[Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1998]
[Page 77-84]

[[Page 77]]

 
                         4.  PROMOTING RESEARCH

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
  . . . We must harness the remarkable forces of science and technology that are remaking our world. . . . We   
can make this age of science and technology a true age of possibility for all the American people, but we must  
invest in it and do it wisely if we expect to get a return.                                                     
                                                                                                                
                                      President Clinton                                                         
                                      December 11, 1996                                                         
                                                                                                                

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  Technological innovation has accounted for at least half of the 
Nation's productivity growth in the last 50 years. We enjoy the fruits 
of this innovation every day in the many technologies that we have come 
to depend on for our way of life--including lasers, computers, x-rays, 
teflon, weather and communication satellites, jet aircraft, microwave 
ovens, solar-electric cells, human insulin, and a plethora of 
pharmaceutical products. These advances have generated millions of high-
skilled, high-wage jobs and significantly improved the quality of life 
for Americans.
   Because our investments in science and technology (S&T) have paid 
such rich dividends, U.S. leadership in S&T is a cornerstone of the 
President's vision for America. Thus, the budget continues these vital 
S&T investments--investments that contribute significantly to many of 
the Administration's broader goals, including creating new knowledge, 
training our workers, creating new jobs and industries, solving our many 
health challenges, enhancing our ability to address environmental 
issues, improving our ability to teach our children, and maintaining a 
strong, capable national defense.
   Specifically, the budget adds funds for basic research in health 
sciences at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), for basic research 
and education at the National Science Foundation (NSF), for research at 
other agencies that depend on S&T for their missions, and for 
cooperative projects with industry and universities.
   As the President has said, we need to balance the budget in a way 
that boosts economic growth and encourages public and private investment 
in innovative S&T. The budget continues the record of S&T investment 
that has helped to keep the economy strong over the last four years.

The Federal Role in S&T

   The post-Cold War era is one of intense global economic competition. 
The United States also faces new national security challenges, including 
the proliferation of nuclear and biological weapons, regional conflicts, 
threats from environmental degradation, and emerging infectious 
diseases.
   Thus, the Federal Government has an indispensable role to play in 
investing in S&T--a role critical to the country's economy, national 
security, environment, health, and other social needs. This is 
especially true when the risk is too great for individual companies to 
make the needed investment, or when the public benefit is large but 
private return is small. Our Nation also must support a balanced mix of 
S&T investments (i.e., basic research, applied research, and technology 
development), because the steps involved in scientific discovery and 
technological innovation are so profoundly interwoven.
   The Administration has initiated or expanded public-private 
partnerships to spur innovations with broad economic impact. These 
partnerships have traditionally served our Nation well, not only in 
building transportation infrastructure (e.g., highways, airways, 
harbors, and railroads), but in nurturing new types of technological 
infrastructure (e.g., the Internet, global positioning satellites, and 
environmental monitoring systems). They also 

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enable the private sector to translate new knowledge into novel technologies
that benefit its bottom line as well as society at large.

 Science and Technology Highlights

   As noted above, S&T investments contribute significantly to the 
Administration's economic, health, environment, national security, and 
education goals. This chapter describes the contributions in greater 
detail. Overall research and development investment totals are displayed 
in Table 4-1, while selected S&T highlights are displayed in Table 4-2.
    

                                Table 4-1.  RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS                                
                                 (Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                               Dollar    Percent
                                                                  1993      1997      1998     Change:   Change:
                                                                 Actual   Estimate  Proposed   1997 to   1997 to
                                                                                                1998      1998  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
By Agency:                                                                                                      
  Defense.....................................................    38,898    37,461    36,780      -681       -2%
  Health and Human Services...................................    10,472    12,933    13,478      +545       +4%
  National Aeronautics and Space Administration...............     8,873     9,314     9,603      +289       +3%
  Energy \1\..................................................     6,896     6,186     7,312    +1,126      +18%
  National Science Foundation.................................     2,012     2,458     2,553       +95       +4%
  Agriculture.................................................     1,467     1,545     1,485       -60       -4%
  Commerce....................................................       793     1,050     1,115       +65       +6%
  Interior....................................................       649       581       605       +24       +4%
  Transportation..............................................       613       639       754      +115      +18%
  Environmental Protection Agency.............................       511       504       555       +51      +10%
  Other.......................................................     1,308     1,150     1,229       +79       +7%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Total.......................................................    72,492    73,821    75,469    +1,648       +2%
                                                               =================================================
                                                                                                                
By R&D Theme:                                                                                                   
  Basic Research..............................................    13,362    14,885    15,303      +418       +3%
  Applied Research............................................    13,608    14,529    15,159      +630       +4%
  Development.................................................    42,795    42,153    41,636      -517       -1%
  Equipment \2\...............................................        NA       937       960       +23       +2%
  Facilities \1\<SUP>,\<SUP>2\..........................................     2,727     1,317     2,411    +1,094      +83%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Total.......................................................    72,492    73,821    75,469    +1,648       +2%
                                                               =================================================
By Civilian Theme:                                                                                              
  Basic Research..............................................    11,951    13,747    14,112      +365       +3%
  Applied Research............................................     9,130    10,469    11,125      +656       +6%
  Development.................................................     7,269     7,860     8,117      +257       +3%
  Equipment \2\...............................................        NA       492       506       +14       +3%
  Facilities \2\..............................................     1,979       984     1,128      +144      +15%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Subtotal....................................................    30,329    33,552    34,988    +1,436       +4%
                                                                                                                
By Defense Theme:                                                                                               
  Basic Research..............................................     1,411     1,138     1,191       +53       +5%
  Applied Research............................................     4,478     4,060     4,034       -26       -1%
  Development.................................................    35,526    34,293    33,519      -774       -2%
  Equipment \2\...............................................        NA       445       454        +9       +2%
  Facilities \1\<SUP>,\<SUP>2\ .........................................       748       333     1,283      +950     +285%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Subtotal....................................................    42,163    40,269    40,481      +212       +1%
                                                                                                                
By R&D Share:                                                                                                   
  Defense.....................................................    42,163    40,269    40,481      +212       +1%
  Civilian....................................................    30,329    33,552    34,988    +1,436       +4%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Total.......................................................    72,492    73,821    75,469    +1,648       +2%
Civilian (percent)............................................        42        45        46        NA        NA
                                                                                                                
R&D Support to Universities...................................    11,674    12,979    13,268      +289       +2%
Merit (Peer) Reviewed R&D Programs............................        NA    22,220    22,717      +497       +2%
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA = Not applicable.                                                                                            
                                                                                                                
\1\ 1998 estimates reflect an extra $1 billion for Department of Energy (DOE) facilities acquisition (primarily 
  in defense) as part of DOE's move to fully funding acquisitions up front.                                     
                                                                                                                
\2\ Equipment and Facilities were not collected separately in 1993.                                             


[[Page 79]]

                             Table 4-2.  SELECTED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY HIGHLIGHTS                             
                                 (Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                               Dollar    Percent
                                                                  1993      1997      1998     Change:   Change:
                                                                 Actual   Estimate  Proposed   1997 to   1997 to
                                                                                                1998      1998  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National Science Foundation...................................     2,734     3,270     3,367       +97       +3%
National Institutes of Health.................................    10,326    12,741    13,078      +337       +3%
Environmental Protection Agency:                                                                                
   Particulate matter in ambient air research.................        NA        19        26        +7      +37%
   Science to achieve results.................................        NA        95       115       +20      +21%
National Aeronautics and Space Administration:................                                                  
   International Space Station................................     2,262     2,149     2,121       -28       -1%
   Mission to Planet Earth....................................     1,062     1,362     1,417       +55       +4%
   Space science..............................................     1,756     1,971     2,044       +73       +4%
   X-33 reusable launch vehicle technology program............        NA       245       330       +85      +35%
   Aeronautics initiative.....................................       129       417       456       +39       +9%
Department of Energy:                                                                                           
   Science-based stockpile stewardship........................        NA     1,439     1,444        +5       +*%
  Civilian basic science programs.............................     2,583     2,035     2,067       +32       +1%
   Large Hadron Collider project..............................        NA        15        35       +20     +133%
Department of Commerce:                                                                                         
   Advanced Technology Program................................        68       225       275       +50      +22%
   Manufacturing Extension Partnerships.......................        18        95       129       +34      +36%
   National Information Infrastructure........................        NA        22        36       +14      +64%
Department of Defense: Dual Use Application Program...........        NA       181       225       +44      +24%
Department of Agriculture: National Research Initiative               98        94       130       +36      +38%
Department of Transportation: Intelligent Transportation                                                        
 Infrastructure...............................................       143       235       250       +15       +6%
National Science and Technology Council initiatives:                                                            
  High performance computing and communications: \1\                                                            
     Defense..................................................       298       334       357       +23       +7%
     Health and Human Services................................        47        90        97        +7       +8%
     National Aeronautics and Space Administration............        82       114       128       +14      +12%
     Energy...................................................       100       117       152       +35      +30%
     National Science Foundation..............................       233       278       294       +16       +6%
     Commerce.................................................        12        32        35        +3       +9%
     Transportation...........................................        NA        20        25        +5      +25%
     Education................................................        NA        12        12        +*       +*%
     Veterans.................................................        NA        22        22        +*       +*%
     Environmental Protection Agency..........................        NA         6         6        +*       +*%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Subtotal....................................................       772     1,025     1,128      +103      +10%
                                                                                                                
  U.S. global change research program: \2\                                                                      
     Health and Human Services................................         1         4         4        +*       +*%
     National Aeronautics and Space Administration............     1,062     1,362     1,417       +55       +4%
     Energy...................................................       118       112       110        -2       -2%
     National Science Foundation..............................       124       164       166        +2       +1%
     Agriculture..............................................        55        57        61        +4       +7%
     Commerce.................................................        66        60        62        +2       +3%
     Interior.................................................        38        29        29        +*       +*%
     Environmental Protection Agency..........................        NA        14        21        +7      +50%
     Smithsonian..............................................        NA         7         7        +*       +*%
     Tennessee Valley Authority...............................        NA         1         1        +*       +*%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Subtotal....................................................     1,464     1,810     1,878       +68       +4%
                                                                                                                
Partnership for a new generation of vehicles..................        NA       263       281        +8       +7%
Construction and building.....................................        NA       176       203       +27      +15%
Educational technology........................................        NA       499       524       +25       +5%
Emerging infectious diseases research.........................        NA       260       280       +20       +8%
                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA = Not collected in this year.                                                                                
                                                                                                                
* Less than $500 thousand or 0.5 percent.                                                                       
                                                                                                                
\1\ Listing by agency required by law; estimates include $100 million in 1998 for the Next Generation Internet. 
\2\ Listing by agency required by law.                                                                          
                                                                                                                

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  Increasing Total Support for Science and Technology: This budget marks 
the fifth straight year that the President has proposed increases in 
research and development (R&D)--at $75.5 billion, $1.6 billion or two 
percent more than in 1997.\1\ Continuing previous efforts, the budget 
also provides an increasing share for civilian R&D investments, with 
those investments at 46 percent of the total.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \1\ Research and Development (R&D) is a widely-accepted measure of 
investment in S&T.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  Boosting Funding for Basic Research and Applied Research: The budget 
proposes $15.3 billion for basic research and $15.2 billion for applied 
research--increases of $418 million and $630 million over 1997, 
respectively. These investments, which include increases of three 
percent each for NIH and NSF, reflect the Administration's commitment to 
create new knowledge that will pay economic dividends down the road and 
address many of the health challenges that face the nation, such as 
breast cancer.
   Strengthening University-Based Research: University-based research (a 
mixture of basic, applied, development R&D, equipment, and facilities) 
is key to America's future; simultaneously, it provides new knowledge 
and new technology, and it trains the next generation of scientists and 
engineers. The budget proposes $13.3 billion for university-based 
research, an increase of $289 million over 1997. It also proposes $22.7 
billion for merit-reviewed research (two percent more than in 1997), 
comprising 18 percent of the R&D budget. Increases in merit-reviewed 
research ensure that the Nation receives the highest quality return on 
these investments.
   Investing in Innovation to Create New Jobs and Industries: Many of 
the new jobs created under this Administration have been high-tech, 
high-wage jobs in industries like biotechnology and computing--jobs that 
didn't exist a decade or two ago. The budget maintains a strong 
investment in technology to foster these high-priority civilian S&T 
industries and jobs. Funding continues or expands for high-performance 
computing research; for the Advanced Technology Program, which works 
with industry to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies; for 
Manufacturing Extension Partnerships to help small businesses battle 
foreign competition by adopting modern technologies and production 
techniques; and for other programs.
   Investing in Environmental Research: S&T investments are critical for 
enhancing environmental quality and assuring a sustainable future. While 
the Nation is making progress on many pollution fronts, emerging global 
environmental problems pose new risks. The budget maintains vital 
research to provide safe food, clean air, and pure water. It supports 
programs to increase energy efficiency and the development of renewable 
energy sources that cut demand for foreign oil and reduce greenhouse 
emissions, and partnerships with industry to develop cars that use less 
fuel. The budget invests in programs that preserve biological diversity 
and help us understand and prepare for changing climate conditions and 
natural disasters. These investments also provide a sound scientific 
basis for rational rule-making on, and cost-effective implementation of, 
environmental regulations. (For information on energy efficiency and 
renewable energy R&D programs, see Chapter 3.)
   Investing in a 21st-Century Education: Information technology has 
revolutionized America's businesses, but it has not been widely adopted 
in America's classrooms. We must use this new technology to help 
children prepare for the challenges of the 21st Century. Building on the 
experience of earlier Federal investment in educational technology, the 
budget includes a second installment for the President's new five-year, 
$2 billion Technology Literacy Challenge Fund to encourage States and 
communities, working with private sector partners, to develop and 
implement plans for fully integrating educational technology into their 
school curricula. (For more information, see Chapter 2.)
   Enhancing Programs to Keep Our Nation Secure: While the budget 
continues investments in defense research that ensure our strong, future 
military capabilities, it also fosters key programs to keep nuclear 
weapons out of the hands of terrorists, to comply with the Comprehensive 
Test Ban Treaty by using science-based techniques to ensure the safety 
and reliability of our nuclear weapons stockpiles, and to bolster strong 
international S&T 

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cooperation to improve global stability. The budget 
also supports the Dual Use Applications Program (DUAP), which puts the 
technical know-how and economies of scale from commercial industry at 
the service of national defense.

 Agency Highlights

   National Science Foundation: NSF, recognized world-wide for its high 
standards of quality and efficiency, funds proposals based on a 
rigorous, competitive process of merit review. Reflecting the high 
quality of NSF-backed science, NSF supported five of the six 1996 U.S. 
Nobel prize winners early in their careers. Alone among Federal 
agencies, NSF has the broad mission of promoting science and engineering 
research and education across all fields and disciplines. It supports 
nearly half of the non-medical basic research conducted at academic 
institutions, and provides 30 percent of Federal support for mathematics 
and science education. Because most NSF awards go to colleges and 
universities, they generate knowledge and train the next generation of 
scientists and engineers. The budget proposes $3.4 billion for NSF, 
three percent more than in 1997.
   National Institutes of Health: The budget continues the President's 
commitment to biomedical research, which promotes the health and well-
being of all Americans. NIH support for biomedical research grew by $2.4 
billion, or by 23 percent, between 1993 and 1997. For 1998, the budget 
proposes $13.1 billion for NIH, a three-percent increase over 1997. 
NIH's highest priority continues to be funding investigator-initiated, 
peer-reviewed research project grants. The budget proposal would enable 
NIH to increase HIV/AIDS-related research, research into breast cancer 
and other health concerns of women, minority health initiatives, high 
performance computing, prevention research, spinal cord injury, and 
developmental and reproductive biology.

 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):

   Particulate Matter (PM) in Ambient Air Research: The budget proposes 
$26.4 million for PM research, a 37-percent increase over 1997. To 
reduce the great uncertainty about PM's health effects, EPA will 
continue its efforts to identify the mechanisms by which particles 
affect human health. It will launch research into three areas: (1) 
evaluating the relationship between health effects and PM exposures; (2) 
determining the amount and size of particles inhaled and retained in the 
lungs; and (3) investigating biological mechanisms by which PM 
concentrations in outdoor air may induce health effects and, in doing 
so, evaluating potential links between PM exposures and health effects.
   Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Program: The budget proposes $115 
million (21 percent more than in 1997) for EPA's STAR program, which 
awards grants and fellowships on the basis of rigorous peer review. The 
program funds research proposals from scientists outside the Federal 
Government that focus on the most pressing environmental concerns. EPA 
funds the proposals independently or in cooperation with NSF and other 
Federal agencies.

 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA):

   NASA has been on the forefront of Administration efforts to reshape 
the Federal Government--to make it work better, cost less, and better 
service its customers, the American people. The budget proposes balanced 
and sustainable funding for NASA over the next five years, permitting 
NASA not only to continue improving its operations but also to support 
important strategic research efforts, including the efforts highlighted 
below:
   Space Science: The space science program has achieved impressive 
successes this past year--meteoric evidence of possible life on ancient 
Mars, the possible detection of water on the Moon and a moon of Jupiter, 
and the identification of possible planets around other stars. To build 
on these successes and implement the President's directives in his 
recently-released space policy, the Administration proposes $2 billion 
for space science, a four-percent increase over 1997. The additional 
funding will enhance NASA's Origins program, which seeks to understand 
the creation of the universe, stars, solar system, and life, and 
determine if life once existed or still exists beyond Earth.

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   International Space Station: The Administration continues to support 
the development of the International Space Station--a U.S.-led 
collaborative effort with the European Space Agency, Canada, Japan, and 
Russia--that will provide an unique laboratory to explore innovative 
research on materials and biological processes, on promising new 
technologies, and on how people can live and work in a low-gravity 
environment. The budget proposes $9 billion in advanced, multi-year 
appropriations to complete the $17.4 billion Space Station development 
and assembly, helping to ensure that the program is completed, as 
promised, within budget and on schedule.
   Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE): MTPE is NASA's effort to observe, 
understand, and predict natural and human-induced changes to the 
environment. The budget proposes $1.4 billion for MTPE, four percent 
more than in 1997. MTPE programs include the Earth Observing System 
satellites, the Landsat satellite, and a broad range of scientific 
research and data analysis activities.
   X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology: The budget proposes 
$719 million in advanced multi-year appropriations to complete 
development of the RLV X-33 test vehicle, that should dramatically cut 
the cost of getting into space by demonstrating the use of new 
materials, reusable components, and new operations management 
approaches.
   Aeronautics Initiative: The budget proposes $456 million for NASA's 
aeronautics initiatives, a nine-percent increase over 1997. These 
initiatives are partnerships with industry and include advanced subsonic 
technology and high speed research that may revolutionize the next 
generation of commercial aircraft.

 Department of Energy (DOE):

  Stockpile Stewardship: The President's commitment to a Comprehensive 
Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is closely linked to the Administration's plan to 
maintain the safety and reliability of the nuclear weapons stockpile 
through scientific experiments and computer modeling (i.e., no explosive 
testing of nuclear weapons). The budget proposes $1.4 billion for 
Stockpile Stewardship activities in 1998, plus $1.3 billion for related 
construction projects. Among these projects, $900 million would go to 
build the National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National 
Laboratory. The President, who plans to submit the CTBT for Senate 
ratification in 1997, also is committed to funding a comprehensive R&D 
program over the next decade to improve treaty monitoring capabilities 
and operations.
   Civilian Basic Science Programs: The Administration has designated 
High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, and Biological 
and Environmental Research as high-priority areas of DOE basic science 
in 1998. These programs, which have a large university-based component, 
contribute to both our national basic research enterprise and to DOE's 
core activities. In addition, these programs build and operate large 
user facilities that serve over 15,000 university, government, and 
industry scientists. The budget proposes $2.1 billion in 1998 for these 
activities.
  Large Hadron Collider Project: When it comes on-line in 2005, the 
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European high-energy physics 
laboratory CERN, in Switzerland, will be by far the world's most 
powerful accelerator. Its scientific goals are to search for the origin 
of mass, to explore in detail the structure and interactions of the top 
quark (the heaviest of the known subatomic particles), and to probe 
high-energy conditions beyond the Standard Model--the remarkably 
successful physics theory that describes all the forces of nature, 
except gravity. Hundreds of U.S. high energy physicists plan to 
participate in the LHC project. The Administration proposes $394 million 
in advanced, multi-year appropriations over eight years for DOE, which 
it designated as the lead Federal agency for U.S. participation. U.S. 
funding for the LHC would support U.S. scientists and technicians, and 
support the purchase of U.S. goods and services necessary for our 
contribution to constructing the accelerator and two detectors.

 Department of Commerce:

   Advanced Technology Program (ATP): ATP is a rigorously competitive, 
industry-led, and cost-shared R&D program that fosters technology 
development, promotes industrial alliances, and creates jobs. ATP 
pursues technologies that are critical to the competitive position of 
U.S. industries, but where the risk 

[[Page 83]]

is so high that industries will not 
likely invest enough to ensure continued U.S. leadership. The projects 
have led to significant technology advances that have improved our daily 
lives. With ATP funding, for example, a consortium of several large and 
small companies recently developed techniques to make better cars, thus 
increasing customer satisfaction. The budget proposes $275 million in 
1998 for ATP, growing to $500 million by 2002.
   The Manufacturing Extension Partnerships (MEP): MEP gives the 
Nation's 381,000 smaller manufacturers the technological information and 
expertise to improve their operations. Extension centers are helping to 
improve the performance of small manufacturers across the country, 
leading to more sales, more jobs, and savings in labor and materials. 
The budget proposes $129 million in 1998 to support 78 extension centers 
and over 300 field offices nationwide.
  National Telecommunications and Information Administration National 
Information Infrastructure (NII) Grants Program: The budget proposes $36 
million for grants to help develop the NII, which provides the 
infrastructure that enables computers to connect to one another and to 
information systems across the country. These grants help fund 
innovative demonstration projects to show how information technology can 
improve the delivery of educational, health, and other social services.

   Department of Defense Dual Use Applications Program: The budget 
proposes $225 million for DUAP, which will build on previous Federal 
dual-use technology development programs and allow the military services 
to develop and use technologies, processes, and products available to 
the commercial sector. Dual-use technologies can enhance the performance 
and reduce the costs of military applications.
  Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Research Initiative: The 
budget proposes a 38-percent increase, to $130 million, for the National 
Research Initiative (NRI), USDA's major peer-reviewed competitive grants 
program. The NRI supports fundamental research on key agricultural 
problems that will help our Nation's farmers retain their technological 
edge, such as research in food safety, plant and animal genetics, water 
quality, integrated pest management, and sustainable food and fiber 
production systems. Of particular concern is the need to expand the 
science base for reducing food-borne illness due to microbial pathogens 
and to the many food and fiber production practices that contribute to 
environmental degradation, such as the excessive use of pesticides, 
fertilizers and tillage. As a result, the Administration proposes to 
target $4 million to expand research in food safety, $10 million to 
expand research in environmentally sound production practices, and $22 
million to expand research on enhancing plants through genetics.
  Department of Transportation Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) 
Initiative: The budget proposes $250 million for the ITS initiative--a 
package of technologies designed to enhance the efficiency of our 
surface transportation infrastructure. The request includes $100 million 
for a new Deployment Incentives program to encourage integrated 
implementation of ITS. The Administration also proposes to make ITS 
projects eligible for surface transportation funds and, in 1997, to 
complete 77 operational tests of ITS standards and technology and a 
demonstration of the technical feasibility of the Automated Highway 
System.

 National Science and Technology Council Interagency Initiatives

   Next Generation Internet (NGI) Program: The budget proposes $100 
million for each of the next three years to support the NGI, which seeks 
to develop a research network that can reach speeds 100 to 1,000 times 
faster than today's Internet and greatly improve the quality of service. 
The NGI proposal is a part of an overall request for $1.1 billion, 10 
percent more than in 1997, for research and development in computers and 
communications technologies under the rubric of the Administration's 
High Performance Computing and Communications initiative.
   U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP): The budget continues 
strong Administration support for the USGCRP, proposing $1.9 million for 
1998. Program priorities include research on seasonal to interannual 
climate variability, climate change over decades 

[[Page 84]]

to centuries, and on changes in atmospheric chemistry and ecosystems. 
The program also will continue to increase its focus on understanding
the consequences of change, particularly at regional levels.
   Emerging Infectious Diseases: The budget proposes $280 million, eight 
percent over 1997, for research on the development of new tools to 
detect and control emerging infectious diseases and on the biology and 
pathology of infectious agents. Focus areas include: surveillance; 
screening and quarantine; diagnostics, treatment, and prevention 
measures; training; antibiotic resistance; zoonotic infectious agents; 
and health effects of climate change.
   Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: The budget proposes 
$281 million, a seven-percent increase over 1997, for research to: (1) 
develop advanced manufacturing techniques that make it easier to get new 
automobiles and auto components into the marketplace quickly; (2) use 
new technologies for near-term improvements in auto efficiency, safety, 
and emissions; and (3) lead to production prototypes of vehicles that 
are three times more fuel efficient than today's cars, with no sacrifice 
in comfort, performance, or price.
   Construction and Building: The budget proposes $203 million, a 15-
percent increase over 1997, for research to develop better construction 
technologies to improve the competitive performance of U.S. industry, 
raise the life cycle performance of buildings, and protect public safety 
and the environment.
   Educational Technology: The budget proposes $524 million, a five-
percent increase over 1997, for research and development on education 
and training to improve learning in schools, workplaces, and homes.