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Joint STARS Ground Stations (JSTARS-GSM)

The Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) Ground Station Module (GSM) is a Mobile Multisensor Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) tactical data processing and evaluation center. The GSM is a subcomponent of a joint Army/Air Force program whose other major component is the E-8 airborne platform. The Joint STARS system is designed to detect, locate and track moving and stationary ground equipment targets located beyond the Forward Line of Troops (FLOT). The GSM processes data from the Joint STARS aircraft Commanders Tactical Terminals (CTT), Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT), and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and disseminates intelligence, battle management and targeting data to Army Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) nodes via lan, wire or radio. This enables integrated battle management, surveillance, targeting and interdiction plans to be developed/executed using near real-time data.

The follow-on GSM, also known as the Common Ground Station (CGS), is the next generation Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) system. Leveraging off the GSM open architecture the CGS will incorporate secondary Imagery Dissemination (SIDs) and other sensor data providing tactical commanders a comprehensive and common view of the battlefield to aid in battle management, intelligence, and targeting operations. The CGS is also currently in LRIP. A series of Pre-Planned Product Improvement (P3I) are scheduled to add additional sensor interfaces and data correlation processing capabilities to the CGS.

TRANSPORTATION CHARACTERISTICS / LIMITATIONS: The MGSM is C-17, C-141, and C5 transportable and is sling loadable via CH-47D. The LGSM and CGS are transportable like the MGSM and additionally are drive on C-130 transportable and can be sling loaded by a CH-53E.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:

May 82 USDRE directed joint program combining AF's PAVE MOVER and Army's SOTAS programs.

Nov 90 GSMs fielded to Operation Desert Storm.

Sep 93 MGSM LRIP contract awarded.

Jul 95 LGSM LRIP contract awarded.

Dec 95 CGS LRIP contract awarded.

Dec 95 LGSM/MGSMs fielded to Operation Joint Endeavor.

REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT: ROC approved Apr 86; JSOR approved Nov 92; Revised ROC approved Nov 92.

TYPE CLASSIFICATION: All GSMs currently designated Limited Procurement. TC Standard (Milestone III Scheduled 3Q98).

EVENT SCHEDULE FISCAL YEAR

96

97

98

99

00

01

QTR

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

MGSM: LRIP Phase

-------3

 

 

 

 

 

FUE

4

 

 

 

 

 

Fielding

2---------

----2

 

 

 

 

LGSM: LRIP

-----------

-----------

---------3

 

 

 

Fielding EMD/LRIP

2------4

4---

---------3

 

 

 

CGS: Production

1---------

-----------

-----------

-----------

-----------

-----------

FUE

 

 

4

 

 

 

Fielding

 

 

2---------

-----------

-----------

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Joint STARS Ground Station Module (GSM)
AN/TSQ-132(V)1, Interim Ground Station Module (IGSM)
AN/TSQ-132(V)2, Limited Procurement Urgent (LPU) GSM
AN/TSQ-178, Light Ground Station Module

Joint STARS is a joint Army-Air Force wide-area- surveillance system that provides battle management and targeting information. It supports situation development and targeting of mobile and fixed ground targets and slow moving rotary wing aircraft. Joint STARS consists of an Air Force E8C aircraft and Army GSMs. Two separate GSM configurations exist. The Medium GSM (MGSM) is housed in a Standard S280 shelter and mounted on a 5-ton truck. A lightweight, rapidly deployable variant, the Light GSM (LGSM) is housed in a Lightweight Multipurpose Shelter (LMS) and mounted on a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV). The Light Ground Station Module (AN/TSQ-178) provides acurate fixed and moving target locations, speed and direction of movement and classification of tracked/wheeled vehecles via J-STARS downlink. The MGSM and LGSM have completed Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD), and are currently in Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP).

The E8C collects MTI, FTI and SAR radar data using a multimode radar. The Armyís GSMs receive and analyze the radar imagery data from the E8C. They are capable of receiving imagery from the Armyís UAV-SR and SIGINT data through the Commanders Tactical Terminal (CTT). The GSMs are distributed to all echelons brigade and above. It supports surveillance, intelligence, targeting and battle management functions with NRT interactive displays which can be reproduced on a remote terminal. The operator provides accurate fixed and moving target locations, speed, target classification, and direction of movement. The GSM is equipped with standard tactical communications, secure commercial communications and dedicated TACFIRE and ASAS digital links using preformatted auto-filled message formats. The E8C/GSM data link is a wideband, anti-jam, Two way data link. Requests for special radar products are requested through this data link. The E8C and GSMs are also linked through secure UHF and VHF radios.

Basis of Issue: 6 per DIV, 6 Per Corps, 2 per EAC, 1 Per ACR

SYSTEM SUMMARY

FEATURES:
  • . Situation development
  • . Battle management
  • . Targeting
  • . Force protection
  • . Limited BDA/TDA
  • . Operations Planning

PHYSICAL PARAMETERS:
  • . Light - 2xHMMWV & shelter
  • . Medium - 2x5-Ton, shelter & 30Kw

PERFORMANCE AND CHARACTERISTICS:
  • . Joint STARS data:
    • ' Wide area surveillance
      • - MTI
    • ' Small area surveillance
      • - Sector search
      • - Target classification
      • - Attack planning
      • - Attack control
      • - Target tracking
      • ' Fixed Tgt Indicator
      • ' Syn Aperture Radar
  • . UAV Data:
    • ' Electro Optical
    • ' Thermal(IR)

  • . SIGINT Data,(CTT):
    • ' TIBS,TRIXS,TRAP, & TADIXS-B

  • . Interoperability:
    • ' TACFIRE/AFATDS
    • ' ASAS
    • ' Standard Tactical Comms
    • ' Commercial Comms
    • ' Secure FAX

  • . Operations:
    • ' Display/manipulate multi-sensor data
    • ' Remote Display
    • ' Interactive Data Link
    • ' Color Hardcopy Imagery
    • ' B&W Hardcopy Reports
    • ' Msn History Replay
    • ' Electronic Maps
    • ' GPS
    • ' Graphics, targeting, track display & tgt files

AN/TSQ-179 Joint STARS Common Ground Station (CGS)

Joint STARS Common Ground Station (CGS) is a product improvement of the LGSM. It includes all the functionality of the LGSM plus extensive technological improvements. It incorporates additional mission functionality into a fully mobile targeting, battlefield management, and surveillance system. It receives, manipulates, displays, stores, and disseminates Joint STARS, UAV, Army AVN, SIGINT, broadcast intelligence and secondary imagery from tactical, theater and national systems. The CGS is designed to operate on the move and at a secret collateral level. It interfaces with ACE, TOC, aviation and artillery nodes. The CGS has a robust suite of modern communications which include SATCOM and CTT. CGS facilitates intelligence, surveillance, targeting and other battle management operations. It provides the force with a fully scalable, tailorable, mobile, and responsive sensor data processing capability to satisfy operational and tactical requirements. The systemís open architecture allows performance improvements and physical downsizing through insertion of evolving communications and computer technology.

Joint STARS) Common Ground Station (CGS), nomenclatured as Target Acquisition Subsystem AN/TSQ-179(V)1, provides support to Army field commanders by simultaneously receiving, processing, displaying, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and disseminating information to intelligence, fire support and command and control elements from Brigade to Echelons Above Corps (EAC).

The CGS receives Imagery-Intelligence (IMINT), Electronics-Intelligence (ELINT), and Communications-Intelligence (COMINT) information of enemy forces across the forward line of own troops via multiple sensors and Intelligence Broadcast Networks (IBNs). IMINT sensor interfaces of the CGS include Joint STARS, secondary image dissemination, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) (both video and telemetry). ELINT and COMINT data from IBNs is accessed through the Commanderís Tactical Terminal (CTT)/Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT). Data sources include the Joint STARS aircraft, Guardrail, U2, Rivet Joint, UAV Ground Control Station (UAV GCS), Apache Longbow, and Airborne Reconnaissance Low (ARL). Global Positioning System (GPS) provides the CGS with current time and location, which is the basis for correlation of sensor and IBN data.

CGS output, in Tactical Fire Direction System/Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (TACFIRE/AFATADS) or All Source Analysis System (ASAS) message format, is provided to command, control, communications and intelligence nodes via secure or non-secure wire or radio. This enables the development and execution of plans for integrated battle management, surveillance, targeting, and interdiction.

Logistics

The CGS can be transported worldwide. Methods for transporting the CGS include air (C-130, C-141, C-17 and C-5 aircraft; CH-47D and CH-53E helicopters), water (LACV-30 and larger vessels; amphibious crafts such as LCUs), rail (standard flat cars), and ground. A CGS, fully manned with a crew of six operators, is capable of operating 24 hours a day, with up to 1.5 hours per day for system preventive maintenance and displacement.

The CGS is supportable using standard Army logistics. All integrated standard military items (i.e., Government Furnished Equipment (GFE)) are maintained in accordance with the maintenance concept established within the published technical manuals of those items. For unique CGS design items, to include integrated Non-Developmental Items (NDI)/Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) items, the following procedures are used:

  1. Unit Level: Equipment maintenance is performed at the lowest practical echelon using personnel trained in the appropriate Military Occupational Specialty (MOS). At unit level, 90% of all faults are isolated to the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), principally by the operator (MOS 96H) using built-in test or direct observation. The Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) at the unit level is 30 minutes or less.
  2. Direct Support (DS): DS contact teams repair or exchange circuit card assemblies, modules, or LRUs and fault isolate and repair or replace LRUs associated with the 10% of faults not isolated at unit level. Contact teams are comprised of MOS 33T, Electronic Warfare/Intercept Tactical Equipment Repairers, and other maintenance specialty personnel as needed. Under normal conditions, 100% of all faults are resolved on-site between the unit and DS levels. The MTTR at DS is 1 hour or less.
  3. General Support (GS): There are no tasks identified for GS maintenance. However, GS may provide a backup capability to DS by performing limited off-equipment repairs, in addition to go/no-go tests to verify that items are unserviceable. Items repaired by GS would normally be returned to the supply system. Repairs beyond the capabilities of DS/GS will be evacuated to the depot level.
  4. Depot: A five year warranty is established for the CGS. The warranty begins at Government acceptance of each CGS and covers all unique components (developmental and NDI/COTS) provided by the CGS contractor. The warranty also covers the integration of GFE into the CGS, but does not extend to the GFE itself. To cover maintenance and supply requirements beyond the scope of the warranty, Contractor Logistics Support is planned for depot support of the CGS.

A primary goal of the CGS program was to develop a fully capable ground station with a support system that would meet all system requirements at reduced acquisition costs and minimal life cycle (operation and support) cost. This was accomplished through the maximization of NDI/COTS hardware and software and reuse of technical data and functional capabilities previously developed for the Joint STARS Medium Ground Station Module (MGSM) and Light Ground Station Module (LGSM).

Physical Description and Functionality

A CGS system consists of a mission vehicle, lightweight multipurpose shelter containing mission equipment, support vehicle, and two trailer mounted generators. The mission and support vehicles, which tow the trailers, are heavy variant High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs). The CGS can deploy from movement to operation in 15 minutes, using only the six crew members.

Each CGS contains a Remote Workstation (RWS) in the truck cab and connections for interfacing up to four other RWSs at remote locations. The RWS has the same functional capabilities as the internal CGS operator workstation, in addition to providing CGS functions for in-unit training (e.g., CGS sensor and message traffic stimulation and other training functions). The RWS modes of operation are remote mode, training mode, and CGS workstation mode. In remote mode, all the capabilities of internal workstations are available, except transmitting intelligence, targeting, and tasking messages. Training mode is operation of the RWS as a lesson control workstation for in-unit training. The CGS workstation mode provides all the capabilities of an internal CGS workstation, except audio. The RWS also provides an interface for additional displays.

CGSs can function independently or may be interconnected to other CGSs over a fiber optic local area network. When interconnected, their multiple databases can be integrated. The CGS hardware and software architectures also facilitate Pre-Planned Product Improvements (P3I), such as additional sensor interfaces, additional command and control interfaces, enhanced processing and display capabilities, and growth to other platforms via technology insertion. Standards for the CGS automated data processing architecture comply with Army C4I Technical Architecture standards.

The following summarizes some of the major CGS functional capabilities:

  1. simultaneous and independent asynchronous receipt, storage, and display of sensor data from multiple sensors and Intelligence Broadcast Networks (IBNs) on each operator display, including:
  2. Joint STARS Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Fixed Target Indicator (FTI), and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery
  3. correlated Tactical Reconnaissance Intelligence Exchange System (TRIXS), Tactical Information Broadcast Service (TIBS), Tactical and Related Applications (TRAP) and Tactical Data Information Exchange System-B (TADIX-B) IBN data
  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) video and graphical telemetry data
  5. Secondary Imagery Dissemination (SID) imagery and data
  6. Apache Longbow MTI
  7. electronic map backgrounds from Defense Mapping Agency products (Compressed Arc Digitized Raster Graphics (CADRG) map data and Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED))
  8. incoming and outgoing messages
  9. maintain spatial relationships of simultaneously displayed data from multi-mode sensors
  10. manipulation of on-screen data (e.g., generating graphical overlays, automatic target tracking, target prediction, single frame, time compression, and time integration of imagery data)
  11. display sensor positions
  12. relay Joint STARS data to other CGSs via Trojan Spirit and UHF SATCOM
  13. secure and non-secure radio and phone communications among CGS operators, Joint STARS aircraft, GSM operators, and Army command and control systems
  14. transfer CGS database contents to other designated CGSs
  15. on-line storage and archive storage capabilities for sensor data
  16. on-the-move operations
  17. utilize Global Positioning System (GPS) for current time and location
  18. print and fax on-screen imagery data and messages

The CGS has a 158 hour mean time between failures, at an 80% confidence level. This includes all hardware failures (except Government furnished equipment) and software failures that result in the loss of a performance or interface requirement. The operational availability of the CGS is 0.80, which includes all hardware failures and software failures that result in the loss of a performance or interface requirement.

SYSTEM SUMMARY

FEATURES:
  • . Situation development
  • . Battle management
  • . Targeting
  • . Force protection
  • . Limited BDA/TDA
  • . Operations Planning

PHYSICAL PARAMETERS:
  • . Light - 2xHMMWV & shelter

PERFORMANCE AND CHARACTERISTICS:
  • . Joint STARS Data:
    • ' Wide area surveillance
    • - MTI
    • ' Small area surveil
    • - Sector search
    • - Target classification
    • - Attack planning
    • - Attack Control
    • ' Fixed Tgt Indicator
    • ' Syn Aperture Radar

  • . UAV/Army AVN Data:
    • ' Electro Optical
    • ' Thermal (IR)

  • . SIGINT Data, CTT 3 channel:
    • ' TRIXS, TRAP, TADIXS-B,
    • TIBS, & GPL

  • . OTHER:
    • ' Secondary Imagery
    • ' U2/TRI MTI/Imagery

  • . Interoperability:
    • ' TACFIRE/AFATDS
    • ASAS/TROJAN/GBCS/JDISS/
    • A2C2/Other
    • ' Standard Tactical Comms
    • ' Commercial Comms
    • ' Secure FAX

  • . Operations:
    • ' Same as LGSM
    • ' Remote Work Station
    • ' Interactive Data Link
    • ' Color Hardcopy Imagery
    • ' B&W Hardcopy Reports
    • ' Msn History Replay
    • ' Graphics, E Maps, GPS, Track Display, Tgt Files
Key Events

Dec 95 CGS Contract Award (for 18 systems; total quantity with options is 137 systems)

Mar 97 Reliability Qualification Test (RQT)

May 97 Software Qualification Test (SQT)

Sep 97 Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E)

3QFY97 Start of CGS LRIP Delivery

3QFY98 Milestone III Decision

The total planned buy is 20 Air Force aircraft, 95 GSMs for the Army, and 2 GSMs for the Marine Corps. When completely fielded, the GSM will be the most numerous military intelligence end-item in the Army, located from maneuver brigade up through echelons above corps (EAC). Current fielding plans call for each division to have six GSMs; corps will have seven GSMs ( 6 per Corps and 1 per Armored Cavalry Regiment), and each EAC MI Brigade will have two. CGSs will be fielded to Military Intelligence (MI) brigades at EAC, MI Battalions (BN) at corps, and division headquarters companies and artillery units at both corps and division. CGSs will be located at Corps Tactical Operations Centers (CTOC) and Corps Artillery Tactical Operations Centers (ATOC). CGSs at corps artillery will support Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) tactical operations centers. CGSs at divisions will be located at Division Tactical Operations Centers (DTOC), Division Artillery (DIVARTY), and each brigade operations center.

The current Ground Station Modules/Common Ground Stations (GSM/CGS) BOI (Basis of Issue) Plan is 1 GSM/CGS per Corps Artillery HHB and 1 per FA Bde HHB. Doctrinal requirements are 1 per Corps Arty HHB, 2 per FA Bde HHB, and 1 per DIVARTY HHB. US Army Field Artillery School [USAFAS] TDA also requires one set for training purposes. The total shortfall is 59 GSM/CGS (17 AC and 42 RC). Two GSM/CGS per FA Bde provides the necessary flexibility to conduct counterfire and deep battle responsibilities. A GSM/CGS at DIVARTY TOC enables real-time identification of high pay-off targets and supports fire support and targeting functions. However, this allocation has been disapproved, and the quantity and distribution of the GSM/CGS will be relooked in FORCE XXI AWE.

Potential future JSTARS GSM improvements were evaluated in JWID-97. As part of a combined demonstration plan, the Time Critical Targeting Aid (TCTA) and the JSTARS Imagery Geolocational Improvement (JIGI) software seek to enhance the value of JSTARS data within the AOC and other users for Theater Missile Defense (TMD) and the application of stand-off weapons. TCTA, an intelligence and targeting operations tool, combines in a single display DSP, SIGINT and other intelligence information with JSTARS Moving Target Indicator (MTI) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to allow rapid targeting within TMD timelines. TCTA also provides historical database and analysis tools for the identification of traffic patterns, loading points, hide sites and other areas of intelligence value. JIGI, a modified version of the Multi-Image Exploitation Tool (MET), produces targeting-quality geolocational information by registering imagery collected by JSTARS' on-board sensor with archived national imagery (or any other precise datum). Once registered, the geolocational accuracy of the national image is transferred to the JSTARS image, improving the accuracy by up to an order of magnitude over a JSTARS-only product. Locations of mobile/relocatable targets not present when national imagery was taken can be obtained with sufficient accuracy to provide a desired mean point of impact (DMPI) for Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JSOW) and Wind-Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD).

Sources and Methods



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Created by John Pike
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Updated Wednesday, January 26, 2000 3:37:29 PM