US Space Foundation Military Space Morning 6 April 1995 Keynote Address [Appears to be speaker's text; some text in bold not reproduced here.] Mr. Jeffrey K. Harris Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Space) and Director, National Reconnaissance Office Conference Theme: Vision and Reality: Face to Face Keynote Theme: Tomorrow's Reality Can Be Brighter Than Today's Vision INTRODUCTION -- I appreciate the opportunity to address the Symposium -- a group devoted to space -- this year's theme, "Vision versus Reality" is a concept we all have to address daily -- this is particularly true in Washington where the Washington reality can easily affect the vision. -- Vision of the future -- is the combining of needs with the projected availability of technology. My current responsibilities give me the distinct privilege to help focus the leading edge technologies that will serve as the basis for cost effective -- mission effective use of space into the new century. -- Space has been an important contributor to our national security effort -- Over the last thirty years the United States has dominated the use of space for the support of US military forces and US foreign policy interests. During these three decades, the United States has developed program to develop unequaled capabilities to provide intelligence, navigation, surveillance, weather, and communications from space to support our warfighters in both peacetime and crisis. In the aftermath of the Gulf War. it was apparent to us, our allies, and our enemy how instrumental these space based capabilities were to our success. This knowledge base of experience provides us with some real world examples to further tune and enhance the support that can be made available from these systems -- a better understanding of how to shift from our Cold War based strategic emphasis to a regionally focused model. Key technologies will be instrumental to help meet our needs from space systems -- these technologies will allow us to address needs cost effectively -- needs that arc ever increasing. Today, the rapid advance of technology has redefined the meaning of obsolete in terms of months, instead of years. Consequently, reality Is measured by the time it takes to fund, engineer, build, and integrate new capabilities into existing systems. Our challenge is to move quickly so we are able to incorporate and field the most modem technology. -- Ted's Turner statement "Lead, follow, or get the hell out of the way" is sound advice for those of us responsible for implementing the visions we now have for space. STUDEMAN 1994 SYMPOSIUM ADDRESS Just a year ago Admiral Bill Studeman stood before you to discuss the role of space in the new world order. He spoke of the transition in the US Intelligence Community as we evolve from focusing on the monolithic threat of Soviet expansion, to policing an explosion of smaller crises around the world. -- I watch with fascination and concern as the world is being redefined -- events that once occupied the foreign policy back burner are now of increased importance. These events used to be found in the "world" section of many papers; now they occupy the front pages of the New York Times. Relieved from the iron fist of old regimes -- regional struggles which were held back, can now erupt with unexpected frequency. -- Looking at the past year, national security focus has been driven by: - Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, and Rwanda - Proliferation reared it ugly head in the form of North Korea, the most isolated country in the world and a very difficult foreign policy and intelligence challenge. - The events in Chechnya and the stability of the Russian government are being carefully watched, - And don't forget your garden variety terrorists and plain nuts. The sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway system reiterated to us that the new world order is anything but orderly. To put this in Colorado terms, let me borrow from one of the Rockies biggest export-- COORS LITE-- As the NY Times suggested recently -- Perhaps we now have the Cold War Lite Era - global skirmishes that are morally appalling and complex but lack a clear embodiment of evil like Hitler or Communism This may define the paradox of national security in the coming decades. This uncertain future demands a global, flexible, and responsive SPACE RECONNAISSANCE architecture. Let's take a look at the EVOLUTION OF national security space. -- As we establish the vision for our future, let's look back at the history that brought us here. Events of thirty years ago have framed some of the key drivers for military space. Can this experience help to define a path into the future? -- And is today's plan consistent with tomorrow's reality? Only a clear understanding of how we got here will guide us to where we should be going. -- The United States national security space programs grew out of necessity to clearly understand the Soviet's military capabilities and be an active (winning) participant in the space race. -- The information demands of the missile gap and bomber gap could be partially satisfied with the very high technology U-2 aircraft. In May of 1960 following the shoot down of Gary Powers, the critical need for intelligence demanded an alternative source. -- "No one wants another Pearl Harbor" Eisenhower said prior to the Paris Summit of 1961. "This means we must have knowledge of military forces and preparations around the world, especially those capable of massive and surprise attacks." Luckily, the country had embarked on developing a credible space program in response to the launch of SPUTNIK in 1957. -- Eisenhower's understanding of the need for space supremacy was the catalyst for the CORONA reconnaissance satellite and the APOLLO manned space program. -- We started with small teams of dedicated people with great vision. We experienced a string of problems and, in several cases, disasters, from which we built two highly successful programs in the 1960s. -- The APOLLO astronauts were the first men to the moon. The program helped restore national pride on an international stage in which the players raced to surpass technological barriers never crossed before. -- Not until this year was the Intelligence Community allowed to publicly take credit for its contribution to the Cold War space race, with the declassification of the CORONA program by Vice President Al Gore on 24 February. -- CORONA, which operated from 1960 -- 1972, achieved a number of firsts in space and helped set standards for the manned space programs: #1: CORONA launched 28 February 1959 mouse that relieved.... #13: 1st object recovered from space, 12 August 1960 #14: 1st image ever taken from space, 18 August 1960 -- The CORONA vision that allowed this country to anticipate its need so successfully that the first image over a Soviet airfield from space based reconnaissance was only 109 days after we were forced to suspend overflight by the U-2. Look at the component parts -- a need -- a vision -- a leader -- resources -- determination to get the job done The CORONA pictures, guideposts of history, tell the story of . the program's success. -- With the visual confirmation provided by CORONA'S imagery, we could: - track hundreds of military targets in denied areas - understand the Soviet strategic capabilities - track arms sales and activities of Soviet clients - and ultimately make informed decisions on national security matters, eliminating much of the previous guesswork - The imaging resolution improved from 8 meters to 2 meters over the 12 years it operated. CORONA also provided the first mapping of earth from space and the first stereo- optical data from space. -- And if that wasn't enough, it was the first program to succeed with multiple reentry vehicles and the first reconnaissance program to fly 100 missions. -- Over the next 18 months, more than 800,000 images representing the successes of CORONA and her sister programs, ARGON and LAYNARD, will become available to scientists and historians through the National Archives and the US Geological Survey. For those of you who enjoy statistics, that's approximately 2.1 million feet of film in 39,000 cans. LESSON LEARNED FROM BUILDING EARLY PROGRAMS -- What are the lessons learned from this program, built by a small number of people on short deadlines? From CORONA we learned to empower small groups of people with the latitude to make decisions and sometimes mistakes -- people on a mission to explore all options in achieving their goal. -- We combined the best of the Air Force, the CIA, the Navy, and industry to get it done, and quickly. Staff oversight was minimal and field managers were delegated authorities unheard of in any other programs. Cultural and authoritative barriers were crossed with impunity, all to accomplish an overwhelming mission in the utmost secrecy. On the 24th of May we will celebrate the accomplishments of these early space pioneers. The National Space Club and the National Reconnaissance Office are planning a commemoration of these early successes. -- From this program and its technology base grew today's National Reconnaissance Office and a myriad of modem technologies that support both civilian and military missions worldwide. CORONA was the genesis for a web of technology that is still growing today, to include: - Defense Support Program - Global Positioning System - Defense Meteorological Support Program - DSCS, FleetSatCom, MILSTAR - Atlas, Delta, Titan - And today's generation of reconnaissance satellites -- These systems have provided to our national policy makers and to our forces in the field capabilities such as: - Global weather tracking and forecasting - Worldwide instant communications - Worldwide pinpoint navigation - Threat warning - Near real time intelligence to a multitude of worldwide users. -- From austere and risky beginnings 35 years ago, we've developed the most enviable space information systems. No nation can come close to providing the volume and quality of information we receive from space. DRIVING FACTORS IN THE FUTURE OF SPACE -- Let's focus on what is driving the future of space, and in turn, how we should react. -- After that comes the fun part: that of the palm reader, the fortune teller, Carnack, you know, the vision thing. The envelope please...... -- I've picked a handful of topics on which to focus. As you probably recognize, there are many factors that affect our view of space into the 21st century -- Hopefully some of this will spark discussion for the panels to follow. This forum will be a good way for us to hear your ideas of where we are, and where you think we are going. -- First, the needs driving our foreign policy have altered the landscape of information processing dramatically. Whereas the national security apparatus had a primary focus on one continent, policy makers today demand much more information -- from more disparate parts of the globe -- and more quickly -- than ever before. -- As a result, we have an information explosion -- Information flowing at the multiple terabytes miles per second. A new unit to describe moving large amounts of information, to the user within their timelines. Information -- collected from a variety of sources -- processed, fused, analyzed, and delivered -- on time to ensure its usefulness to the customer. -- In turn, the analysis will be used by policy makers to assess the situation, have the information available to protect the ability to act, and decided what to do? Whatever option they choose -- political pressure, economic sanctions, or military action -- the Information gives us the critical edge. Information supremacy may well define the US as a superpower. -- The rapid advancements taking place in the information arena. Information today grows exponentially: - it comes lots faster - in much greater volumes - from longer distances - requires faster response time -- I wonder how many of you saw a recent issue of TIME, entitled Welcome to Cyberspace? When a major weekly focuses a whole issue on the electronic information explosion, you can consider it popular culture, instead of the fringe. That should make all of us computer geeks feel better. -- If you didn't have a chance to read this issue, the origins of the word "cyberspace" are very interesting. It was coined in the early 1980s by William Gibson, a science fiction writer, who was inspired by watching teenagers hunched over in a video arcade. -- Apparently Gibson defined "cyberspace" in his stories as a computer-generated landscape of unthinkable complexity with great warehouses and skyscrapers of data. -- What started out as a term in a modern fairy tale is now a new way of conducting business. Whether exploring ideas, cutting deals, or socializing, cyberspace eliminates the barriers of time and distance. My brother, a frequent surfer of the cyberspace, remarked in a recent email how strange it seemed to be sending messages in real-time around the world while he was looking out the window at a horse drawn cart in Hungary. What is the connection between cyber ......and.....space..... -- Remember, 35 years ago, the space business was just beginning -- it was our search for information that built the foundation of technology for this information age. Space was there in the beginning and she is just coming into stride now -- I think you have seen nothing yet. Consider the Wright Brothers in 1903 and the Apollo landing on the moon in 1969 -- 66 years -- If this is not an extraordinary period -- space is only halfway there if measured by the same ruler. -- I have mentioned this information factor that has driven the development of our space systems. Now, how do we translate this into benefits for the customer? -- Ten years ago, customers were content with waiting for a lengthy, analytical report. Communications were conducted by mail or by phone. -- But today, the mail isn't fast enough and a simple phone call won't do. The end users want to see the information and as soon as possible. We have to deliver it faster and better than anyone, or we will lose our advantage. We must set the vision, establish standards, and focus the technology. We must establish our strategic plan and carefully execute it instead of jumping on the technology train for an unknown destination. -- Information and information dominance will play a great role in every conflict in the future, whether big or small. We need to understand the benefits of having a systematic way to use information in our military operations. Now that we are in the information age, the military will derive their tactics in large part from the innovative use of information tools. Information systems will be combined in such a way to create a consistent, seamless situational awareness where information is available to the war fighter on demand. Space will fit into most facets of these military operations with communications, weather, navigation, surveillance, arid reconnaissance. Winning wars in the information age, with US forces potentially stretched thin, will be possible because we control critical information. The value of having complete, accurate, and timely information will increase exponentially as we move into the 21st century. -- Military planners coined the OODA loop to explain the process by which information is received, comprehended, evaluated, and acted upon. The four parts of the cycle are known as Observe, Orient, Determine, Act. -- To make the OODA loop successful, we must consider: - having interoperability between our systems and between ours and our allies - merging formerly separate disciplines - Just in time delivery of the right information -- Space provides us a necessary edge to make OODA a reality. By employing the right communications we can: - provide the latest weather over a strike target - deliver pinpoint navigation information - pinpoint targets or obtain broad area reconnaissance to characterize the battlefield -- Ten years ago, we recognized the component parts of this technology and we developed these parts as a series of stovepipe systems. Now we recognize the power of integration and cross domain information sharing. -- To provide the necessary solutions, we need to press full court and think outside the box. Space systems are only one part of the overall Cyberspace equation, but how should we, the space community, fit in? -- Nothing new, but, we need to ensure that our efforts are focused on a space architecture for the long term that is a demand- pull information architecture -- in which the users select what they need. the acceptable response time, and the frequency of required data update. -- Think about it like the Internet. As a user, you can select and download data as you wish, you can converse with other users and lean from each other, and you can query the experts when you are stuck and need help. -- Think about the changes in our lives over the last few years - -CAN, SPAN, USA Today, and now the worldwide webs of Internet. People, in their complex daily lives, are focusing their information needs with these news tools of the information age. The national security information systems will be a mixture of commercial and government systems. This mixture will allow us to balance cost, performance, and assured access to data. -- This demand-pull concept presupposes a lot on the information providers by assuming: - a substantial data base of facts which are accurate - enough information to support the needs of policy makers, CINCs, battalion and squadron commanders, etc. - a rapid response time - an adequate worldwide dissemination system - and a secure communications network -- If we don't think this way, and we don't think inter- operability, we will never achieve the OODA loop advantage. If we do, we have a great chance of staying out front. COMMERCIALIZATION OF SPACE AS A DRIVER -- This mix of commercial and government developments is a tremendous lever arm to help us achieve our vision. Today, a multitude of commercial ventures in space are racing to achieve bold new innovations. -- Venture capitalists are starting up new companies with big ideas, -- The International market place has recognized the advent of space and will field a variety of systems. -- The commercialization of space is harvesting technologies that were formerly exclusively used by the government. This government investment in key technologies is now paying off to a variety of users. Commercialization will give the government an opportunity to take advantage of this progress to save money. As I said earlier, some of our needs can be addressed by leasing or purchasing commercial spacecraft. This will allow our thinking to go for example -- FROM -- "MILITARY SATELLITES FOR COMMUNICATION" - - TO -- "SATELLITES FOR MILITARY COMMUNICATION" -- As government expenditures in space continue to decrease, the commercial space market place helps to keep factories open and workers employed. The government will continue to have its unique needs and therefore, uniquely focused technology programs, but we no longer have to carry as large a portion of the space infrastructure ourselves. -- The government and industry working together as a team in pursuit of common goals is part of the formula for our future successes in space. To do this, we must have a government policy framework that allows US corporations to compete fairly in the international market place. Unfortunately, the government must continue to restrict this market place but only when very specific national security objectives are threatened. -- Solid cooperation with government and industry here will ensure several advantages both to our nation and to our US aerospace industry. Commercial sales of space systems and components will help keep the necessary industrial base available between military space developments and production runs. -- From a national security standpoint, we cannot stop the proliferation of commercial space systems, nor should we want to. In the arena of space reconnaissance, we have established a policy with Presidential Decision Directive 23, on Commercial Remote Sensing that can further our national security goals by allowing US firms which pioneered space based reconnaissance to compete in the global market place. Recent activity by several corporations is indicative of this policy's success. To Keep Up With The Changing Environment -- I Recommend That We Need To Change Some Of Our Management Practices And Methods Not A New Problem -- We Need To Take On The Debilitating Effects Of A Supporting Infrastructure Left Unchecked -- Wellington To Whitehall In August 1812 [SLOWLY] Gentlemen, Whilst marching from Portugal to a position which commands the approach to Madrid and the French forces, my officers have been diligently complying with your requests, which have been sent by H.M. ships from London to Lisbon and thence by dispatch rider to headquarters. We have enumerated our saddles, bridles, tents, and tent poles, and all manner of sundry items for which His Majesty's government holds me accountable. I have dispatched reports on the character, wit and spleen of every officer. Each item and every farthing has been accounted for, with two regrettable exceptions for which I beg your indulgence. Unfortunately, the sum of one shilling and nine pence remains unaccounted for in one infantry battalion's petty cash and there has been a hideous confusion as to the number of jars of raspberry jam issued to one Cavalry regiment during a sandstorm in Western Spain. This reprehensible carelessness may be related to the pressure of circumstances, since we are at war with France, a fact which may come as a bit of a surprise to you gentleman at Whitehall. This brings me to my present purpose, which is to request elucidation of my instructions from His Majesty's government, so that I may better understand why I am dragging an army over these barren plains. I construe that perforce it must be one or two alternative duties, as given below. I shall pursue either one with my best ability, but I cannot do both. 1. To train an army of uniformed British clerks in Spain, for the benefit of the accountants and copy-boys in London, or, perchange [sic] 2. To see that the forces of Napoleon are driven out of Spain. Your most obedient servant Wellington MANAGEMENT METHODS - No Secret That We Need To Examine How We Do Business Within DOD and our interface - Lots Of Ideas. Lots Of Areas To Attack, But One Thing We All Seem To Agree On Is We Need To Make Some Changes Now - Good News -- Bill Perry, John Dutch And Paul Kaminski We Have Been Empowered To Change-- ACCESS TO SPACE -- It is difficult to give a talk to a prestigious space group like this without discussing the L word -- launch. -- Our dependence on space, given that the problems we are facing, requires that we ensure US access to space for commercial and military payloads. -- The cost of launch continues to be a major driver of our overall space system cost -- particularly, heavy lift. In today's reduced budget environment, we stand to fall into a spiral where we buy fewer and fewer satellites which results in fewer, more expensive launches, which results in few satellites -- fewer launches, fewer satellites. Today's vision for launch may not meet the reality unless we act quickly. -- DOD now has a plan, called EELV (Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle). The plan calls for the development and fielding of a family of launch vehicles to handle both medium and heavy payloads. -- EELV will employ a building block concept to attempt to maximize the number of interchangeable parts and reduce infrastructure overhead. -- In my opinion, enough studies have been run and enough data collected. All the major players -- Congress, OSD, the services, and the Intelligence Community -- agree EELV is the plan. I haven't seen any better option and I am eager for the EELV plan to move from the drawing board to the launch pad. -- We are dealing with a fixed budget so we essentially are in a design to cost situation. Our requirements and mission model will be provided to industry so they can harvest technology, define a plan, and help us drive to a more long-term cost effective and reliable launch system. It is anticipated that this streamlined acquisition process will result in a space launch capability flexible enough to meet both our commercial and national security needs. CLOSING So. where are we? -- Assured access to space -- US developed systems which meet our needs. -- Space continues to provide the high ground -- a global vantage point -- a global flexible communications hub. -- The cyberspace information explosion is providing us with new capabilities -- a whole new generation of techno-geeks -- a whole new way to accomplish our mission more effectively. -- It is no longer acceptable to provide airmen, sailors, and soldiers less than the full advantages of our space capabilities to assist them in their tasks. It is clear to both commanders and troops that significant force enhancement and multiplication can occur if we can integrate effectively space capabilities into our military operations -- forced that have adequately trained and exercised with these important capabilities. -- The ideas that come forth from conferences such as these, may be the very things we talk about in a Space Symposium 30 years from now. -- Remember, the only difference between plans and reality is time. And time never stops! I encourage everyone to not just plan for the future, but act on it quickly. -- I thank you and the US Space Foundation for this opportunity to address you.