Department Seal

FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES
1961-1963
Volume X
Cuba, 1961-1962

DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Washington

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Sources

Sources for the Foreign Relations Series

The Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation on major foreign policy decisions and actions of the U.S. Government. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. This access is further defined in formal agreements concluded between the Historian and the various relevant agencies. The editors believe that in terms of access this volume was prepared in accordance with the standards and mandates of this statute and the implementing agreements.

The editor had complete access to all the retired records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized files ("lot files") of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department's Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and memoranda of conversations between the President and Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. Access is also ensured to the sensitive intelligence files maintained in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series have had full access to the papers of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Eisenhower and other White House foreign policy records. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from other federal agencies including the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Department of State historians also have access to records of the Department of Defense, particularly the records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Secretaries of Defense and their major assistants.

Since 1991, the Central Intelligence Agency has provided expanding access to Department of State historians to high-level intelligence documents from those records in the custody of that Agency. This access is arranged and facilitated by the History Staff of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, pursuant to a May 1992 memorandum of understanding. Department of State and CIA historians continue to work out the procedural and scholarly aspects of identifying the key portions of the intelligence record.

All of this documentation has been made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of these agencies, the assistance of their staffs, and especially the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration.

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1961-1963, Volume X

All sources for this volume are briefly identified in the list below.

Collections in the Kennedy Library were primary sources for this volume. Among the Kennedy Library materials, the single most important collection was the National Security Files. Within this collection, the extensive Country Series for Cuba and the smaller but still important Country file for Cuba within the President's Office Files were key. The file on the Taylor Report in the Cuba Country Series contains the records submitted to the Taylor committee and transcripts of testimony taken by the committee. Within the Meetings and Memoranda Series, the file on the Special Group (Augmented), which was not publicly listed among the Library's holdings and not open to researchers until the research done for this volume, is central to an understanding of Operation Mongoose. The Meetings and Memoranda Series also has papers of key members of the White House Staff, among them Walt W. Rostow, Carl Kaysen, and Chester V. Clifton. The files of Clifton, who was Military Aide to the President, include the memoranda of the President's meetings with the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Collections of papers of individuals important in the Kennedy administration held by the Kennedy Library also yielded significant material. The papers of George Ball are important for the records of telephone conversations which often illuminate policy decisions where no other records exist. The papers of Theodore Sorensen provided documentation on contacts with Soviet officials. The papers of Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., are a rich source of documentation on the Bay of Pigs crisis. The papers of Robert Kennedy are not yet open for research, but the Kennedy Library staff provided some documentation from these papers bearing on Operation Mongoose.

Because very few officials in the Department of State were privy to the planning for the Bay of Pigs invasion and Operation Mongoose, the files of the Department are thin on these central policy issues relating to Cuba. There is some material bearing on the Bay of Pigs and a little material relating to Operation Mongoose in the Department's central and lot files. Department of State files are more important in documenting the diplomatic repercussions from the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion, and for the policy reassessment which followed after the failure. Documentation on such aspects of Cuba policy as the diplomatic efforts to contain the threat of Cuban subversion in Latin America is printed in Volume XII, American Republics.

Central Intelligence Agency files contain the most important collections dealing with the Bay of Pigs and Operation Mongoose. Job 85-00664R is a central collection of files on the Bay of Pigs crisis maintained by the CIA History Staff. A good number of documents dealing with the crisis selected for publication from other collections are replicated in this collection. Job 78-01450R, the files of the Deputy Director for Plans for 1961, and Job 67-01083R, the chronological files of C. Tracy Barnes are also important on the Bay of Pigs. Job 80-B01285A, the files of Director of Central Intelligence John McCone, is invaluable for McCone's memoranda of conversation and memoranda for the record dealing with Operation Mongoose and the significance of the Soviet build-up. These files contain some of the famous "honeymoon" cables relating to the Soviet build-up which are extensively summarized in the volume and printed in the microfiche supplement.

Another central collection of documents bearing on the Bay of Pigs invasion is the papers of Admiral Arleigh Burke maintained as the Bumpy Road Materials by the Naval Historical Center. The Burke papers are most valuable for documenting the crisis in April, especially as it is illuminated by the cable traffic between CINCLANT headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia, and the fleet units commanded by Admiral Clark on the USS Essex off of Cuba.

The papers of General Maxwell Taylor at the National Defense University are important for the work of the Taylor committee and also contain documentation from Taylor's period as Military Adviser to the President.

Unpublished Sources

Department of State

Decimal Central Files: The following files were most useful in compiling this volume.

152: special missions to Central and South America

611.37: U.S. relations with Cuba

611.3722: U.S. blockade of Cuba

731.00: political affairs and conditions in Venezuela

737.00: political affairs and conditions in Cuba

760.551: Eastern European military personnel

Lot Files: These are the special decentralized files of the policymaking level of the Department of State, including the Executive Secretariat, overseas Foreign Service posts, and U.S. special missions. A list of the lot files used or consulted for this volume follows.

ARA Files: Lot 62 D 24

Files of the Special Assistant, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs for 1961.

ARA/CCA Files: Lot 63 D 402

Files of the Officer in Charge of Cuban Affairs for 1961.

ARA/CCA Files: Lot 65 D 256

Files of the Officer in charge of Cuban Affairs for 1962.

ARA/CCA Files: Lot 66 D 501

Files of the Coordinator of Cuban Affairs for 1964, containing Top Secret material from 1961-1963.

INR/IL Historical Files

Files of the Office of Intelligence Coordination, containing records from the 1940s through the 1980s, maintained by the Office of Intelligence Liaison, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.

INR/SEE Files: Lot 90 D 321

Latin American files of the Office of Soviet and East European Analysis, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, for the years 1960-1985.

Presidential Correspondence: Lot 77 D 163

Exchanges of correspondence between the President and heads of foreign governments, as well as certain correspondence of the Secretary of State for the years 1961-1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.

President's Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 66 D 149

A chronological record of cleared memoranda of conversations with foreign visitors for the years 1956-1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.

Rusk Files: Lot 72 D 192

Files of Secretary of State Dean Rusk, 1961-1969, including texts of speeches and public statements, miscellaneous correspondence files, White House correspondence, chronological files, and memoranda of telephone conversations.

Secretary's Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 65 D 330

Memoranda of the Secretary's and Under Secretary's conversations for the years 1961-1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.

Secretary's Staff Meetings: Lot 66 D 147

Records of the Secretary of State's staff meetings, 1961-1963, and additional ad hoc meetings, reports, papers, and memoranda of Chester Bowles' telephone conversations.

S/P-NSC Files: Lot 62 D 1

Serial and subject master file of National Security Council documents and correspondence for the years 1945-1961, maintained by the Policy Planning Staff.

S/S Files: Lot 65 D 438

Master file on the Cuban missile crisis, October 1962-January 1963, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State. Also contains background material from 1961 and 1962, including documentation on Operation Mongoose.

S/S Files: Lot 70 D 265

National Security Council meetings, policy papers, position papers, and administrative documents for the years 1961-1965, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.

S/S-NSC (Miscellaneous) Files: Lot 66 D 95

Administrative and miscellaneous National Security Council files, including NSC Records of Action, for the years 1947-1963, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.

State/JCS Meetings: Lot 70 D 328

Records of meetings between representatives of the Department of State and the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the years 1959-1963, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.

U. Alexis Johnson Files: Lot 90 D 410

Official and personal files covering the years 1958-1973. Includes files dealing with Johnson's tenure as Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, 1961-1966.

Central Intelligence Agency

DCI Files: Job 54-00499R

Files of the History Staff.

DCI Files: Job 85-00664R

Files of the History Staff, an extensive collection dealing with the Bay of Pigs invasion.

DDI Files: Job 89-T01385R

Files of the Office of the Deputy Director for Intelligence.

DCI Files: Job 91-00741R

Files of the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence.

DCI (McCone) Files: Job 80-B01285A

Files of Director of Central Intelligence John A. McCone, 1961-1965.

DCI (Dulles) Files: Job 80-B0176R

Files of Director of Central Intelligence Allen W. Dulles, 1953-1961.

DDI Files: Job 80-R01386R

Files of the Office of the Deputy Director for Intelligence.

DDO/DDP Files: Job 64-00352R

Files of the Office of the Deputy Director for Plans covering 1960.

DDO/DDP Files: Job 67-01083R

Chronological files of C. Tracy Barnes, 1959-1964.

DDO/DDP Files: Job 78-01450R

Files of the Office of the Deputy Director for Plans covering 1961.

DDO/LA/COG Files: Job 52-00679R

Files of the Covert Collection Staff of the Western Hemisphere Division, including materials prepared for the Taylor Committee and records of Special Group meetings relating to Cuba.

DDO/WH Files: Job 73-00853R

Files dealing with liaison between the Western Hemisphere Division and the Department of State, 1955-1966.

ODDI Registry of NIEs and SNIEs: Job 79-R01012A

Copies of National Intelligence Estimates and Special National Intelligence Estimates.

Department of Defense

Office of the Secretary of Defense, Historian's Office, Cable Files, Cuba, January-August 1962.

Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas

Herter Papers

Records of Christian A. Herter for the years 1957-1961.

Post-Presidential Papers

Papers of President Eisenhower, 1961-1969.

Project Clean Up Records

Project Clean Up collection. Records of Gordon Gray, Robert Cutler, H. Romer McPhee, and Andrew J. Goodpaster.

White House Office Files

Several White House office collections, including files of the Office of the Staff Secretary, and Project Clean Up, and files of the Office of the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs.

Whitman File

Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President of the United States, 1953-1961, maintained by his personal secretary, Ann Whitman. The Whitman File includes the following elements: Name series, Dulles-Herter series, Eisenhower Diaries, Ann Whitman (ACW Diaries), National Security Council Records, Miscellaneous Records, Cabinet Papers, Legislative Meetings, International Meetings, Administrative Series, and International File.

Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas

Rusk Appointment Books

Vice Presidential Security File

John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts

National Security Files

Chester V. Clifton series

Countries Series

Meetings and Memoranda Series: National Security Council Meetings, Staff Memoranda, NSAMs, Special Group (Augmented)

President's Appointment Books

President's Office Files

Countries

Staff Memoranda

Papers of George W. Ball

Papers of Roger Hilsman

Papers of Robert F. Kennedy

Papers of Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.

Papers of Theodore C. Sorensen

National Defense University, Fort McNair, Washington, D.C.

Lemnitzer Papers

Papers of General Lyman L. Lemnitzer, Chief of Staff of the Army, 1959-1960; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1961-1962.

Taylor Papers

Papers of General Maxwell D. Taylor, Chief of Staff of the Army, 1955-1959; the President's Military Representative, 1961-1962; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1962-1964.

United States Mission to the United Nations, New York

USUN Files: NYFRC 84-84-002

Files of the U.S. Mission to the United Nations, 1950 to date.

National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

Record Group 323, JFK Collection

Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland

Record Group 330, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

OASD/ISA Files: FRC 64 A 2382

General and country files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for 1961.

OASD/ISA Files: FRC 69 A 3501

General and country files of the Assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for 1962.

OASD (C) A Files: FRC 71 A 2896

Master file on the Cuban missile crisis, maintained by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Administration. Includes files of the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs. Contains some background documents from the pre-crisis period.

OSD Files: FRC 65 A 3464

Files of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense and their Special Assistants for 1961.

OSD Files: FRC 66 A 3542

Files of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense and their Special Assistants for 1962.

McNamara Files: FRC 71 A 3470

Files of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, 1961-1968.

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

Allen Dulles Papers

Stevenson papers

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

Bowles Papers

Naval Historical Center, Washington, D.C.

Area Files

Bumpy Road Materials: Papers of Admiral Arleigh Burke, Chief of Naval Operations, 1955-1961.

Published Sources

Documentary Collections, Congressional Documents, and Periodicals

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962, Mary S. McAuliffe (ed.), Washington: Central Intelligence Agency, 1992.

U.S. Department of State, American Foreign Policy, Current Documents,1961, 1962, Washington: U.S. Government printing Office, 1965, 1966.

--------. Department of State Bulletin, 1961, 1962, Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961, 1962.

U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1960-61, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1962.

--------, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1961, 1962, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1962.

U.S. Senate, Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders: An Interim Report of the Select Committee To Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities, United States Senate, 94th Congress, 1st Session, Report No. 94-465, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975.

[end of document]

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Department Seal Return to Foreign Relations of the U.S., Vol. X, Cuba.