATE HUNDREDS OF SQUARE KILOME-

TERS.







IRAQ WAS BEGINNING TO PRODUCE

LARGE QUANTITIES OF BW AGENTS IN 1989.







WE JUDGE THAT THERE ARE NO MORE CW-RELATED ACTIVI-

TIES ONGOING AT SALMAN PAK AND THAT IT IS NOW ENTIRELY

DEVOTED TO BW.







THE CW R&D AND PRODUCTION EFFORTS THAT ONCE TOOK

PLACE AT SALMAN PAK CURRENTLY TAKE PLACE AT SAMARRA

AND HABANNIYAH.



ABU GHRAIB-BOTULINUM TOXIN PRODUCTION. ABU

GHRAIB, A FEW KILOMETERS WEST OF BAGHDAD,







AS THE LOCATION OF A BW AGENT

PRODUCTION FACILITY.







OPEN LITERATURE INDICATES THAT IRAQI VETERINARY AU-

THORITIES SIGNED A CONTRACT WITH AN          FIRM IN

1982 TO CONSTRUCT A CLOSTRIDIUM VACCINE PLANT NEAR

BAGHDAD







IRAQ A CRUDE OPERATIONAL BW

CAPABILITY DURING THE WAR.







ABU GHRAIB PLANT

THAT IT HAS BEEN USED TO PRODUCE

BOTULINUM TOXIN FROM CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM.







AT TAJI-PILOT PRODUCTION. WE BELIEVE AT TAJI, IN THE

NORTHWESTERN SUBURBS OF BAGHDAD, IS A SITE OF PILOT-

SCALE BW PRODUCTION.





WEAPONIZATION

IRAQ HAS AVAILABLE A WIDE RANGE OF WEAPON SYSTEMS

THAT IT COULD POTENTIALLY USE TO DELIVER BW AGENTS. THE

WEAPONS RANGE FROM SIMPLE AERIAL BOMBS AND ARTILLERY

ROCKETS TO SURFACE-TO-SURFACE MISSILES (SSMs).







IRAQ MAY BE PLAN-

NING TO DEVELOP A BIOLOGICAL WARHEAD FOR ITS SSMs.







WE BELIEVE THAT, IF IRAQ DOES PLAN TO PUT BW AGENTS

INTO AN SSM, THE MOST LIKELY CHOICE WOULD AGAIN BE ITS

INDIGENOUSLY PRODUCED SCUDS, WHICH HAVE CLAIMED

RANGES OF 600 AND 900 KM







A SYSTEM THAT COULD BE USED IN THE FUTURE FOR BW

AGENT DELIVERY IS THE CONDOR II-AN SSM WITH A 750- 

TO 1,000-KM RANGE AND A PAYLOAD OF ABOUT 500 KG. 

THE CONDOR

HAS A SUBMUNITION WARHEAD. SUCH WARHEADS ARE WELL

SUITED FOR DISSEMINATING BW OR CW AGENTS.







POTENTIAL IRAQI USAGE



PAST IRAQI USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND STATEMENTS BY

IRAQI OFFICIALS JUSTIFYING THE USE OF ANY WEAPON TO

DEFEND THEIR COUNTRY SUGGEST THAT IRAQ WOULD CONSIDER

USING BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS UNDER CERTAIN EXTREME CIR-

CUMSTANCES.







SADDAM HUSAYN TOLD A DELEGA-

TION OF US SENATORS IN APRIL 1990 THAT IRAQ WOULD USE

CHEMICALS ONLY IN RETALIATION FOR AN UNCONVENTIONAL

ATTACK. IRAQ WILL TREAT BW SIMILARLY, IN OUR JUDGMENT,

AND PROBABLY WOULD SAVE ITS BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS AS A

RETALIATORY OPTION FOR UNCONVENTIONAL ATTACKS ON IRAQ.

GIVEN THE POTENTIALLY MORE THAN THOUSANDFOLD INCREASE

IN LETHAL AREA CONTAMINATION OF SOME BW AGENTS AS

COMPARED WITH CW AGENTS, IRAQ, IN OUR JUDGMENT,

PRIMARILY VIEWS BW AS PART OF ITS STRATEGIC ARSENAL, TO

BE USED AS A TERROR WEAPON AGAINST MILITARY AND

CIVILIAN TARGETS



IF IRAQ DECIDES TO USE UNCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS TO

ATTACK STRATEGIC TARGETS, IT MAY BE TEMPTED TO USE

BIOLOGICAL INSTEAD OF CHEMICAL WARHEADS BECAUSE OF

THE GREATER AREA COVERAGE PROVIDED BY BIOLOGICAL

WARHEADS. WE BELIEVE, HOWEVER, THAT IRAQ IS MORE

LIKELY TO HOLD ITS BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS IN RESERVE AS AN

ESCALATORY OPTION TO DETER ADDITIONAL STRIKES FROM ITS

OPPONENT OR TO LAUNCH ITS OWN RETALIATION. FOR EXAM-

PLE, ANTHRAX SPORES CAN CONTAMINATE SOIL FOR DECADES

AND MAY SERVE, IN IRAQ'S VIEW, AS RETALIATION IN KIND

FOR THE RADIATION THAT ACCOMPANIES A NUCLEAR ATTACK.





WE CANNOT RULE OUT THAT IRAQ MAY HAVE CONTINGENCY

PLANS TO USE BIOLOGICAL AGENTS COVERTLY,

BOTULINUM TOXIN

AND, TO A LESSER DEGREE, ANTHRAX BACTERIA LEND THEM-

SELVES TO COVERT DISSEMINATION BECAUSE EVEN SMALL

AMOUNTS PLACED IN WATER OR FOOD SUPPLIES ARE SUFFI-

CIENTLY TOXIC TO KILL LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE. IRAQ ALSO

COULD COVERTLY USE SPRAY TANKS OR AEROSOL GENERATORS

PURCHASED FOR ITS CHEMICAL WARFARE PROGRAM TO CREATE

LARGE TOXIC CLOUDS OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS UPWIND OF A

TARGET AREA.







OUTLOOK



BY THE END OF 1990, WE BELIEVE THAT IRAQ WILL HAVE

DEPLOYED A MILITARILY SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF BIOLOGICAL-

LY FILLED BOMBS AND ARTILLERY ROCKETS. IN ADDITION, WE

BELIEVE THAT IRAQ WILL DEVELOP A BW WARHEAD FOR ITS

INDIGENOUSLY PRODUCED SCUD AND MAY HAVE ALREADY

DONE SO. WE JUDGE THAT THIS WEAPON COULD BE OPERA-

TIONALLY READY WITHIN THE NEXT FEW YEARS.



WE ALSO BELIEVE THAT IRAQ HAS BEEN DEVELOPING OTHER

BW AGENTS THAT WE HAVE NOT YET IDENTIFIED. LIKELY

CANDIDATES INCLUDE VIRUSES AND ADDITIONAL BACTERIA AND

TOXINS.







WE BELIEVE THAT IRAQ WILL CONTINUE TO PLACE EMPHASIS

ON ITS BW PROGRAM. SADDAM, IN HIS QUEST TO BE THE

LEADER OF THE ARAB WORLD, PROBABLY BELIEVES THAT HIS

BW PROGRAM PLACES HIM IN AN ELITE GROUP OF NATIONS;

HE HAS ALREADY STATED THAT HE IS THE THIRD LEADER TO

DEVELOP BINARY CHEMICAL WEAPONS. GIVEN THAT SADDAM

ALREADY HAS THE DUBIOUS DISTINCTION OF BEING THE FIRST

TO USE NERVE AGENTS ON THE BATTLEFIELD AND THAT HE

SUCCESSFULLY WEATHERED THE LIMITED INTERNATIONAL RE-

SPONSE TO THIS USE, HE PROBABLY HAS LITTLE FEAR OF THE

POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF USING BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS.





IRAQ'S AGGRESSIVE BW PROGRAM IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF

SADDAM'S HIGH-PRIORITY DRIVE TO DEVELOP AND PRODUCE

UNCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS AND BALLISTIC MISSILES. AND, AS

IS THE CASE FOR ITS NUCLEAR, CHEMICAL, AND MISSILE

PROGRAMS, THE ULTIMATE GOAL FOR IRAQ'S BW EFFORT IS TO

BECOME INDEPENDENT OF FOREIGN ASSISTANCE. IRAQ IS

ALREADY WELL ON THE WAY TOWARD THIS GOAL.



THE IRAQI BW PROGRAM WILL CONTINUE TO PROGRESS







APPENDIX



CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN

AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA



BOTULINUM TOXIN



BOTULINUM TOXIN IS PRODUCED BY CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULI-

NUM. THIS BATERIUM GROWS ANAEROBICALLY, THAT IS,

WITHOUT THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. ALTHOUGH THERE

EIGHT DIFFERENT TYPES OF THE TOXIN, THE TOXIN MOST

STUDIED AND CHARACTERIZED IS BOTULINUM TOXIN A, ONE OF

THE MOST TOXIC SUBSTANCES KNOWN. ON THE BASIS OF DATA

REGARDING THE TOXICITY AND DISSEMINATION CHARACTERIS-

TICS OF THE TOXIN IN DRIED FORM, A MISSILE FILLED WITH

BOTULINUM WOULD LETHALLY CONTAMINATE AN AREA AT LEAST

16 TIMES LARGER THAN THE SAME MISSILE WARHEAD FILLED

WITH THE NERVE AGENT SARIN.



ACCORDING TO EXPERIMENTAL DATA ON LABORATORY ANIMALS

AND FROM CASES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE, BOTULINUM TOXIN A

IS ABOUT 300,000 TIMES MORE POTENT THAN THE NERVE

AGENT VX. (VX, A PERSISTENT NERVE AGENT, IS 10 TIMES

MORE POTENT THAN THE NONPERSISTENT NERVE AGENT SARIN.)

IN FACT, HUMANS SEEM TO BE MORE SENSITIVE TO BOTULI- 

NUM TOXIN THAN MOST OTHER SPECIES. EXPOSURE TO

BOTULINUM TOXIN USUALLY OCCURS WHEN FOOD CONTAINING

THE BACTERIUM IN INGESTED.







BY THE TIME BOTULINUM TOXIN SYMPTOMS

DEVELOP-ABOUT 12 HOURS AFTER AEROSOL EXPOSURE-

TREATMENT HAS LITTLE CHANCE OF SUCCESS.







BOTULINUM TOXIN AFFECTS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. WHEN 

EXPOSURE TAKES PLACE THROUGH INGESTION, GASTROINTESTI-

NAL SYMPTOMS ARE OBSERVED BEFORE THE ONSET OF NEURO- 

LOGICAL SYMPTOMS. ONCE THESE SYSTEMS BEGIN, THEY

INCLUDE WEAKNESS, DIZZINESS, BLURRED OR DOUBLE VISION,

FIXED AND DILATED PUPILS, IMPAIRED REACTION TO LIGHT,

DROOPING EYELIDS, FACIAL MUSCLE WEAKNESS, AND SPEECH 

DIFFICULTIES. WHEN EXPOSURE TO BOTULINUM TAKES PLACE

THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY ROUTE, GASTROINTESTINAL SYMP-

TOMS ARE ABSENT.







BOTULINUM TOXIN WILL MOST LIKELY BE USED AS AN AEROSOL

FOR BW PURPOSES. ALTHOUGH THE TOXIN IS FAIRLY STABLE

FOR A YEAR WHEN STORED AT TEMPERATURES BELOW 27C,

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT IT DECAYS FAIRLY

RAPIDLY-GENERALLY WITHIN AN HOUR-IN BRIGHT SUN-

LIGHT.







THERE ARE ANTISERA TO BOTULINUM TOXINS, BUT THEY ARE

EFFECTIVE ONLY IF ADMINISTERED BEFORE THE ONSET OF

SYMPTOMS.







CONVERSELY, IMMUNIZATION TO BOTULINUM IS POSSIBLE BUT

REQUIRES MULTIPLE INJECTIONS OF INACTIVATED TOXINS OVER

A PERIOD OF SEVERAL MONTHS. THUS; A COUNTRY THAT HAD

DEVELOPED BOTULINUM TOXIN AS A BW AGENT COULD

PROTECT ITS TROOPS FROM EXPOSURE TO THE TOXIN.





ANTHRAX



ANTHRAX IS PRODUCED BY THE BACTERIUM BACILLUS ANTH-

RACIS. UNLIKE BOTULINUM TOXIN, ANTHRAX SYMPTOMS

RESULT WHEN THE BACTERIA MULTIPLY IN THE BODY, PRODUC-

ING TOXINS. ALTHOUGH EACH BACTERIUM PRODUCES AND

RELEASES ONLY A SMALL QUANTITY OF ANTHRAX TOXIN AS IT

GROWS, AS THE BACTERIA MULTIPLY, MORE TOXIN IS PRO-

DUCED. ANTHRAX IS A LIVING BW AGENT, AND IT MUST

REPRODUCE IN THE BODY TO CAUSE AN EFFECT.



THERE ARE THREE FORMS OF ANTHRAX, CHARACTERIZED BY

THE MODE OF ENTRY INTO THE BODY: THROUGH CUTS IN THE

SKIN (CUTANEOUS), THROUGH INGESTION (GASTROINTESTINAL),

OR THROUGH INHALATION (PULMONARY). ANTHRAX IS A NATU-

RALLY OCCURRING DISEASE OF LIVESTOCK, AND HUMANS MOST

FREQUENTLY CONTRACT THE CUTANEOUS FORM OF THE DISEASE

WHEN THEY COME INTO CONTACT WITH INFECTED ANIMALS.

THE GASTROINTESTINAL FORM OF THE DISEASE RESULTS FROM

INGESTING CONTAMINATED MEAT. OF THESE THREE FORMS,

PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS FATAL NEARLY 100 PERCENT OF THE 

TIME. GASTROINTESTINAL ANTHRAX IS FATAL ABOUT 75 PER-

CENT OF THE TIME, AND CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX IS FATAL LESS 

THEN 10 PERCENT OF THE TIME AND ONLY IF UNTREATED. ALL 

FORMS OF THE DISEASE RESPOND WELL TO PENICILLIN IF THE

DRUG IS GIVEN SHORTLY AFTER THE ONSET OF SYMPTOMS. THE

DISEASE IS FAIRLY RARE, HOWEVER, AND OFTEN THE DIAGNOSIS

OF EITHER GASTROINTESTINAL OR PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS

MADE ONLY AFTER DEATH.



ANTHRAX WOULD MOST LIKELY BE USED AS AN AEROSOL

SUSPENSION OF SPORES FOR BW PURPOSES. AFTER ANTHRAX

SPORES ARE INHALED, THERE IS AN INCUBATION PERIOD OF ONE

TO FIVE DAYS BEFORE NONSPECIFIC SYMPTOMS-SUCH AS

FATIGUE AND MILD FEVER-APPEAR; AT THIS POINT THE

ILLNESS IS FREQUENTLY DIAGNOSED AS A RESPIRATORY INFEC- 

TION. THESE INITIAL SYMPTOMS USUALLY IMPROVE TWO TO

FOUR DAYS LATER, FOLLOWED BY THE SUDDEN DEVELOPMENT

OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS. PULSE, TEMPERATURE, AND RESPI-

RATORY RATE BECOME ELEVATED, AND THE VICTIM BECOMES

CYANOTIC-BLUE-BLACK COLORED. DEATH USUALLY OCCURS

WITHIN 24 HOURS AFTER THE ONSET OF THE SECOND PHASE.



ANTHRAX SPORES ARE VERY HEARTY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

AND IN STORAGE; IT IS THIS SPECIALIZED FORM OF THE

BACTERIUM THAT INFECTS HUMANS. GROWING BACTERIA,

WHEN EXPOSED TO ADVERSE CONDITIONS-SUCH AS EXTREME

HEAT OR COLD-PRODUCE SPORES. THE SPORES, WHICH CAN

BE THOUGHT OF AS SEEDS, REMAIN IN AN INERT STATE UNTIL

THEY ENTER THE BODY AND ENCOUNTER CONDITIONS SUITABLE

FOR THEM TO BEGIN MULTIPLYING.







IN ADDITION, BECAUSE THE ONSET

OF SYMPTOMS OF PULMONARY ANTHRAX ARE SO NONSPECIFIC,

DIAGNOSIS IN TIME FOR SUCCESSFUL PENICILLIN TREATMENT

WOULD BE HIGHLY UNLIKELY. CONVERSELY EFFECTIVE VAC-

CINES TO ANTHRAX DO EXIST SO THAT A COUNTRY THAT HAD

DEVELOPED ANTHRAX AS A BW AGENT COULD PROTECT ITS

TROOPS







1.5 (C)



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