Preparatory Assistance Document

Version: 25 May, 1998


A range of institutional and technical problems confronts the Survey of Pakistan (SOP). Presently, the national (1:50,000) map series (and others) are subject to manual revision methods that are costly, inefficient and time consuming. The geodetic control network requires continued upgrading and densification to meet future mapping needs. More localised and project specific mapping projects and field data collection exercises could benefit from a densified geodetic network. The need for a publicly available national geodetic grid is also most evident.

Legislation controlling maps and public access to geodata is overly restrictive and requires careful revision to reflect the spatial information needs of national development initiatives. Furthermore, the present lack of published national mapping standards and/or guidelines exacerbates data fragmentation and incompatibility among users, creating their own project-specific geodata resources.

Today, the SOP is in urgent need of technology investment and skills development including the strengthening of human, technical and organisational assets. In the field of digital mapping, the agency is in its infancy with no automated production capacity.

In May/June 1997, an internal plan to modernise the SOP was developed by the agency and submitted to the MOD for further consideration. It is presently ‘frozen’ due to severe financial constraints. A more comprehensive implementation planning process is required to elaborate this initial plan into a full project document and subsequently, a PC-1. This preparatory assistance will support an implementation planning exercise and output a comprehensive project document outlining the future modernisation of the SOP

The following can be identified as long-term priority goals that need to be addressed by the GOP in order to become a modern national mapping agency:

It is important to highlight that the above reforms are inter-related, complex and require a longer-term commitment by the GOP and the relevant agencies. As a first step, the focus of this preparatory assistance will be on activities that provide a context and foundation for these reforms and raise awareness of priority concerns at all decision-making levels.

Through its inter-related activities, this PA will build awareness of key issues, develop professional skills, identify priority concerns, evaluate options and educate policy-makers within the host agencies. This will facilitate the formulation of strategies that support the modernisation of the SOP and development of a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) in Pakistan. The results of this preparatory assistance will be integrated into a comprehensive UNDP project document.



2.0 Background and Context

Established in 1947, the Survey of Pakistan (SOP) is based in Rawalpindi with a number of regional offices distributed at urban centres throughout Pakistan. The SOP is the national government’s central mapping agency for Pakistan and among its mandates are:

The SOP performs these functions under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence (MOD). Organisationally, the SOP is overseen by the Surveyor General (SG) who is a direct military appointee and a senior uniformed officer. The SG reports directly to the Secretary of Defence. Under the SG are two Deputy SG’s (I and II) who manage the operational departments of the agency and a Senior Technical Advisor. These departments are divided into Regional Directorates for Topographic Mapping including the Northern region centred in Peshawar, Eastern region (Lahore), Western region (Quetta) and finally, the Southern region in Karachi. Responsibility for fields surveys and the maintenance/update of topographic maps are sub-divided according to these geographic areas.

Three other operational directorates exist within the SOP which include the Directorate of Photogrammetry (Rawalpindi), Directorate of Printing and Map Publications (Rawalpindi) and the Directorate of the Survey Training Institute (Islamabad). The Photogrammetry Directorate is responsible for the commissioning and flying of aerial photography, followed by map interpretation and production from these source data. The functions of the other directorates within the SOP are implicit in their titles.

The Survey Training Institute

Established in 1986, the STI is the leading (and only) government training and educational facility for surveying and mapping professionals in Pakistan. It is closely affiliated with the SOP and is its primary source of trained personnel. Similar to the SOP, the STI needs institutional reforms and technical assistance to develop a digital geo-information capacity for training and professional development purposes. Since the SOP and STI have a close inter-relationship, their mutual strengthening is essential and will be jointly addressed under this project.

In 1997, a proposal for project concept clearance for the modernization of the STI was formulated and submitted to the GOP for further consideration. This project is presently suspended due to financial constraints. However, its intended goals are:

Each Regional Directorate of the SOP maintains a cadre of trained surveyors (usually graduates from STI) who work in the field and undertake various forms of field data collection. These measurements and observations acquired using manual techniques are used in regional offices to manually update the topographic map series and/or produce maps for special projects such as land reform and larger scale urban mapping. Clients for the latter services include government departments and agencies engaged in national development projects.

Digital mapping and data management within the SOP is currently confined to two small nodes. Namely, the Directorate of Photogrammetry has undertaken a recent, small scale conversion of manual to digital plotters. In addition, the Survey Training Institute (STI) maintains an ad hoc collection of software capable of digital map production including Intergraph Microstation MGE (USA), ILWIS (The Netherlands), PC Arc/INFO (USA) and AutoCAD (USA). Many of these software packages are outdated and do not support a sustained production or geodata management capacity. They are applied for training purposes and limited digital mapping exercises. Overall, computerisation within the SOP and STI is at a low level and the issue has not been addressed in a systematic, institution-wide manner.

In terms of personnel qualified in digital mapping, the STI has two staff members with basic GIS/digital mapping experience. Furthermore, the Directorate of Photogrammetry maintains 4-6 staff with expertise in digital cartographic methods. Several of these staff acquired academic qualifications up to the Masters Degree level at foreign institutions. They constitute a small nucleus of in-house expertise that will be further strengthened and developed under this preparatory assistance.

In addition, the Survey of Pakistan has the following organisational profile and capacity (approximate figures only):

1. Staff

Professionals: 1200 (Cartographers, Printers, Surveyors, Field Officers etc.)

Field Surveyors (in 10 units): 450, Cartographers: 150, Printers: 250.

Administrative Staff: 500

TOTAL: 1700


2. Budget (1996-97)

Annual Operations Budget: 150m rps approx.

Budget for Research and Development: 0

New Equipment Purchases: Rs23 million

There are no specific budget line items for computerisation

3. Map Product Profiles

Date of original production (1:50,000 map series): Mid 1960’s

Average time to manually update a single 1:50,000 map sheet: 6 months to 1 year

Update cycle for entire 1:50,000 archive (1500 sheets): Every 10 years (average).

This is the average time required to update the complete 1:50,000 map series (1500 in total) under present conditions. The SOP can update 150 sheets per year using traditional ground survey methods. Small numbers of GPS (geo-positioning satellite) surveys are used and aerial photos are rarely applied.

Approximately 25%-30% of the 1:50,000 map series are restricted and not available to the public. This includes maps covering the border and northern areas. The restricted border areas extend in an approximate 50-mile swath originating at the border itself. Maps containing classified information such as dams, airports, military installations etc. are also restricted, especially at larger scales.

For the publicly available sheets, the cost is a nominal and maps cannot be exported. The public directly purchases a very small number of maps with the main consumers being the military and related security agencies.

4. Geodetic Control

First order control beacons were established by the Survey of India in 1896 using simple triangulation methods. The Everest spheroid is applied but the network is not properly densified with many base stations destroyed or disturbed by seismic movements.

Monument locations and precise grid co-ordinates are contained in a restricted document. Substantial work has been undertaken using GPS base stations to improve the density of geodetic beacons.

There is presently no consistent, national geodetic control grid available for public use.

5. Map Quality and Maintenance

The SOP has unspecified numbers of topographic (1:50,000) sheets requiring updates and/or revision. Manual updating methods are still used and this presents obvious limitations by introducing drafting errors into the final maps.

Profile of map series maintained by SOP:

Scales: 1:50,000; 250,000 (outdated); 500,000 (outdated); and 1:1m.

1:20, 25 and 30,000’s (Guide Maps) are also available for some cities but with no consistency in the coverage.

The 1:50,000 series is the only national map coverage that is near complete and contemporary.

6. Priority Needs:

There is an urgent requirement to more quickly and consistently update maps especially in high development areas. This can only be achieved through the application of digital methods. Also, many agencies are demanding customised maps at larger scales in priority areas. Due to limitations in its production capacity, the SOP is hard pressed to meet these increasing demands.


7. Copyright and Computerisation within the SOP:

Overall, computerisation within the SOP is minimal. Approximately, 15 PC’s are installed within the department including old XT’s, 386’s, 486’s and some recently acquired Pentiums. The Chinese, supported by 6-8 departmental staff trained at the ITC (Netherlands) have converted photogrammetric plotters into quasi-digital analytical plotters. No digital photogrammetry and remote sensing capacity or training conducted at SOP/STI have been implemented to date.

As indicated, the SOP controls and publishes a number of maps at different scales and a listing is available from the agency. The SOP holds exclusive copyright control over published maps. Presently, no maps may be digitised or otherwise converted into any digital formats without the express permission of the SOP.


The SOP remains the only official mapping agency in Pakistan although varieties of independent GIS/mapping exercises are occurring throughout the country at the project level.

In its present form, the SOP cannot be characterised as a civilian-oriented national mapping agency. In most democratic countries, the latter is publicly accessible with the primary function of supplying maps and other geodata products to the public at large. This function is presently limited in Pakistan. Indeed, the SOP is widely perceived as an agency whose map products can only be obtained selectively and with some difficulty. The pricing of publicly available maps is nominal and well below their production costs or market value. The cost of collecting these nominal fees may exceed the actual revenues gained by the agency.

Strengthening the SOP as a "core" mapping and geo-data node will over time, indirectly and directly support many GIS-based activities occurring in the "periphery." This is especially significant for the ever-increasing number of development projects that are implementing or planning the application of GIS:

Examples of these projects and agencies include:

The Electoral Commission, The Peshawar Forest Management Centre, NWFP Primary Education Project, Balochistan Watershed Management Project, Balochistan Primary Education Project, Northern Pakistan Community Biodiversity Management Project, Karachi Citizens Police Liaison Committee and IWASRI-International Water and Salination Research Institute.

Agencies within the UN system including UNDP, UNICEF, UNDCP, UNFPA and WFP all have requirements for digital map data and geo-information resources of varying thematic types and/or resolutions. The WFP recently recruited a geo-data specialist to manage its Vulnerability Mapping Programme. The SL and GU projects would also be benefited by having access to spatial information resources so developed by the SOP/STI.

3.0 Justification for Preparatory Assistance

The open availability and access to standardised topographic and thematic base map(s) of a nation is essential to its future development. These and derived information resources have many cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary uses including urban, regional and project planning, crime analysis, agricultural surveys, crop monitoring, environmental planning and management, health (epidemiological) studies, disaster response and mitigation, telecommunications expansion and infrastructure development to name a few.

Similar to census data, accurate and publicly available maps should be one of the most widely used information resources with a national coverage. Indeed, standardised topographic maps can provide a valuable geographic framework for the socio-economic and demographic indicators provided by a census.

If baseline map data is either absent or inaccessible, users must rely upon outdated (paper) maps and/or engage in expensive, duplicative and often incompatible field mapping exercises to "fill the void" of national geodata coverage.

These deficiencies can adversely impact the planning and implementation of development projects including related policy decision-making. They also inhibit private sector investments in sectors such as energy resource exploration and land/property markets.

Modernising a national mapping agency and its essential geo-data resources requires a carefully planned migration into the digital (automated data management) domain. This is a complex and long-term process. However, modern mapping techniques and supporting (GIS) technologies facilitate the production of customised digital geodata products on demand. These standardised products have potentially large markets in the public, private and development sectors. Spatial information resources that can be published, accessed, readily updated and distributed to users (via CD-ROM, Intra/Internet methods) will promote numerous beneficial applications.

In a standardised format, geo-data becomes a transferable and valuable asset. It is also a commercially valuable commodity for select clients. For example, the Directorate General of Petroleum Concessions in Pakistan operates a successful geo-information system on this basis. This creates opportunities for cost recovery and revenue generation. With central government funding diminishing across sectors, agencies like the SOP are under pressure to become more self-sufficient. The creation and publication of universally relevant geo-data products presents new opportunities for sustainability.

An important goal of this preparatory assistance is to modify the closed "culture" of the SOP internally and change the external perception of the agency among its broad client base. This demands a series of awareness building activities.

If it is to evolve and improve its technical capacity, the SOP must become a more open, client oriented agency offering the value added services and products (digital and manual) increasingly demanded by the community. This cultural shift will take time and demands both a political and institutional commitment to appropriate reforms.

The drive towards technical modernisation will benefit greatly from these "cultural" reforms. Indeed, the two initiatives can be viewed as mutually empowering and supportive. Furthermore, there will be a major legislative sub-component to these reforms. This includes the adoption of laws that effectively guarantee public access to specified geo-data resources while at the same time protecting legitimate national security concerns.

It is obvious that in the process of drafting legislation that supports greater public access to geo-data, other far reaching issues will also require attention. These will focus on fundamental issues such as public access to information, the development of a ‘data democracy’ in Pakistan and mechanisms for more informed governance at the local, regional and national levels.

Project relevance with respect to the UNDP Country Cooperation Framework

The project fits well with the current UNCP Country Cooperation Framework. Consistent with the CCF, the objectives of this project support the creation of an enabling environment for citizens to conduct their own activities and support improvements in the governments abilities in development management. Further, the strategy of the project supports the promotion of a free flow of information as a basis for decisionmaking, especially through the expansion of the use of GIS technologies. Finally, the expected outcome of the project will be improved access to development information for citizens. This issue is fundamental to the successful implementation of the UNDP Governance Programme in Pakistan.

This project will be conducted under the auspices of the UNDP Governance Programme whose goals include the strengthening of government institutions to manage and deliver essential information. The SOP and the STI have been identified as key agencies in an emerging information infrastructure capable of supporting improved governance. Although focused on geodata, this preparatory assistance compliments on-going efforts to create an "Information House" at the Ministry of Information and the passage of ‘Freedom of Information’ legislation.


4.0 Objectives and Success Criteria

Long Term Development Objective

Enhanced public access to the spatial information resources of Pakistan empowers citizens to take increasingly greater control of their own development


Immediate Objective

Establish the institutional framework for the distribution of and access to quality geodata resources.


This preparatory assistance will support the future development of an efficient national mapping agency that can meet the growing information needs of the government, public and private sectors in Pakistan. In order to meet this development goal, the SOP must facilitate access to geodata resources that directly support national development planning through more informed decision-making and governance.

The SOP requires technical assistance in a number of areas that will strengthen the capacity of the agency. Furthermore, there is a wider need to build awareness and an environment for change as the precursor to modernisation. As stated earlier, this preparatory assistance will form the basis for an implementation planning exercise leading to the development of a project document outlining a modernisation plan for the SOP.

The project document will describe the institutional, technical, personnel and management reforms necessary to support a phased migration into the digital mapping and automated data management domains. This should form the basis for PC-1 development.

Supporting the establishment of a centre of excellence in geo-information education and professional training at the Survey Training Institute (STI), will be an important sub-component of this preparatory assistance.


Success Criteria

One measure of success will be an increase in the overall understanding and knowledge of relevant issues by decision-makers at the SOP and related agencies. This should result in a long term, institutional commitment to reforms and the execution of the implementation planning process.

Success will also be evident in the development of a training and educational facility at the STI. This will be capable of delivering courses and training in a number of methodologies and technologies essential to the future of the SOP.

Risks and Obstacles

A significant risk to the successful achievement of the Immediate objective would be the inability of GOP to define and agree upon the definition of a public domain map and allow access to geodata resources of national importance.

The modernisation of a national mapping agency is a complex and difficult task. Beyond the planning stages, its actual implementation is a long term and costly exercise. It is not anticipated that the UNDP will be able or required to support this process in its entirety. However, the UNDP can promote the development of a project document that forms the foundations for this enterprise. This includes the identification of partnerships that can sponsor and support subsequent implementation activities.

This requires the definition of which maps (geodata) and related information should be in the ‘public domain.’ This will necessitate policies that improve and promote public access to geo-information without compromising the legitimate security concerns of the nation. A constructive and open dialogue between elements of the military/security services and the UNDP will be essential. While these discussions will prove complex, there are encouraging signs that the conditions and opportunities for such a dialogue are present today. If a real compromise can be found and implemented, then the military will have contributed greatly to the development prospects of Pakistan.

While this preparatory assistance focuses on geodata as an asset of national significance, it is obvious that the resulting approaches, policies, standards, laws, data delivery mechanisms and technical infrastructure can be equally applied to other information resources. In short, this project will contribute to the development of a broader ‘data democracy’ in Pakistan. This is a most challenging goal that will inevitably confront a number of political and institutional obstacles in the short to medium term.

5.0 Description of Outputs and Activities

(See Logical Framework, Annex 2, for more detail)

Output 1.0


Activity 1.1

An email system linking all participants to faciliate communications and exchange of information, both nationally and internationally is established.


This activity will support the establishment of email/Internet nodes (including hardware, software and training) at the SOP and the STI. The system will be used as the primary means of communication between participants in project activities. It will also allow the SOP and students at the STI to access a wealth of information available on the Internet with respect to strategies for the modernization of a national mapping agency (NMA), appropriate GIS technologies and standards etc.

Time: One week.

Activity 1.2

Establishment of a Project Steering Committee (PSC) and Technical Implementation Committee (TIC) is established.


These committees will be responsible for overseeing the management (Steering) and technical aspects (Implementation) of all activities executed under this PA. They will also be required to liaise with external project ‘partners,’ for example interested government ministries, the private sector, foreign NMA’s and donors in Pakistan. For details of the committee composition and their responsibilities, please refer to Management and Implementation Arrangements.

Time: One week

Output 2.0


Activity 2.1

A National Workshop provisionally titled; ‘Information Management and Access to Support National Development; Focus on Geodata and National Mapping Requirements is conducted.

Conference proceedings and a number of specific policy recommendations on related issues of national concern.


Potential Co-sponsors:

UNDP Governance Unit, Survey of Pakistan, Ministry of Information, Pakistan Society of Geographic Information Systems.

An international workshop will be held focusing on the priority issues implicit in the conference theme: Spatial Information Management and Access to Support National Development.

This will involve multi-sectoral participation from international experts, the SOP, government agencies including the Ministries of Information and Defence, Pakistan GIS user community, NGO’s, representatives of the private and public sectors. From the conference proceedings, priority national mapping requirements will be identified. The focus for discussions will include; standards, future high resolution satellite imagery sources, geodata security issues and their implications, laws related to public data access, metadata standards, geo-information on the Internet and other information distribution media.

Workshop proceedings will summarise the main topics discussed and the requirements of potential beneficiaries in Pakistan. Relevant recommendations will also be fully documented in the published conference proceedings. These recommendations will address the following areas:

National Mapping and Spatial Data Transfer Standards.

National geodetic control network and spatial accuracy parameters

Definition of what is a ‘public domain’ map, its uses and restrictions.

Draft legislation for public geodata access in Pakistan.

The workshop will also include an exhibit showing local capacity and applications in GIS and related technologies.

Time: Four weeks local planning and organization.

Workshop duration: 4 days

Compile and edit proceedings/report: One week

Output 3.0


Activity 3.1

Technical assistance and advisory support from a senior official of a national mapping agency (NMA).


A senior official from a leading national mapping agency will provide short term advice and technical assistance to the senior management of the SOP. This will help identify priorities and provide guidelines for the reform process including institutional, organizational, financial, planning and legal issues related to digital geodata management. Particular attention will be given to policies that reconcile the need for greater public data access with national security concerns. The visiting expert should have both military and civilian experience. The possibilities of identifying experts from the leading mapping agencies of the world like Mr. Don Grant, Surveyor General of New South Wales Australia, would be explored.

A strategy report highlighting the priority issues and options available to the SOP for modernisation will be produced.

Time: Two weeks on-site, one week report preparation.

Activity 3.2

Implementation of cooperative links between the SOP and an established NMA


Under the terms of a memorandum of understanding, a close cooperative relationship will be established between the SOP and an appropriate NMA. This will facilitate knowledge and technology transfers between the agencies thereby supporting the reform process within the SOP. The LIC in Sydney, Australia is widely recognized as one of the most innovative geodata centres in the world and is a possible candidate for this partnership.

Precise modalities for bi-lateral support, co-operation and knowledge-transfer will be developed and documented during this activity.

Time: One week

Activity 3.3

Training of SOP and STI senior staff in Technical Management and Implementation Planning Skills.


The migration towards digital mapping and spatial information management is a multi-disciplinary process that requires the implementation of GIS (geographic information systems) technology. This participatory training will focus on the essential implementation and operational issues related to the sustainability of these systems. This modular, interactive course will concentrate on three broad themes.

-Components of the implementation planning process and their importance.

-The requirements for change management and institutional reform within the host agency.

-Operational issues including maintenance strategies, cost recovery, budgeting and long term financing of operations.

This training will provide participants with the required knowledge to initiate a formal implementation planning exercise focused on the host agency’s requirements.

Time: Two weeks.

Output 4.0


Activity 4.1

Establish a Geo-Information Management Teaching and Research Laboratory at the

Survey Training Institute (STI) in Islamabad.


Implementing this facility will require a number of tasks:

This should include a technical infrastructure for the following:

Technical selection process:

Building the educational capacity:

Time: Four weeks

Activity 4.2

Conduct a pilot project

Following the successful establishment of the STI teaching laboratory, the facility will undertake a pilot project. One suggested project is the design, production and output of a public domain, prototype digital atlas of a selected (unrestricted) area of Pakistan. Based on 1:50,000 maps, this will be published on CD-ROM and must be accessible to a broad audience without the need for specialized software and/or training. This pilot project will highlight the skills required to output geodata products for public domain use.

Time: Four weeks

Output 5.0:


A comprehensive project document outlining the precise requirements and most sustainable options for the modernisation of the SOP. This UNDP project document will focus on hardware, software, data, procedural, institutional, legal, financial and human resoure requirements within a longer term implementation framework.


Activity 5.1:

The TIC will compile and review the results/outputs of preceding activities. This will be a participatory process involving key stakeholders in the modernisation of the SOP. The results of this evaluation will be integrated into a comprehensive project document for presentation to the Project Steering Committee. It is intended that the final project document will promote further GOP and/or donor support for the creation of a modern national mapping and geodata agency for Pakistan.

Time: Four weeks

Activity 5.2:

An on-site international expert will work with SOP staff to mobilise the project document and provide further technical assistance to SOP staff over an extended period.


Following the acceptance of the project document by the Project Steering Committee, it will be essential to undertake the following:

These activities will provide continued momentum and focus for the reform process. They will also ensure that the project document translates into initiatives of benefit to the SOP.

The sustainability of a NMA reform programme depends upon the leadership, vision and quality of both technical and management personnel. Invariably, they require more than technology-specific training and must develop a broad range of specialised skills. This expertise is most readily acquired by jointly working with a senior specialist on-site, preferably from an NMA with co-operative links to the SOP (refer Output 3.2).

This activity will delegate such an individual to work within the SOP and spearhead a variety of reforms. The proposed length of on-site support by this specialist will be for a minimum of one year. A formal work program with benchmarks and defined targets will be developed by the Project Steering Committee.

Time: One year

Output 6.0



Implement distance learning courses/modules that will further strengthen the knowledge and skills base of personnel.


Recent innovations in geo-information management education include distance learning modules offered by a number of international universities and institutions. These can be readily implemented for select staff at the SOP and STI in order to further enhance their technical and management capacity. This form of higher education is extremely cost effective and ensures that staff are retained at the host agency during the learning period.

Time: Two weeks to implement courses.

(These self study, distance learning courses can vary in length from one week to one year.)

6.0 Preparatory Assistance Management and Implementation Arrangements

Management for this preparatory assistance will be implemented at two levels.

Project Steering Committee (PSC)

The Steering Committee will be composed of the following senior members:

Secretary of Defence (Chairman)

The Surveyor General of Pakistan

Commanding Officer, Army Survey

Member of the EAD, GOP.

Member of the UNDP Governance Unit

Select representatives of other donor agencies who express a direct interest in supporting the project goals.

The Steering Committee will have the following responsibilities:

Technical Implementation Committee (TIC)

This will be composed of three members from the SOP and STI, with periodic inputs from a UNDP Technical Consultant.

The permanent committee members will be as follows:

1. Directorof STI (Chairman)

2. Representative of SOP

3. Representative of SOP

4. UNDP Technical Advisor on Geo-Information.

The Technical Implementation Committee (TIC) will have the following responsibilities:

Regularly interface with the UNDP on organizational, PA and related project details.

The Chairman of TIC will be designated as National Project Director(NPD). The NPD is the focal point for responsibility and accountability on behalf of the executing agency in implementing and managing the project.

7.0 Project Reviews, Reporting, Monitoring and Evaluation

In addition to standard UNDP monitoring procedures, progress reports will be produced at the end of each activity or more frequently, as may be required by specific TOR’s. These will be submitted to the Project Steering Committee and UNDP for evaluation. The monitoring and evaluation of the project activities would be based on the performance indicators developed with the participation of key stakeholders and the indicators as mentioned in Project Logical Frame Work.

The project will be evaluated midterm and finally in depth evaluation at the end of project. The evaluation will mainly be focused on the efficacy of project and implementation strategy respectively. The evaluation criteria will be based on the success indicators, as spelled out in the project document. UNDP and the SOP/STI will determine the terms of reference for the final evaluation.

A yearly audit will also be conducted to meet the NEX requirements. The focus of the audit will include performance and evaluation of the activities of the project.


8.0 Inputs Required from SOP and the UNDP

SOP Inputs

UNDP Inputs

UNDP-funded inputs for the project are listed below and included in the budget for the UNDP contribution. The national executing agency will utilize support services of the UNDP country office for the mobilization of project inputs on all budget lines that identify Government as the implementing agency and for the related accounting, disbursements and financial reporting.

The project implementation will be guided by the principles and procedures for national execution described in the Project Cycle Operations Manual (PCOM).

The signed project document will constitute the Resident Representative’s authority to expend project funds on behalf of the executing agency provided that specific instructions (terms of reference, specifications, etc.) have been received from the executing agency and that these instructions are in accordance with the project document and any subsequent revisions.

UNDP will directly access the budget lines designating Government as Implementing Agency for 1) duty travel for monitoring missions by UNDP programme officers and concerned Government officials, 2) auditing and 3) sundries and charge these lines as actual expenses are incurred by the UNDP.


The equipment required for the project will be directly purchased by UNDP. All the equipment will remain UNDP's property unless it is transferred to the SOP/STI at the end of the project.



This Project Document shall be the instrument (therein referred to as a Plan of Operation) envisaged in article 1, paragraph 2, of the agreement between the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the United nations Development Programme concerning assistance under the Special Fund Sector of the United Nations Development Programme, signed by the parties on 25th February 1960.

The following types of revisions may be made to this project document with the signature of the UNDP resident representative only, provided he or she is assured that the other signatories of the project document have no objections to the proposed changes:

a) Revisions in or addition of, any of the annexes of the project document;

b) Revisions which do not involve significant changes in the immediate objectives, outputs or activities of a project, but are caused by the rearrangement of inputs already agreed to or by cost increases due to inflation; and

    1. Mandatory annual revisions, which rephase the delivery of agreed, project inputs or increased expert or other costs due to inflation or take into account agency expenditure flexibility.

The document setting out the additional conditions governing UNDP assistance to the Project is incorporated in the Project Document as Annex 3.However the SOP/STI and UNDP have agreed to the following amendment to the provision of clause 15 of the Legal Context: "Map Information in any form including geodatic data will remain SOP's property".


Tentative budget estimates have been drawn up for for the PA phase. It is estimated that an amount of US$ 333,600 will be required for the PA phase comprising twelve months. The budget details are given in the following pages. The SOP/STI will be contributing the services of a National Project Director for the project as well as the time of its staff for supervising the project.

Preparatory Assistance to the Survey of Pakistan and Survey Training Institute

Budget Summary (UNDP Contributions)

(In USD$)


Detailed Budget Breakdown

(Shown by output itemized under activities)

Output 1.0

Facilitate effective communications and coordination between project participants and external partners.

Activity 1.1

Establishment of an email / internet system linking project participants at STI/SOP.

1. International Experts: 0

2. Admin Support: 0

3. Duty Travel and Mission Costs: 0

4. National Professionals: 0

5. Sub-Contracts:

6. Training:

7. Equipment:

8. Miscellaneous:



Activity 1.2

Establishment of a Project Steering Committee (PSC) and Technical Implementation Committee (TIC). Develop TOR’s and operational details for both committees.

1. International Experts:

2. Admin Support:

3. Duty Travel and Mission Costs:

4. National Professionals: 0

5. Training: 0

6. Equipment: 0

7. Miscellaneous: 1,000



Output 2.0

Highlight Geodata Issues and Requirements of Geo-Information Users in Pakistan

Activity 2.1

A National Workshop: "Information Management and Access to Support National Development; Focus of Geodata and National Mapping Requirements." (For 400+ delegates)

1. International Experts:

2. Admin Support:

3. Conference Travel and Mission Costs:

4. National Professionals/Conference Coordinators:

5. Speaker Honoraria, Conference Site:

6. Training: 0

7. Equipment:

8. Miscellaneous: 3,000



Output 3.0

Strengthen the Institutional, Technical and Management Capacity of the Survey of Pakistan

Activity 3.1

Technical Assistance and Advisory Support from a Senior Official(s) of a Modern National Mapping Agency (NMA)

1. International Experts:

2. Admin Support:

3. Duty Travel and Mission Costs:

4. National Professionals: 0

5. Sub-Contracts: 0

6. Training: 0

7. Equipment:

8. Miscellaneous:




Activity 3.2

Implementation of Cooperative Links between SOP and an Established NMA

Draft and sign Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)

1. International Experts:

2. Admin Support:

3. Duty Travel and Mission Costs:

4. National Professionals: 0

5. Sub-Contracts: 0

6. Training: 0

7. Equipment: 0

8. Miscellaneous:



Activity 3.3

Training of SOP/STI Senior Staff in Technical Management and Implementation Planning Skills

1. International Experts: Cost under Training

2. Admin Support:

3. Duty Travel and Mission Costs:

4. National Professionals: 0

5. Sub-Contracts: 0

6. Training:

7. Equipment: 0

8. Miscellaneous:



Output 4.0

Modernize the Technical Capacity of the Survey Training Institute by Establishing a National Geodata/GIS Teaching Facility

Activity 4.1

Establish a National Geo-Information Teaching and Research Laboratory at the Survey Training Institute, Islamabad.

1. International Experts:

2. Admin Support:

3. Duty Travel and Mission Costs:

4. National Professionals: 0

5. Sub-Contracts:

6. Training: included under International Experts

7. Equipment (including books and teaching materials):

8. Miscellaneous: 1,000



Activity 4.2.

Pilot Project executed at the STI Laboratory

1. International Experts:

2. Admin Support: 0

3. Duty Travel and Mission Costs:

4. National Professionals: 0

5. Sub-Contracts:

6. Training: included International Experts.

7. Equipment: 0

8. Miscellaneous:



Output 5.0

Production of a Comprehensive Project Document Outlining the Requirements and Strategy for the Modernization of the Survey of Pakistan

Activity 5.1

Detailed Project Document and Long Term Modernization Plan

1. International Experts:

2. Admin Support:

3. Duty Travel and Mission Costs:

4. National Professionals: 0

5. Sub-Contracts: 0

6. Training:

7. Equipment: 0

8. Miscellaneous:



Activity 5.2

Provide a Senior Technical Advisor to the SOP to Support the Implementation of Project Document Recommendations (Period: One Year).

Note: This activity has not been specifically itemized. There are a number of options that will have to be more fully investigated. It is anticipated that this activity will involve some form of bi-lateral sponsorship from the host country of the collaborating NMA e.g. Australia. Certainly, some type of cost sharing agreement will be formulated between the UNDP, SOP/GOP and the cooperating NMA that provides the Senior Technical Advisor for a one year sabbatical.

The cost included below is an estimate for the UNDP contribution.

1. International Experts:

2. Admin Support:

3. Duty Travel and Mission Costs:

4. National Professionals:

5. Sub-Contracts:

6. Training:

7. Equipment:

8. Miscellaneous:




Output 6.0

Implement Distance Learning Programme for Select SOP/STI Staff to Enhance Knowledge and Skills Acquired under PA Activities


Activity 6.1

Ten candidates at the SOP/STI will embark upon Geodata Management Distance Learning Programmes

1. International Experts:

2. Admin Support: 0

3. Duty Travel and Mission Costs:

4. National Professionals: 0

5. Sub-Contracts: 0

6. Training: included under International Experts

7. Equipment: 0

8. Miscellaneous:  per distance learning module)



Nex Audit


Duty travel for international expert(s) included under a specific output may cover other outputs if they are implemented concurrently.


Annex 2

Project Logical Framework-PA for the Survey of Pakistan


Objectively Verifiable


Means of Verification


Output 1.0


Regular and open (email) communications between project participants and committees.

Free exchange of project information between internal project participants and/or external supporting partners.

Activity 1.1

Implementation of an email / internet system linking the


Access and download of technical information from

external sources.


Periodically assess the frequency of email use and the volumes of useful information being exchanged between parties.

That the SOP and the STI are willing to install and sanction the free use of email as a means of effective communication for

project activities and co-ordination.

Activity 1.2

Establishment of Project Steering Committee and Project Implementation Committee

Project Steering Committee and Project Implementation Committee are convened

TOR’s are produced for each committee and/or members as required.

Members are invited and acknowledge willingness to participate in writing.


Joint meeting held of both

committees to initiate project activities.

Committees effectiveness will be measured by:

-Regularity of meetings.

-Proactive involvement and attendance by members.

-Publication of minutes and actions items that are forthcoming from these meetings.

-Level of cooperation between

Steering (Management) Committee and Implementation (Technical)Committee.

Assumption is that all committee members will be willing to dedicate their efforts over the longer term.

Must be an effective and open dialogue between Steering (Management) and Project Implementation (Technical) Committees.

Implicit risk of failure if the committees are unable to reach consensus on critical issues and/or fail to agree on larger project goals as opposed to narrower interests.



Objectively Verifiable


Means of Verification


Objective 2.0


Change in the comprehension of state-of-the-art geodata management issues at senior levels in Pakistan Audit of workshop delegates and the responses to a detailed workshop survey. Assumption:

There is a widespread interest and demand for such a workshop from a broad constituency of multi-disciplinary professionals applying geodata to development problems in Pakistan.

Output 2.1

A National Workshop titled; Information Management and Access to Support National Development; Geodata issues and National Mapping Requirements.


Coverage by the media and level of wider public interest

Specific workshop recommendations regarding:

-National Mapping and Data Transfer Standards.

-National geodetic control network for public use.

-Definition of public domain geodata (map) features.

-Legislative recommendations for greater public geodata access.


Review of final conference proceedings and findings

Review of specific recommendations forthcoming from the workshop and subsequently passed onto the Project Steering Committee for further action and/or consideration.



Objectively Verifiable


Means of Verification


Output 3.0


SOP staff and leadership able to manage the change process on their own Approval of concept clearance and PC 1 by P&D Willingness to adapt to a changed environment
Activity 3.1

Technical assistance and advisory support from a senior official of a national mapping agency (NMA).

Advisor is fully supported by SOP Strategy document will be reviewed by the Project Steering Committee and form the basis for future work plan development by the Project Implementation Committee. Senior official from an internationally recognized NMA is willing to actively support the SOP.

Provides advice that is both relevant and sustainable under existing institutional conditions at the SOP.

Activity 3.2

Implementation of cooperative links between the SOP and an established NMA.

A memorandum of cooperation is signed between the SOP and a NMA promoting knowledge and technology transfer. Review and approval of by Project Steering Committee. SOP is willing to adopt and implement a cooperative arrangement with a suitable NMA over the long term.
Activity 3.3

Training of SOP/STI Staff in Technical Management and Implementation Planning Skills.

Ten senior staff from the SOP and STI trained.

Use of new skills by the officers.

Trainees complete training evaluation surveys.

Training evaluation questionnaires are reviewed by the Project Steering Committee. Potential trainees must have a basic level of experience in geodata management.

Trainees must be available to participate in implementation planning activities after completion of training.



Objectively Verifiable


Means of Verification


Output 4.0



A modern GIS teaching facility is established at the STI with the required hardware, software and communications infrastructure. Formal review of the facility and the curricula on offer by the Project Steering Committee. That the STI is the correct location for such a facility with the institutional commitment to maintain the infrastructure and promote its wider use.

Activity 4.1

Establish a Geo-Information Management Teaching and Research Laboratory at the

Survey Training Institute (STI) in Islamabad.

Two ‘trained trainers’ are installed at the facility.

Revised curricula for formal training courses are implemented.

At least one class is inducted into the new training facility by the STI

Successful output of first students to use the facility and assessment of their evaluation questionnaires

Demand for the use of the facility by internal and external students will provide an objective indicator of value/success


STI will be required to formally allocate some of its annual budget to maintain and incrementally expand the initial technical facility installed under this PA.
Activity 4.2


Successful execution of at least one pilot project using the facility. (Exact scope of the pilot project to be defined by the Implementation Committee) Local administrators, donor agencies, and politicians make use of the new material No security risks will be involved



Objectively Verifiable


Means of Verification


Output 5.0


Production of the actual project document by the Project Implementation Committee. Project documents is reviewed by the Project Steering Committee and recommended for further action to the GOP and/or interested donor agencies.  

It is assumed that preceding PA activities will yield sufficient data to support the compilation of such a project document.

Activity 5.1

Prepare project document

At a minimum, the following benchmark issues must be addressed by the document:

-Hardware and software


-Procedural and institutional issues including standards.

-Legislative needs

-Human resources

-Financial needs

-Cost benefit analysis




Risk that the project document recommendations will prove unacceptable to elements of the GOP and/or will not stimulate interest among donor agencies.

Assumed that the advisor must come from a leading NMA with an interest to support the SOP reforms through institutional cooperation

Activity 5.1

Long term advisor

Provision of a senior long term advisor to the SOP, preferably from an internationally recognized


Development of a detailed TOR and benchmarks for the advisor by the Project Implementation Committee

Appointment of advisor and TOR to be approved by the Steering Committee.

Steering Committee to evaluate regular progress reports from the advisor.


Objective 6.0



Access to distance learning (self-study) courses from an accredited international body.

Provision of all materials required for on-site studies by candidates.

Professional linkages with the international body delivering the courses.


Distance learning courses and modules to be approved by the Steering Committee prior to actual implementation at the SOP/STI.

Candidates will be expected to pass all exams/assignments that are part of the distance learning courses.


Select SOP/STI candidates must have requisite knowledge level and be willing to make the required commitment to the distance learning courses.

Access to email communications will be essential.

Staff engaging in these study modules must have tenure at the SOP/STI and be dedicated to these institutions for the longer term.




Supplemental Provisions to the Project Document: The Legal Context


1. All phases and aspects of UNDP assistance to this project shall be governed by and carried out in accordance with the relevant and applicable resolutions and decisions of the competent UN organs and in accordance with UNDP's policies and procedures for such projects, and subject to the requirements of the UNDP Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting System.

2. The Government shall remain responsible for this UNDP-assisted development project and the realization of its objectives as described in this Project Document.

3. Assistance under this Project Document being provided for the benefit o the Government and the people of (the particular country or territory), the Government shall bear all risks of operations in respect of this project.

4. The Government shall provide to the project the national counterpart personnel, training facilities, land, buildings, equipment and other required services and facilities. It shall designate the Government Co-operating Agency named in the cover page of this document (hereinafter referred to as the "Co-operating Agency"), which shall be directly responsible for the implementation of the Government contribution to the project.

5. The UNDP undertakes to complement and supplement the Government participation and will provide through the Executing Agency the required expert services, training, equipment and other services within the funds available to the project.

6. Upon commencement of the project the Executing Agency shall assume primary responsibility for project execution and shall have the status of an independent contractor for this purpose. However, that primary responsibility shall be exercised in consultation with UNDP and in agreement with the Co-operating Agency. Arrangements to this effect shall be stipulated in the Project Document as well as for the transfer of this responsibility to the Government or to an entity designated by the Government during the execution of the project.

7. Part of the Government's participation may take the form of a cash contribution to UNDP. In such cases, the Executing Agency will provide the related services and facilities and will account annually to the UNDP and to the Government for the expenditure incurred.

Participation of the Government

8. The Government shall provide to the project the services, equipment and facilities in the quantities and at the time specified in the Project Document. Budgetary provision - either in kind or in case - for the Government's participation so specified shall be set forth in the Project Budgets.

9. The Co-operating Agency shall, as appropriate and in consultation with the Executing Agency, assign a director for the project on a full-time basis. He shall carry out such responsibilities in the project as are assigned to him by the Co-operating Agency.

10. The estimated cost of items included in the Government contribution, as detailed in the Project Budget, shall be based on the best information available at the time of drafting the project proposal. It is understood that price fluctuations during the period of execution of the project may necessitate an adjustment of said contribution in monetary terms; the latter shall at all times be determined by the value of the services, equipment and facilities required for the proper execution of the project.

11. Within the given number of work-months of personnel services described in the Project Document, minor adjustments of individual assignments of project personnel provided by the Government may be made by the Government in consultation with the Executing Agency, if this is found to be in the best interest of the project. UNDP shall be so informed in all instances where such minor adjustments involve financial implications.

12. The Government shall continue to pay the local salaries and appropriate allowances of national counterpart personnel during the period of their absence from the project while on UNDP fellowships.

13. The Government shall defray any customs duties and other charges related to the clearance of project equipment, its transportation, handling storage and installation and maintenance, insurance, and replacement if necessary, after delivery to the project site.

14. The Government shall make available to the project - subject to existing security provisions - any published and unpublished reports, maps, records and other data which are considered necessary to the implementation of the project.

15. Patent rights, copyright rights and other similar rights to any discoveries or work resulting from UNDP assistance in respect of this project shall belong to the UNDP. Unless otherwise agreed by the Parties in each case, however, the Government shall have the right to use any such discoveries or work within the country free of royalty and any change of similar nature.

16. The Government shall assist all project personnel in finding suitable housing accommodation at reasonable rents.

17. The services and facilities specified in the Project Document which are to be provided to the project by the Government by means of a contribution in cash shall be set forth in the Project Budget. Payment of this amount shall be made to the UNDP in accordance with the Schedule of Payments by the Government.

18. Payment of the above-mentioned contribution to the UNDP on or before the dates specified in the Schedule of Payments by the Government is a prerequisite to commencement or continuation of project operations.


Participation of the UNDP and the Executing Agency

19. The UNDP shall provide to the project through the Executing Agency the services, equipment and facilities described in the Project Document. Budgetary provision for the UNDP contribution as specified shall be set forth in the Project Budget.

20. The executing Agency shall consult with the Government and UNDP on the candidature of the Project Manager/ who, under the direction of the Executing Agency, will responsible in the country for the Executing Agency's participation in the project. The Project Manager shall supervise the experts and other agency personnel assigned to the project, and the on-the-job- training of national counterpart personnel. He shall be responsible for the management and efficient utilization of all UNDP-financed inputs, including equipment provided to the project.

21. The Executing Agency, in consultation with the Government and UNDP, shall assign international staff and other personnel to the project as specified in the Project Document, select candidates for fellowships and determine standards for the training of national counterpart personnel.

22. Fellowships shall be administered in accordance with the fellowships regulations of the Executing Agency.

23. The Executing Agency may, in agreement with the Government and UNDP, execute part or all of the project by subcontract. The selection of subcontractors shall be made, after consultation with the Government and UNDP, in accordance with the Executing Agency's procedures.

24. All material, equipment and supplies which are purchased from UNDP resources will be used exclusively for the execution of the project, and will remain the property of the UNDP in whose name it will be held by the Executing Agency. Equipment supplied by the UNDP shall be marked with the insignia of the UNDP and of the Executing Agency.

25. Arrangements may be made, if necessary, for a temporary transfer of custody of equipment to local authorities during the life of the project, without prejudice to the final transfer.

26. Prior to completion of UNDP assistance to the project, the Government, the UNDP and the Executing Agency shall consult as to the disposition of all project equipment provided by the UNDP. Title to such equipment shall normally be transferred to the Government, or to an entity nominated by the Government, when it is required for continued operation of the project or for activities following directly therefrom. The UNDP may, however, at its discretion, retain title to part or all of such equipment.

27. At an agreed time after the completion of UNDP assistance to the project, the Government and the UNDP, and if necessary the Executing Agency, shall review the activities continuing from or consequent upon the project with a view to evaluating its results.

28. UNDP may release information relating to any investment oriented project to potential investors, unless and until the Government has requested the UNDP in writing to restrict the release of information relating to such project.


Rights, facilities, privileges and immunities

29. In accordance with the Agreement concluded by the United Nations (UNDP) and the Government concerning the provision of assistance by UNDP, the personnel of UNDP and other United Nations organizations associated with the project shall be accorded rights, facilities, privileges and immunities specified in said Agreement.

30. The Government shall grant UN Volunteers, if such services are requested by the Government, the same rights, facilities, privileges and immunities as are granted to the personnel of UNDP.

31. The Executing Agency's contractors and their personnel (except nationals of the host country employed locally) shall:

(a) Be immune from legal process in respect of all acts performed by them in their official capacity in the execution of the project;

(b) Be immune from national service obligations;

(c) Be immune together with their spouses and relatives dependent on them from immigration restrictions;

(d) Be accorded the privileges of bringing into the country reasonable amounts of foreign currency for the purposes of the project or for personal use of such personnel, and of withdrawing any such amounts brought into the country, or in accordance with the relevant foreign exchange regulations, such amounts as may be earned therein by such personnel in the execution of the project;

(e) Be accorded together with their spouses and relatives dependent on them the same repatriation facilities in the event of international crises as diplomatic envoys.

32. All personnel of the Executing Agency's contractors shall enjoy inviolability for all papers and documents relating to the project.

33. The Government shall either exempt from or bear the cost of any taxes, duties, fees or levies which it may impose on any firm or organization which may be retained by the Executing Agency and on the personnel of any such firm or organization, except for nationals of the host country employed locally, in respect of:

(a) The salaries or wages earned by such personnel in the execution of the project;

(b) Any equipment, materials and supplies brought into the country for the purposes of the project or which, after having been brought into the country, may be subsequently withdrawn therefrom;

(c) Any substantial quantities of equipment, materials and supplies obtained locally for the execution of the project, such as, for example, petrol and spare parts for the operation and maintenance of equipment mentioned under (b) above, with the provision that the types and approximate quantities to be exempted and relevant procedures to be followed shall be agreed upon with the Government and, as appropriate, recorded in the Project Document; and

(d) As in the case of concessions currently granted to UNDP and Executing Agency's personnel, any property brought, including one privately owned automobile per employee, by the firm or organization or its personnel for their personal use or consumption or which after having been brought into the country, may subsequently be withdrawn therefrom upon departure of such personnel.

34. The Government shall ensure: (a) prompt clearance of experts and other persons performing services in respect of this project and (b) the prompt release from customs of: (i) equipment, materials and supplies required in connection with this project and (ii) property belonging to and intended for the personal use or consumption of the personnel of the UNDP, its Executing Agencies, or other persons performing services on their behalf in respect of this project, except for locally recruited personnel.

35. The privileges and immunities referred to in the paragraphs above, to which such firm or organization and its personnel may be entitled, may be waived by the Executing Agency where, in its opinion or in the opinion of the UNDP, the immunity would impede the course of justice and can be waived without prejudice to the successful completion of the project or to the interest of the UNDP or the Executing Agency.

36. The Executing Agency shall provide the Government through the Resident Representative with the list of personnel to whom the privileges and immunities enumerated above shall apply.

37. Nothing in this Project Document or Annex shall be constructed to limit the rights, facilities, privileges or immunities conferred in any other instrument upon any person, natural or juridical, referred to hereunder.



38. (a) The UNDP may, by written notice to the Government and to the Executing Agency concerned, suspend its assistance to any project if in the judgement of the UNDP any circumstance arises which interferes with or threatens to interfere with the successful completion of the project or the accomplishment of its purposes. The UNDP may, in the same or a subsequent written notice, indicate the conditions under which it is prepared to resume its assistance to the project. Any such suspension shall continue until such time as such conditions are accepted by the Government and as the UNDP shall give written notice to the Government and the Executing Agency that it is prepared to resume its assistance.

(b) If any situation referred to in subparagraph (a) above shall continue for a period of fourteen days after notice thereof and of suspension shall have been given by the UNDP to the Government and the Executing Agency, then at any time thereafter during the continuance thereof, the UNDP may by written notice to the Government and the Executing Agency terminate the project.

(c) The provisions of this paragraph shall be without prejudice to any other rights or remedies the UNDP may have in the circumstances, whether under general principles of law or otherwise.










Technical Annex One:

The Critical Importance of Implementation Planning

The experience of case-study sites world-wide has shown that the successful development of an institutional digital mapping capacity is highly dependant upon a sound implementation workplan. The lessons-learned from these sites has contributed to the formulation of a systematic implementation planning approach.

This process consists of distinct phases that allow for client feedback; internal and external inputs, review and constant adjustment based on the changing requirements of the host site. It is a phased, adaptive and iterative planning methodology.

Implementation planning addresses a number of broad themes including:

Appropriate Technology.

Applications and Data Development

Procedural and Legal Requirements

Personnel Development and Training

Institutional Reforms and Strengthening of Organisations

Cost Benefit and Risk Analysis


The adoption of a pragmatic implementation plan minimises risk factors to manageable proportions. Consequently, they do not threaten the success and future sustainability of the geodata management capacity under development.

This preparatory assistance project will develop the foundations and knowledge base required for an implementation planning exercise within the SOP. This will address some vitally important issues including, but not limited to the following: