[Presidential Decision Directives - PDD]
The President, in his address to the United Nations General Assembly on its 50th anniversary called for international cooperation to address the threat posed by money laundering, narcotics trafficking and terrorism, noting that the forces of international crime "jeopardize the global trend toward peace and freedom, undermine fragile democracies, sap the strength from developing countries, (and) threaten our efforts to build a safer, more prosperous world." Declaring international crime a threat to the national security interest of the United States in Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 42, the President ordered the Departments of Justice, State and Treasury, the Coast Guard, National Security Council, Intelligence Community, and
other federal agencies to stepup and integrate their efforts against international crime syndicates and money laundering.
A key component of PDD42 was the imposition of sanctions under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA), blocking the assets of the leaders, cohorts and front companies of identified Colombian narcotics traffickers in the U.S. and in U.S. banks overseas. IEEPA authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to impose sanctions, including freezing
assets held in U.S. financial institutions, against nations and entities deemed to pose a threat to the national security, foreign policy or economy of the United States. Executive Order 12978, signed by President Clinton on October 21, 1995 under authority of IEEPA finds that the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia and the unparalleled violence, corruption, and harm that they cause constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the United States' national security and economy. In addition, U.S. individuals and companies are barred from engaging in financial transactions or trade
with those identified individuals or enterprises linked to the Colombian Cali Cartel.
On January 15, 1997 the Treasury Department identified an additional 21 businesses and 57 individuals determined to be directly involved with illegal traffickers and their socalled legitimate business fronts. This brings to a total of 359 the number of businesses and individuals whose assets have been blocked since 1995 under authority of the President's Executive Order. As part of the PDD 42 process an interagency group is reviewing whether measures can be taken against other international criminal cartels.
In his U.N. address, President Clinton stated that the United States was moving to take extraordinary steps against money launderers. To implement PDD 42, U.S. agencies identified nations where money laundering has important implications for U.S. national security and where expanded cooperation would significantly strengthen U.S. antimoney laundering efforts.
Several of these nations have been approached by U.S. interagency teams in an effort to increase cooperation bilaterally as well as multilaterally and to reduce the threat posed by money laundering.
In response to the President's directive a comprehensive package of legislation was formulated to substantially assist U.S. law enforcement agencies in their efforts against drug traffickers, terrorists, and other international crime syndicates as well as to
counter money laundering. The International Crime Control Act of 1996 ("ICCA") was sent to the U.S. Congress on September 27, 1996. The ICCA was devised to enhance the U.S. ability to go after violent international criminals by vigorously investigating and prosecuting them, taking their money, and depriving them of their ability to cross America's borders and strike at its domestic institutions.
International Organized Crime
International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1996
Released by the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC, March 1997
GLOBAL ORGANIZED CRIME Mora Stephens - January 6, 1996
Woodrow Wilson School Policy Conference 401A Intelligence Reform in the Post-Cold War Era
Conference Director Diane C. Snyder
President's initiative on international organized crime and
drug trafficking PRESS BRIEFING BY ROBERT GELBARD, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS MATTERS; RICHARD NEWCOMBE, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, - October 22, 1995
International Crime Control Strategy - June 1998