News Aerial Common Sensor



 

 

 

 

 

Concept of Operations

For The

Aerial Common Sensor

 

 

Version 2.3b

19 JUL 1999

 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

Section and Title Page

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4

 

SECTION I – INTRODUCTION 6

1.1 Purpose

1.2 Mission Description

1.3 System Overview

1.4 System Capabilities

1.5 Force Structure

1.6 Force XXI Concept of Employment

 

SECTION II – SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 7

    1. Airborne Platform Subsystem
    2. Airborne Mission Equipment Subsystems
    3. Ground Processing Facility

SECTION III – COMMAND RELATIONSHIP 9

3.1 General Overview

3.2 General Support

3.3 OPCON

3.4 Theater/Corps/Division/Brigade/Battalion Relationship

SECTION IV – ACS MISSION 10

4.1 Mission

4.2 Electronic Attack

4.3 SIGINT Exploitation of Tactical Voice Communications

4.4 Tactical Imagery Acquisition and Exploitation

4.5 Special Missions

 

SECTION V – EMPLOYMENT PLANNING/MISSION TASKING 10

5.1 Commander’s Guidance

5.2 Employment Considerations

5.3 Threat Considerations

SECTION VI – ACS INTERFACES 11

6.1 General

6.2 Army Interfaces

6.3 Multi-Service Interfaces

6.4 Multinational Operations

SECTION VII – DEPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS 12

7.1 General

7.2 System Responsiveness

7.3 System Related Deployments

SECTION VIII – LOGISTICS 12

8.1 General Maintenance Concept

8.2 Transportation Requirements

8.3 Personnel

8.4 Facility Requirements

SECTION IX – TRAINING 13

 

APPENDIXES

I Acronyms List and Definitions (Included with base document)

II Operational Mode Summary/Mission Profiles (From ORD)

III Operational Scenarios

IIIA Conventional Tethered Operations

IIIB Split-Based Operations

IIIC Counterdrug Operations

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Mission: The Aerial Common Sensor (ACS) fills the Army’s critical mission need for a world-wide self-deployable airborne reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) system. It supports early entry and/or forward deployed forces by providing timely indications and warning, dominant situational awareness, battle management, and precision targeting capabilities across the full spectrum of operations. These capabilities assist the Corps/Land Component Commander in the planning, preparation, and execution of his assigned mission; as key enablers, they help him "see" the battlefield – allowing him to shape the battlespace and conduct decisive operations under conditions of his choice. ACS is integral to the Army’s deep strike architecture. It will be used to survey new areas of operations to facilitate changes to smart weapon algorithms. It will provide the dynamic precision targeting data needed by future deep strike weapon systems, and, with advances in multiple sensor packages (organic or linked) will enable on-the-spot BDA. The new ACS sensor packages will also enable the "detection" of movers, sitters, emitters and hiders … a first from any ISR sensor.

Concept of Employment: ACS provides the Corps commander with a rapid-response, multi- discipline capability to self-deploy manned aircraft anywhere in the world and conduct operations en route to and immediately upon arrival in theater. The system will be capable of split based operations without a forward deployed ground station. It has a secondary mission to support echelon above corps (EAC) and Joint Task Force (JTF) commanders. It will provide information directly to Tactical Operations Centers at Brigade and higher echelons through the Intelligence Broadcast Service (IBS) received in Joint Tactical Terminals in the Common Ground Station (for "now battle" data), in ASAS (for integration into the Common Operational Picture), and in other selected non-MI nodes on the battlefield. It will detect, identify, accurately locate, track and rapidly disseminate time-sensitive information on high payoff targets to Army, Joint and Allied warfighters to support mission planning, force protection, force maneuvers, targeting, and battle damage assessment. The ACS aircraft deploy with sufficient equipment to sustain limited operations for periods of up to 14 days.

Early-entry operations are facilitated by an airborne SATCOM relay, which allows sensor data to be processed and reported from CONUS and permits initial operations without a forward-deployed ground station. Mission tracks are normally flown in stand-off orbits beyond the range of anti-aircraft artillery and missiles. Multiple aircraft can be flown simultaneously, providing instantaneous SIGINT targeting accuracy, increased collection throughput, shorter target revisit times, and better overall coverage of the extended battlespace anticipated in future disbursed operationas.

During the build-up phase of operations, a split-based architecture will allow more robust collection operations by deploying initial ground station elements and aircraft logistics support to the theater of operations. The deployed ground station elements will be co-located with the tactical commander to increase responsiveness of mission tasking. The ground station’s SATCOM relay provides more throughput than the airborne SATCOM relay to allow remote processing of all collected data. Additional aircraft logistics support allows sustained 24-hour operations with more than one aircraft.

Full deployment of the in-theater ground station elements is possible as the in- theater support structure matures. SATCOM remote operations are no longer required, but may be used to take advantage of unique linguist skills in CONUS-based units and to forward special signals for further analysis and additional exploitation.

ACS operations capitalize on the strengths and efficiencies of both manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. As an example, the piloted AV may provide the cueing and potentially the control of EO/IR configured UAVs that will in turn provide the close-in confirmation of high payoff targets.

ACS Operational Configuration/Capability: ACS operations will use a modular HMMWV-based ground station linked with one or multiple piloted aircraft or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to support rapid detection, identification and location of high payoff targets operating across the battle space. Sensor payloads will include SIGINT (COMINT and ELINT), MASINT, and IMINT (Electro-Optical, Infra-Red, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Moving Target Indicator (MTI) Radar, MSI & HSI sensors. Intelligence products are distributed to other processors via Common DataLink (CDL), and to other consumers using the Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT) via the Intelligence Broadcast Service (IBS) and the Global Broadcast Service (GBS).

ACS consists of four major component groups. The Airborne Platform Subsystem (APS) is based on an existing commercial aircraft design, and contains the mission payload and datalinks. The Airborne Mission Equipment Subsystem (AMES) consists of a suite of modular and reconfigurable sensor payloads and processors. The SIGINT payload will be based on the Joint SIGINT Avionics Family (JSAF), the IMINT and MASINT payloads will be based on other GOTS or COTS designs. The DOD-standard Common Datalink (CDL) family is used to pass data to and from the Ground Processing Facility (GPF). The GPF will migrate capabilities from mini-IPF, TES, and CGS into a modular design that includes a SATCOM relay and conforms to Distributed Common Ground Station (DCGS) standards. The modular nature of both the sensor and ground station elements allows the commander tailor his ACS configuration to best support the tactical situation, and deploy only those components that will be needed.

Summary: Aerial Common Sensor capitalizes on the successes of Guardrail Common Sensor and Airborne Reconnaissance Low by providing timely and accurate detection, identification, tracking and precision geolocation of highly-mobile ground targets, thereby increasing both dominant situational awareness and precision engagement capabilities. ACS corrects deployability deficiencies of current systems, resulting in a smaller forward-deployed footprint and reduced requirement for intra- and inter-theater airlift. It will be affordable, responsive and available to support ground commanders’ needs. ACS will use common payloads, aircraft, datalinks and ground stations to increase affordability and cross-service interoperability while keeping pace with technology and minimizing new equipment training and logistics challenges.

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION I – INTRODUCTION

1.1 Purpose: The Aerial Common Sensor (ACS) is the 21st Century airborne reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) system designed to provide targeting support to Army commanders in Force XXI and Army After Next (AAN) operations.

1.2 Mission Description: The ACS provides intelligence and targeting to the land component commander (LCC) and warfighters at all echelons and gives them operational flexibility to support missions from peace to operations other than war (OOTW) to low intensity conflict (LIC) to major regional conflicts. ACS operations can be conducted using an organic ground station linked with manned aircraft, or a mix of manned aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to support rapid identification, location and targeting of high payoff targets operating across the battle space.

1.3 System Overview: The ACS consists of three major component groups: the Airborne Platform Subsystem (APS), the Ground Processing Facility (GPF), and a suite of modular sensors, processors and reporting equipment know collectively as the Airborne Mission Equipment Subsystems (AMES). The APS and AMES are linked via terrestrial or satellite datalinks to a Ground Processing Facility (GPF). The ACS system will be interoperable with the emerging Distributed Common Ground Station (DCGS) infrastructure (to include level 4 interoperability with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) at the Army and Joint level. ACS will have an open architecture capable of accepting the integration of modular components for future performance enhancements. The system will be configurable to accommodate mission and operational requirements.

1.4 System Capabilities: Mission payloads will be modular and tailorable for specific mission requirements. Payload configurations can include a mix of Communications Intelligence (COMINT), Electronic Intelligence (ELINT), Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) and Measurement and Signatures Intelligence (MASINT), and high accuracy signal location sensor subsystems. The imagery subsystems may include synthetic aperture radar (SAR), moving target indicator (MTI), Electro-Optic (EO), Infra-Red (IR), and multispectral imagery (MSI) payloads. Growth payloads include Airborne Communications Node (ACN) or its elements (when SIGINT payloads are not carried), Masked Target Sensors (MTS) and MASINT sensors.

1.5 Force Structure: The ACS system will be assigned to the Military Intelligence Battalion (Aerial Exploitation) of the Corps and Echelon Above Corps Military Intelligence Brigades. It will replace the Guardrail Common Sensor and Airborne Reconnaissance Low assets currently found in those organizations.

1.6 Force XXI Concept of Employment: ACS will provide the Corps commander with a rapid-response capability to self-deploy manned aircraft anywhere in the world and conduct operations when arriving in theater. The system will have a SATCOM remote relay to permit split-base operations without a forward-deployed ground station. It has a secondary mission to support echelon above corps (EAC) and Joint Task Force (JTF) commanders. It will provide information to directly to Tactical Operations Centers at brigade and higher echelons through the Intelligence Broadcast Service (IBS) received in the Joint Tactical Terminal that is integral to the Common Ground Station and other warfighting information systems. It will have the capability to detect, identify, accurately locate, track, and rapidly disseminate time-sensitive information on high payoff targets (e.g., rocket and artillery forces, weapons of mass destruction, logistics resupply areas, etc.) to Army, Joint and Allied warfighters to support targeting, force protection, mission planning, battle damage assessment (BDA), and force maneuvers.

 

SECTION II –SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

2.1 Airborne Platform Subsystem (APS). The APS will be a non-developmental aircraft capable of global self-deployment to 2500 nautical miles (nm) without removal of the AMES. It will arrive in-theater configured for immediate employment after refueling. The APS will be capable of operational altitudes up to 35,000 feet MSL, and carry a full suite of sensor payloads, dedicated terrestrial and SATCOM datalinks, and Aircraft Survivability Equipment (ASE). These payloads will be modular and tailorable and provide for on-board processing and reporting vial the IBS line-of-site (LOS) broadcast in situations when the ground processing facility is not available. Mission data can be processed on-board the airborne platform and/or transmitted directly to the GPF via the common data link (terrestrial or SATCOM) for processing, depending on mission tasking.

2.2 Airborne Mission Equipment Subsystems (AMES)

2.2.1 SIGINT Sensors: The ACS SIGINT Sensor suite will be based on the DoD standard Joint SIGINT Avionics Family (JSAF). It will be interoperable with other airborne sensor subsystems using the JSAF payloads or standards, and be capable of collecting and processing all modern signal types. It will provide the LCC with near-real-time Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) and targeting capabilities. Its primary task is to identify and produce targetable geolocation information on high payoff threat signals to the LCC. Secondary missions include:

Wide area and focused electronic surveillance

Battlefield visualization

Situation and target development

Dynamic updates to the ground and electronic order of battles

Cross cueing of the imagery sensor suites.

2.2.2 IMINT Sensors: The ACS IMINT capability will consist of a suite of modular sensors providing the commander real-time ISR and targeting support capabilities. Passive imaging payloads will include: Daylight Imaging, Thermal Infrared, and Wide Area Thermal Sensors. Active imaging payloads will include SAR and MTI radar functions. Future payloads for the ACS sysem will include a Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) sensor and a Masked Target Sensor (MTS) to detect airborne targets that are masked from conventional ground-based air defense radars.

2.2.3 MASINT Sensors: The ACS MASINT sensor suite is still evolving. While the hyperspectral imaging system and many of the SIGINT system capabilities can be thought of as having MASINT applications, Army doctrine for tactical MASINT collection is not yet fully developed. The modular nature of ACS will allow addition of new MASINT payloads to the airborne platform as they are developed in the future.

2.2.4 Processors and Workstations: ACS processors and workstations will comply with the appropriate standards defined in the Distributed Common Ground Station (DCGS) architecture. These standards include Common Imagery Ground/Surface System (CIGSS), Joint Interoperable Operator Network (JION), and emerging MASINT standards. All workstations will be able to share intermediate processed products (Lines of Bearing, Pulse Descriptor Words, images, icons, etc.) with any other ACS workstation and the Tactical Exploitation System (TES) workstations when the two systems are co-located. All workstations will be capable of interoperating with any other ACS workstation (located in garrison, deployed, or in the APS) via a Wide Area Network (WAN) architecture using Common Datalink (CDL) or other standardized communications paths and protocols. Associated processing technologies incorporated into the processing architecture will include aided target recognition, mensuration capabilities, and advanced imagery compression and decompression algorithms.

2.2.5 Reporting Tools: The reporting software tools will be an integral part of the workstation software and conform to the standards defined for each discipline. The system will identify, locate, and track potential targets as they move through the battlespace. Sensor reports will be reported through the line-of-site and SATCOM Intelligence Broadcast System and received in TOC’s, DOC’s, and FSCE’s at all echelons down to maneuver brigade. Reports will be received by Joint Tactical Terminal host processors including the Common Ground Station (CGS), Forward Area Air Defense Command and Control (FAADC2) and Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Dissemination System (AFATDS) and the All-Source Analysis System (ASAS).

2.2.6 Common Datalinks: The ACS will employ the DoD Common Datalink in air-to-air, air-to-surface, and SATCOM modes to communicate with other ACS components, and other Army, Joint Service, and Allied systems.

2.3 Ground Processing Facility (GPF): The ACS Ground Processing Facility (GPF) will be an evolutionary merging of existing ground station components (mini-IPF, TES, etc.). It will provide Army tactical (Corps and Division), JTF, and Combined force commanders with a tailorable, scaleable, modular, and rapidly deployable intelligence processing system. It will be capable of controlling Army and other Service airborne sensors and direction finding systems and, receive, process, display, exploit, and generate SIGINT and IMINT derived intelligence reports, and rapidly (within one minute of target/signal recognition) disseminate these reports to joint warfighters at all echelons. The GPF will be capable of cross-mission SIGINT geolocation processing with national and joint sensors. The GPF will be C-130 drive-on/off capable, with the mobility required to keep pace with the main headquarters of the supported commander. It will be fully interoperable with the All-Source Analysis System (ASAS), the Common Ground Station (CGS), the Digital Topographic Support System (DTSS), and the Army Battle Command System (ABCS).

SECTION III – COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

3.1 General Overview: Aerial Common Sensor will be an organic asset for the Corps and Echelon Above Corps Military Intelligence Brigades and will provide direct support to tactical commanders at those echelons. Expected primary roles and missions at those echelons are listed below in Table 1.

 

Table 1 ACS Primary Roles and Missions by Echelon of Support

 

ROLES and MISSIONS

CORPS SUPPORT

EAC SUPPORT

Peacetime Surveillance

 

x

Indications and Warnings

x

x

Force Protection

x

 

Target Acquisition

x

 

Target Development

x

 

Near-real Time Dissemination

x

x

Rapid Force Projection/Split-base Operations

 

x

 

x

Battle Damage Assessment

x

 

 

3.2 General Support: ACS can also provide support to divison, ACR, separate brigade, and JTF assets. Tasking for those missions will still be conducted through the Corps Analysis and Control Element (ACE). General Support coverage of lower echelon targets may be provided concurrently with other scheduled Corps missions. If battlespace conditions require, unique missions sorties may be scheduled.

3.3 OPCON: ACS assets can also be placed under the operational control of other supported commanders. This will not be the normal procedure because most lower echelon commanders lack the required capability to interface with JFACC assets for airspace coordination and survivability. EAC assets, especially, are likely to be placed under the operational control of other commanders in order to satisfy unique MOOTW requirements in areas where this constraint is not a factor.

3.4 Theater/Corps/Division/Brigade/Battalion Relationships: No matter which commander has mission tasking priority for the ACS system, commanders at all echelons will have the ability to input their unique mission requirements into the collection management process and receive products directly from the ACS system via the Intelligence Broadcast Service (IBS) and the Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT).

SECTION IV – ACS MISSION

4.1 Mission: ACS is capable of supporting a variety of ISR Operations to include multi-dimensional, simultaneous, dispersed operations from war through military operations other than war (MOOTW). The ACS primary mission will be to conduct SIGINT collection and targeting operations. Secondary missions include IMINT and MASINT collection.

    1. Electronic Attack: Electronic Attack is not a current mission for the ACS.

4.3 SIGINT Exploitation of Tactical Voice and Data Communications: The tactical SIGINT target set of the future will consist of a diverse set of emitters, which are predominantly digital; both narrowband and wideband, and will employ encrypted communications. Future tactical communications will be based on commercial standards, capable of multimode/multirole operations and designed to be interoperable with both military and commercial communications infrastructures. Complex modes of operation such as frequency agility, direct sequence spread spectrum, adaptive power management and combinations of frequency, time and space diversity will be common. ACS will remain the only Army tactical system tasked to collect COMINT internals.

4.4 Tactical Imagery Acquisition and Exploitation: Potential adversaries on the Force XXI battlefield will be able to hide, mask and obscure their movements and location. These threats include the use of such methods as corner reflectors; smoke; radar absorbent materials; camouflage (net or covering) decoys; and terrain masking. ACS imagery sensors will employ a mix of conventional, infra-red, hyperspectral and radar sensors in combination to overcome these enemy countermeasures.

4.5 Special Missions: The long range, endurance, and multi-disciplined payloads of the ACS system give it great flexibility to conduct a variety of non-traditional tasks including DoD support to counter drug operations, host nation assistance, combating terrorism, civil support, peace operations, noncombatant evacuation operations, support to insurgencies, disaster relief, or a wide variety of other OOTW missions. Additionally, the modular nature of the ACS payloads will allow for employment of unique MASINT or other sensors as they are developed

SECTION V – EMPLOYMENT PLANNING AND MISSION TASKING

5.1 Commander’s Guidance: ACS will support the ground commander (Corps, JTF, or Strike Force) with continuous 24-hour coverage of the commanders area of interest from pre-planned airborne flight tracks. The location of these tracks will be determined by the commander’s Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIR), type of potential targets to be covered, the sensor suites being used, and survivability.

5.2 Employment Considerations: ACS can provide coverage of a nominal Corps area of operations more than 500km wide x 300km deep employing multi-discipline sensor payloads. Revisit rates and Target Location Error (TLE) against highly mobile ground targets will support Indications and Warning (I&W), Situation Development and targeting operations

5.3 Threat Considerations: During mid-to-high intensity conflict, the ACS manned airborne platforms will operate at a safe standoff distance to minimize the threat of surface-to-air missiles while UAV’s will cover targets in the high-threat areas. In these scenarios, hostile aircraft will pose the primary threat to the ACS airborne platform, and close coordination with the JFACC will be required to counter potential threats. In low-intensity conflicts and OOTW scenarios, the ACS aircraft will fly over potentially hostile areas, and will rely on their own organic defensive countermeasures to minimize anti-aircraft artillery and missile threat.

 

SECTION VI – ACS INTERFACES

6.1 General: A robust and redundant suite of communications is critical to the ability of the ACS system to provide the required support to tactical commanders.

6.2 Army Interfaces: To serve the needs of the supported tactical commander and interface with other battlefield command and control systems, ACS will possess a complete set of tactical terrestrial communications. Communications interfaces will include access to Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE), Warfighter Information Network (WIN), Defense Message Service (DMS), Secure Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET), and conventional tactical radio communications.

6.3 Multi-Service Interfaces: Joint communications interfaces will be in accordance with the DISA-compliant communications listed in the previous paragraph. Additionally, the ACS sensor payloads, processors, and communications links will be interoperable with joint assets (sensors and processors). Interoperability between Service Multi-INT sub-systems will be automated and transparent, and implemented on a non-interfering basis using the emerging Distributed Reconnaissance Infrastructure (DRI) standards. Payloads, data formats, protocols, processing and transmission will comply with the set of SIGINT and IMINT standards being developed under the Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) IPT, by the Joint Interoperable Operator Network (JION) IPT, the JASA Standards Working Group (JSWG) and the Tactical Standards Working Group (TSWG). These standards are a subset of the Unified Cryptologic Architecture (UCA) and Common Remoting Standards (CRS) for remote payload control from processors (to include RSOCs and other fixed-station operations). Imagery payloads will comply with Common Imagery Ground/Surface System (CIGSS) standards. Future MASINT payloads will comply with emerging standards being developed by the Central MASINT Office (CMO).

6.4 Multinational Operations Although it is not envisioned at this time that ACS will have the same level of DCGS-compliant sensor-level interoperability with allied forces, the use of US and NATO standard message formats and communications links will facilitate functional interoperability and sharing of sensor data. Additionally, because the system can be operated without having the aircraft tethered to a ground processing facility, the airborne platform will have the option of accommodating an allied host-nation observer/operator on-board the aircraft in a manner similar to what is done with Airborne Reconnaissance Low (ARL) today.

 

SECTION VII – DEPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS

7.1 General: The ACS aircraft will be capable of self-deployment anywhere in the world and capable of operations with only limited support in the forward area. Ground system components will be C-130 transportable to forward operating areas. Both components will be capable of split-base operations from the garrison.

7.2 System Responsiveness: Aircraft deployment responsiveness will be dictated by the distance from the home base and enroute weather. Ground system deployment responsiveness will be dictated by availability of required airlift.

7.3 System Related Deployments: ACS aircraft will naturally require significant quantities of fuel in the forward area. If fuel is not available from host nation facilities, deployment of Army or Joint refuel assets will be required. Additionally, the GPF may also include additional components not organic to the Aerial Exploitation Battalion (e.g. the Tactical Exploitation System).

SECTION VIII – LOGISTICS

8.1 General Maintenance Concept: The ACS system will use standardized Government off-the-shelf (GOTS) or Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) aircraft, sensor and payload components. Built-in diagnostics will allow the assigned crew to identify and replace the majority of failed components. Replacement of individual component modules will be conducted in the forward area to ensure continued support of ground maneuver commanders. Unit level maintenance support personnel will be limited, and failed components will be evacuated to the Regional Support Center (RSC) IAW current Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) logistics support concepts.

8.2 Transportation Requirements: The ACS system is required by design to conduct rapid force projection operations. In that role, it will be required to deploy and operate with minimal logistics support in the forward area for periods of up to 14 days after deployment. This minimal logistics support will most likely be limited to POL products, delivery of a small number of certain critical spares, and troop supplies (water, rations, etc.). Therefore, it is imperative that the ACS aircraft are capable of deploying with a supply of commonly needed spare parts and consumables, as well as a cadre of maintenance personnel who are required to support launch and recovery operations and limited unscheduled maintenance. Although the ORD does not require a dedicated logistics support aircraft, it is anticipated that one of the mission aircraft could function in a logistics support role (mission payload removed) until the theater logistics support structure matures. All ACS ground components (GPF and support equipment) will be C-130 drive-on/drive/off capable and transportable by conventional military transportation modes (highway, rail, military sealift, etc.).

8.3 Personnel: Maintenance will be likely be done via a mix of Army and Contract Logistics Support (CLS) personnel similar to current CLS arrangements for ARL and Guardrail Common Sensor (GRCS). All CLS contracts will include standard DoD "go-to-war" clauses to ensure that the required support remains available when needed.

8.4 Facility Requirements: No special facilities are required for the GPF. Aircraft will require only those facilities common to the Corps Instrumented Airfield.

SECTION IX – TRAINING

The training concept for ACS system operators is as follows:

A set of base tasks for each operator MOS will continue to be taught at the US Army Intelligence Center (USAIC) during Advanced Individual Training (AIT). These tasks will include the common basic, intermediate, and advanced interpretation and analysis skills (at the appropriate grade levels) and common Human to Computer Interfaces (HCI). It is assumed that the software tools and HCI will be more standardized by the time ACS enters the field due to the emerging standards being developed by the JION, DCGS, UCA, and other working groups.

ACS-unique skill requirements will be accomplished in unit without additional institutional training. The various components will possess embedded training capability to familiarize inexperienced operators with hardware and software controls that are unique to his system as well as comprehensive on-line help functions. Both capabilities will be similar to the tutorials received on modern commercial software.

ACS collective training requirements will be met by providing an interface to the WARSIM 2000 virtual environment through the IEW Tactical Proficiency Trainer (IEWTPT). In this way, the WARSIM Intelligence Module (WIM) will provide the shared collaborative virtual environment (similar to the current MUSE capability for UAV operators) required for operators to participate in simulation exercises with other Army, joint, and allied forces. The IEWTPT will provide the capability to measure effectiveness of ACS operators within this simulated environment (and score such things as the accuracy of target location reported versus actual target location, number of targets collected versus total targets tasked/available, etc.).

 

 

Appendix I

Acronym Listing

 

AAN Army After Next

ABCS Army Battlefield Command System

ACE Analysis and Control Element

ACS Aerial Common Sensor

AFATDS Advanced Field Artillery Target Data System

AGL Above Ground Level

AIT Advanced Individual Training

AMES Airborne Mission Equipment Subsystem

ARITA Airborne Reconnaissance Intelligence Technical Architecture

APS Airborne Platform Subsystem

ARI Airborne Reconnaissance Infrastructure

ARL Airborne Reconnaissance Low

ASAS All-Source Analysis System

ASC Airborne Signal Classifier or Army Signal Command

ASE Aircraft Survivability Equipment

C4ISR Command Control Communications Computers Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance

CDL Common Datalink

CIGSS Common Imagery Ground/Surface System

CLS Contract Logistic Support

CMO Central MASINT Office

COA Course of Action

COE Common Operating Environment

COMSEC Communications Security

COMINT Communications Intelligence

COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf

CRS Common Remoting Standards

DASR Direct Aircraft-to-Satellite Relay

DCGS Distributed Common Ground System

DDS Data Distribution System

DF Direction Finding

DII Defense Information Infrastructure

DMS Defense Message Service

DOC Deep Operations Cell

DoD Department of Defense

DRASH

DRI Distributed Reconnaissance Infrastructure

DTSR Digital Temporary Storage and Retrieval

DTSS Digital Topographic Support System

EAC Echelon Above Corps

ECB Echelon Corps and Below

EO Electro-Optical

ELINT Electronic Intelligence

FDDM Frequency Division DeMultiplexed

FSCE Fire Support Coordination Element

GBS Global Broadcast System

GDDL Guardrail Dual Datalink

GOTS Government Off-The-Shelf

GPS Global Positioning System

GRCS Guardrail Common Sensor

GPF Ground Processing Facility

HCI Human-Computer Interface

HBSS High-Band Sub-System

HSI Hyperspectral Imagery

IBS Intelligence Broadcast Service

IEW Intelligence and Electronic Warfare

IEWTPT IEW Tactical Proficiency Trainer

INS Inertial Navigation System

IR Infra-Red

ISR Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance

I&W Indications and Warning

JASA Joint Airborne SIGINT Architecture

JFACC Joint Force Air Component Commander

JION Joint Interoperable Operator Network

JSAF Joint SIGINT Avionics Family

JSWG JASA Standards Working Group

JTF Joint Task Force

JTT Joint Tactical Terminal

LAN Local Area Network

LBSS Low-Band Sub-System

LCC Land Component Commander

LOB Line of Bearing

LOS Line of Sight

MASINT Measurement and Signatures Intelligence

MOOTW Military Operations Other Than War

MOS Military Occupational Specialty

MSC Main System Computer

MSI Multi-Spectral Imagery

MSL Mean Sea Level

MTI Moving Target Indicator

MTS Masked Target Sensor

MUSE Multiple Unified Simulation Environment

NSA National Security Agency

NSOC National SIGINT Operations Center

OOTW Operations Other Than War

PDW Pulse Descriptor Word

POL Petroleum Oil and Lubricants

PPE Power Plant, Electric

RISTA Reconnaissance, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition

RSC Regional Support Center

RSOC Regional SIGINT Operations Center

SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar

SATCOM Satellite Communication

SCARS Signal Classification and Recognition System

SCI Sensitive Compartmented Information

SIPRNET Secure Internet Protocol Router Network

SSO Support and Stability Operations

TCDL Tactical Common Datalink

TDOA Time Difference of Arrival

TES Tactical Exploitation System

TLE Target Location Error

TOC Tactical Operations Center

TST Tri-Band SATCOM Terminal

TSWG Tactical Standards Working Group

TUAV Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

UCA Unified Cryptologic Architecture

USAIC United States Army Intelligence Center

WAMTI Wide Area Moving Target Indicator

WAN Wide Area Network

WIM WARSIM Intelligence Module

WIN Warfighter Information Network

 


Appendix II

OPERATIONAL MODE SUMMARY/MISSION PROFILES (OMS/MP)

FOR THE AERIAL COMMON SENSOR/GUARDRAIL VII (ACS/GRVII)

 

1. Introduction: The Aerial Common Sensor will provide the Corps/EAC/JTF commander the capability to detect, identify, locate, track, and target enemy surface and airborne forces throughout the battlespace. Continuous operations in all types of terrain, night/adverse weather operations, and battlefield environments will be the norm. The Aerial Common Sensor will provide a flexible addition to existing Reconnaissance, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RISTA) assets by providing a rapid-response capability to self-deploy anywhere in the world and conduct autonomous operations for up to 14 days. Processing of mission data may be done on board the aircraft or in the GPF or other ground processor through direct datalink or satcom relay. The ACS will normally operate from a corps or theater instrumented airfield. The distance behind the FLOT and altitude flown will be dictated by the nature of terrain, the location of anticipated or known targets, and the air defense threat (nominal standoff is 70 km from the FLOT). Flight tracks and altitude are selected to provide optimum mission accomplishment while ensuring aircraft survivability. To provide optimum targetable emitter location accuracies, multiple ACS platforms must fly coordinated SIGINT missions. IMINT missions are normally flown with a single aircraft, although it may also provide some SIGINT coverage during the IMINT mission. The Aerial Common Sensor will be located at company level within the Aerial Exploitation Battalion of the Corps and EAC Military Intelligence Brigade.

2. Wartime Operational Mode Summary/Mission Profile:

The wartime operational mode summary (OMS) for the Aerial Common Sensor is provided in Table 1. The mission profiles corresponding to this OMS are provided in tables 2,3, & 4.

3. Peacetime OMS/MP.

The peacetime flight hours for aircraft is anticipated to be approximately 650 flight hours per year. The peacetime OMS is provided in Table 5.

4. Environmental Conditions:

The ACS will be operated in climatic conditions as shown in Table 6.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE 1

Wartime Operational Mode Summary (OMS)

Aerial Common Sensor

Table 1

OT OT+AT CT # of Total Total Total

Missions OT OT+AT CT

Mission

Standoff 10.25 10.25 14.25 20 205 205 295 SIGINT

Standoff 10.25 10.25 14.25 10 102.5 102.5 142.5 IMINT

Overflight 10.25 10.25 14.25 2 20.5 20.5 28.5 IMINT

Total 328 328 466.0 Scenario

OT - Operating Time in hours (Time for One Mission)

AT - Alert Time in hours (system is required to be operable but is not being operated)

CT - Calendar time in hours (all the time from the beginning of a mission to its end - includes maintenance time)

 

TABLE 2

MISSION PROFILE FOR ACS - STANDOFF SIGINT

 

Number of Operating Time Operating

Mission Tasks Occurrences for Each Task Time

 

Ground Run-Up 1 :15 :15

Take-off 1 :05 :05

Climb to Surveillance Track 1 :25 :25

Cruise Flight 1 9:00 9:00

Return and descent to Airfield 1 :25 :25

Approach and Landing 1 :05 :05

Total Scenario Time 10:15

 

Note: This mission profile portrays a single aircraft. For standoff SIGINT missions, two or three aircraft are normally flown simultaneously in order to provide increased target coverage and geolocation accuracy.

 

TABLE 3

MISSION PROFILE FOR ACS - STANDOFF IMINT

Number of Operating Time Operating

Mission Tasks Occurrences for Each Task Time

 

Ground Run-Up 1 :15 :15

Take-off 1 :05 :05

Climb to Surveillance Track 1 :25 :25

Cruise Flight 1 9:00 9:00

Return and descent to Airfield 1 :25 :25

Approach and Landing 1 :05 :05

Total Scenario Time 10:15

 

Note: Some SIGINT collection may also be done during the standoff IMINT mission, although there will be limitations to the SIGINT coverage provided (the standoff IMINT sensor is normally an active radar emitter that will reduce the effectiveness of any SIGINT subsystem if they are operated simultaneously).

 

 

TABLE 4

MISSION PROFILE FOR ACS - OVERFLIGHT IMINT

 

Number of Operating Time Operating

Mission Tasks Occurrences for Each Task Time

 

Ground Run-Up 1 :15 :15

Take-off 1 :05 :05

Climb to Surveillance Track 1 :25 :25

Cruise Flight 1 9:00 9:00

Return and descent to Airfield 1 :25 :25

Approach and Landing 1 :05 :05

Total Scenario Time 10:15

Note1: Some SIGINT collection may also be done during the overflight IMINT mission, although there will be limitations to the SIGINT coverage provided (the overflight IMINT sensors are often operated at lower altitudes that will reduce the effectiveness of the SIGINT subsystem).

Note 2: Cruise flight to cover multiple point targets may not be at a fixed altitude. The altitude flown may vary significantly from target to target and is dictated by the threat, desired imagery scale/resolution, and nature of the terrain in the target area.

 

TABLE 5

PEACETIME OPERATIONAL MODE SUMMARY

OT OT+AT CT # of Total Total Total

MSNS OT OT+AT CT

Mission

Aviator 1.7 1.7 3.7 24 40.8 40.8 88.8 Evaluation*

Training for 10.25 10.25 14.25 10 102.5 102.5 142.5 ARTEP**

Unit ARTEP 10.25 10.25 14.25 3 30.75 30.75 42.75

FTX Support*** 10.25 10.25 14.25 44 451 451 627

Maintenance

Test Flights 1.25 1.25 3.25 20 25 25 81.25

Total Scenario 650.05 650.05 982.3

NOTES:

* Evaluation flights will be described in the Aircrew Training Manual (ATM).

** Training for the ARTEP, unit ARTEP, and FTX mission support will be the same as missions listed in the OMS for combat and described in the appropriate Mission Training Plan (MTP).

*** CONUS-Based Units will conduct FTX support missions for their supported

headquarters using missions listed in the OMS for combat and described in the

appropriate Mission Training Plan (MTP). Overseas units will normally perform

real-world Sensitive Reconnaissance Operations (SRO) missions.

TABLE 6

Climatic Environment for the Aerial Common Sensor

 

Percent of Use

Climatic Design Type Wartime Peacetime

 

Hot 38% 1%

Basic 46% 96%

Cold 15% 2%

Severe 1% 1%

 

 


Appendix IIIA Conventional Tethered Operations Scenario

Situation: The United States Army will fully deploy a significant number of ground forces to a theater of operations in a major regional contingency operation. Heavy demands on existing SATCOM resources will limit available bandwidth and may completely preclude the use of satellite-remoted ISR operations.

Mission: On order, deploy to host nation and conduct airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations to support US and allied military operations.

Execution: Collection mission tasking will normally be received from the US Ground Component Commander. Collection tasking may include SIGINT, IMINT, or MASINT sensor operations. Use of IMINT or MASINT sensors in an overflight mode is unlikely due to the relatively high surface-to-air missile threat. ACS Operators will deploy to the theater of operations with the ground processing facility. Reporting of products will normally be conducted via line-of-site broadcast to tactical consumers, but may also include reporting via the Intelligence Broadcast Service (IBS) SATCOM broadcast using the Theater Injection Point (TIP). Typical high-payoff targets (HPT’s) include tactical maneuver units (such as rocket, artillery, air defense forces) and weapons of mass destruction.

Service Support: The aircraft will be capable of self-deploying with all aircrew, operators and mission equipment. The GPF will be deployed using standard airlift or sealift. Standard army logistics will be used sustain operations beyond the initial 14 day period of operations. The aircraft will normally be based at the Corps Instrumented Airfield, and will not require special facilities or support equipment. If the Corps has not established an airfield within the host nation, the increased range and endurance of the ACS (compared to current systems) will allow use of another friendly nation airfield within the theater of operations without serious degradation of collection and reporting capability.

Command and Signal: Normal mission tasking is received from ground component commander via the Corps collection manager. ACS operator, mission supervisor and reporting functions will be located in the forward area with the GPF, with no operators on-board the aircraft. If sufficient SATCOM bandwidth exists, remote connectivity may also be established with remote processing facilities via SATCOM Wide Area Network architecture using Common Remoting Standards (CRS). Remote operators (e.g., operators in a Regional SIGINT Operations Center) provide linguist augmentation and additional analysis capability for special signals.


Appendix IIIB Split-based Operations Scenario

Situation: The United States doctrine continues to emphasize split-based force projection operations to reduce the size of US forces in a theater of operations. Friendly nations may allow US military aircraft to use host nation bases and airspace to conduct operations, but not allow deployment of associated ground stations and the associated troop concentrations.

Mission: On order, deploy to host nation and conduct airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations to support US and allied military operations.

Execution: Collection mission tasking will normally be received from the US Ground Component Commander. Collection tasking may include SIGINT, IMINT, or MASINT sensor operations. Use of IMINT or MASINT sensors in an overflight mode is unlikely due to the relatively high surface-to-air missile threat. Reporting of products will normally be conducted via line-of-site broadcast to tactical consumers, but will also include reporting via the Intelligence Broadcast Service (IBS) SATCOM broadcast. Typical high-payoff targets (HPT’s) include tactical maneuver units (such as rocket, artillery, air defense forces) and weapons of mass destruction.

Service Support: The aircraft will be capable of self-deploying with all aircrew, operators and mission equipment. An organic logistics support will also provide capability to deploy other ground equipment (less POL and other consumables) required to sustain operations for an initial period of up to14 days. The aircraft will normally be based at the Corps Instrumented Airfield, and will not require special facilities or support equipment. If the Corps has not established an airfield within the host nation, the increased range and endurance of the ACS (compared to current systems) will allow use of another friendly nation airfield within the theater of operations without serious degradation of collection and reporting capability.

Command and Signal: Normal mission tasking is received from ground component commander via the Corps collection manager. Remote connectivity is established between the ACS aircraft and remote processors remaining in CONUS via a SATCOM Wide Area Network architecture using Common Remoting Standards (CRS). ACS operators in garrison (e.g., at a conventional GPR, a Regional SIGINT Operations Center or other ground stations) have the ability to conduct remote collection operations and exploitation of targets in the mission area. Under these conditions, the mission supervisor and reporting functions would remain located in CONUS, with no operators on-board the aircraft. .


Appendix III C Counterdrug Operations Scenario

Situation: The United States doctrine continues to emphasize US assistance to friendly nations to identify, locate, and target illegal narcotics traffickers. Friendly nations may allow US military aircraft to use host nation bases and airspace to conduct operations, but not allow deployment of associated ground stations and the associated troop concentrations.

Mission: On order, deploy Aerial Common Sensor assets to host nation and conduct airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations to support counterdrug operations.

Execution: Collection mission tasking will normally be received from the US country team in the host nation. Collection tasking may include SIGINT, IMINT, or MASINT sensor operations. Use of IMINT or MASINT sensors in an overflight mode is likely due to the relatively low surface-to-air missile threat. Reporting of products will normally be conducted directly from on-board operators via line-of-site broadcast to host nation consumers, but may also include reporting via the Intelligence Broadcast Service (IBS) SATCOM broadcast. Typical high-payoff targets (HPT’s) include all agricultural areas where raw drug products originate, drug processing labs and shipment sites, and all personnel associated with narco-trafficking operations..

Service Support: The aircraft will be capable of self-deploying with all aircrew, operators and mission equipment. An organic logistics support will also provide capability to deploy other ground equipment (less POL and other consumables) required to sustain operations for an initial period of up to14 days. The aircraft will normally be based at a host nation airfield, and will not require special facilities or support equipment. If a host nation airfield is not available, the increased range and endurance of the ACS (compared to current systems) will allow use of another friendly nation airfield within the theater of operations without serious degradation of collection and reporting capability.

Command and Signal: Normal mission tasking is received from US country teams in the host nation. Remote connectivity may also established between the ACS aircraft and remote processors remaining in CONUS via a SATCOM Wide Area Network architecture using Common Remoting Standards (CRS). ACS operators in garrison (e.g., at a conventional GPF, a Regional SIGINT Operations Center or other ground stations) have the ability to conduct remote collection operations and exploitation of targets in the mission area. Under these conditions, the mission supervisor and reporting functions would remain on-board the aircraft, with only secondary exploitation in CONUS.