The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) insurgency grew out of the increasing radicalization and fragmentation of leftwing parties following the emergence of democracy in 1990. The United People’s Front—a coalition of leftwing parties— participated in the elections of 1991, but the Maoist wing failed to win the minimum three percent of the vote leading to their exclusion from voter lists in the elections of 1994. In response, they abandoned electoral politics and in 1996 launched the insurgency. The Maoists’ ultimate objective is the takeover of the government and the transformation of society, probably including the elimination of the present elite, nationalization of the private sector, and collectivization of agriculture. In 2003, the United States designated Nepal’s Maoists under Executive Order (EO) 13224 as a supporter of terrorist activity.
The Maoists have utilized traditional guerrilla war tactics aimed at ultimately overthrowing the Nepalese Government in favor of a single-party Communist state. In line with these efforts, the Maoists continue to use murder, torture, arson, sabotage, extortion, child conscription, kidnapping, threats of physical violence, bombings, and assassinations to intimidate and coerce the populace. In 2002, Maoists claimed responsibility for assassinating two Nepalese US Embassy guards, citing anti-Maoist spying, and in a press statement threatened foreign embassy missions—including the US mission—to deter foreign support for the Nepalese Government.
Probably several thousand full-time cadres.
Operations are conducted throughout Nepal. Press reports indicate Maoist leaders reside in India.