Slide 16 of 70
The second helpful convention that frames CID material solutions, is the role time and space play in Friendly ID (FID) or Situational Awareness (SA) system dominance in the CID equation. When planning, preparing, and moving to the fight, or to shape the battlefield, SA systems are the dominant CID technologies employed.
Once contact is made, and the fight is closed (i.e. direct fire engagements), target identification is the dominant technology to prevent fratricide and enhance combat effectiveness.
Studies have shown that reliance on SA systems or a combination of SA/TI during the direct fire fight actually increases friendly casualties. The increased casualty rates are not due to increased fratricide; it is a function of increased engagement times resulting in increased Red on Blue kills. When a shooter has closed with the enemy, the only effective CID solution is a through sight target ID system that does not substantially affect engagement time.
[Note: Target ID is more appropriate to a purist discussion of the CID equation. Pragmatically however, Friendly ID is the best technology can deliver in the ground to ground mission area in our lifetime.]