[Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1999]
[Page 93-103]
[DOCID: f:1999_bud.bud06.wais]
From the Budget of the U.S., FY 1999 Online via GPO Access
[wais.access.gpo.gov]

[[Page 93]]

 
                         6.  PROMOTING RESEARCH

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

  I ask you to simply imagine that new century full of its promise, molded 
by science, shaped by technology, powered by knowledge. These potent 
transforming forces can give us lives fuller and richer than we have ever 
known . . . If we are to make the most of this century, we--all of us, each 
and every one of us, regardless of our background--must work to master 
these forces with vision and wisdom and determination. The past half-century
has seen mankind split the atom, splice genes, create the microchip, explore 
the heavens. We enter the next century propelled by new and stunning developments.                                                       
                                      President Clinton                                                        
                                      May 1997                                                                  
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

   Scientific and technological advances have left few facets of life 
untouched. Great leaps in the speed and economy of transportation, 
enormous increases in farm productivity, global flows of information and 
services, advances in health treatment and prevention and in 
environmental protection--all these changes have created a world at the 
dawn of the 21st Century that is vastly different from the world our 
grandparents knew. As numerous studies show, technological innovation 
and scientific discovery have been responsible for at least half of the 
Nation's productivity growth in the last 50 years, generated millions of 
high-skill, high-wage jobs, and substantially improved the quality of 
life in America.
   The Federal Government has played an important role in spurring and 
sustaining this scientific and technological advance. Among other feats, 
Government-sponsored research and development (R&D) has put Americans on 
the moon, explored the oceans, harnessed the atom, devised more 
effective treatments for cancers, found the remains of lost 
civilizations, tracked weather patterns and earthquake faults, and 
discovered the chemistry of life. No other country in history can match 
America's record of achievement in science and technology.
   Because these investments have paid such rich dividends, and because 
the next century will bring new challenges, opportunities, and problems 
that science and technology can help address, continued U.S. leadership 
in science and technology is a cornerstone of the President's and the 
Vice President's vision for America. Thus, the budget strengthens these 
vital investments, contributing substantially to many of the 
Administration's broader goals by creating new knowledge, training more 
workers, catalyzing new jobs and industries, addressing health 
challenges, enhancing our understanding of and ability to address 
environmental problems, improving the education of our children, and 
maintaining a strong national defense. The centerpiece of the 
Administration's continuing commitment is the proposed Research Fund for 
America, from which many of the research dollars will now flow.
   But Federal funds are not limitless. Thus, agencies are working to 
make smarter, better science and technology investments, guided by two 
fundamental principles.
<bullet>   First, agencies are focusing on potentially high-payoff 
          research that could have substantial public benefit, but is 
          too high-risk or long-term for the private sector. The Federal 
          Government, in partnership with States, universities, and 
          industry, supports a balanced mix of basic and applied 
          research and technology development, given that scientific 
          discovery and technological innovation are intricately 
          interwoven. The Federal Government also supports international 
          partnerships that benefit our scientists, leverage our 
          investments, and address complex, global problems.

[[Page 94]]

<bullet>   Second, agencies are focusing more on the performance and 
          results of science and technology investments, rather than 
          just dollars spent. They are also pursuing improvements in 
          efficiency, where possible, through innovations in government 
          laboratories, university grants, and private contracts.

Research Fund for America

   The budget proposes a Research Fund for America--reflecting the 
President's commitment to ensuring long-term stability and growth for 
non-defense research programs--that will support a wide range of Federal 
science and technology activities. The budget proposes $31 billion for 
the Fund, representing an eight-percent increase for these programs over 
the 1998 level and a 32-percent increase by 2003 (see Chart 6-1 and 
Table 6-1).

  National Institutes of Health (NIH): The Fund supports an 
unprecedented commitment to biomedical research, laying the foundation 
for new innovations to improve health and prevent disease. It provides 
an increase of $1.15 billion for the National Institutes of Health 
(NIH), the largest ever, to a proposed $14.8 billion funding level that 
will support greater research on diabetes, brain disorders, cancer, drug 
demand reduction, genetic medicine, disease prevention strategies, and 
the development of an AIDS vaccine.
   NIH's highest priority continues to be investigator-initiated, peer-
reviewed research project grants. To ensure that the United States 
continues to invest heavily in biomedical research, the budget proposes, 
for the first time, sustained increases for the NIH over five years. By 
the year 2003, funding for biomedical research would increase to over 
$20 billion, or by nearly 50 percent.

   Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI): The Fund includes a 
five-year research and technology initiative to reduce the Nation's 
emissions of greenhouse gases. Led by the Energy Department (DOE) and 
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the effort also includes 
activities of the National     
<GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT>


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  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

                                      Table 6-1.  RESEARCH FUND FOR AMERICA                                     
                                 (Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                               Percent   Percent
                                                                  1998      1999      2003     Change:   Change:
                                                                Estimate  Proposed  Proposed   1998 to   1998 to
                                                                                                1999      2003  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Health and Human Services:                                                                                      
  National Institutes of Health...............................    13,648    14,798    20,188                    
  Agency for Health Care Policy and Research..................  ........        46        56                    
  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention..................  ........        25        30                    
                                                               -------------------------------                  
    Agency total..............................................    13,648    14,869    20,274       +8%      +48%
                                                                                                                
National Science Foundation (NSF) \1\.........................     3,366     3,710     4,183      +10%      +24%
                                                                                                                
Department of Energy:                                                                                           
  Science Program.............................................     2,236     2,296     2,420                    
  Fusion Research.............................................       232       228       200                    
  National Spallation Neutron Source..........................  ........       157       195                    
                                                               -------------------------------                  
    Agency total..............................................     2,468     2,681     2,815       +9%      +14%
                                                                                                                
National Aeronautics and Space Administration:                                                                  
  Space Science...............................................     2,034     2,058     2,568                    
  Earth Science...............................................     1,417     1,372     1,407                    
  Advanced Space Transportation Technology....................       417       389       490                    
  Aeronautics Research and Technology.........................       920       786       775                    
                                                               -------------------------------                  
    Agency total..............................................     4,788     4,605     5,240       -4%       +9%
                                                                                                                
Department of Agriculture:                                                                                      
  CSREES Research and Education...............................       430       423       423                    
  Economic Research Service...................................    53 \3\        56        56                    
  Agricultural Research Service (ARS).........................       745       770       770                    
  Forest Service Research.....................................       188       195       195                    
                                                               -------------------------------                  
    Agency total..............................................     1,416     1,444     1,444       +2%       +2%
                                                                                                                
Department of Commerce:                                                                                         
  Oceanic and Atmospheric Research............................       278       251       251                    
  National Institute of Standards and Technology \2\..........       563       600       689                    
                                                               -------------------------------                  
    Agency total..............................................       841       851       940       +1%      +12%
                                                                                                                
Department of Interior: U.S. Geological Survey................       759       807       796       +6%       +5%
                                                                                                                
Environmental Protection Agency: Office of Research and                                                         
 Development..................................................       538       487       578       -9%       +7%
                                                                                                                
Department of Veterans Affairs: Medical Research..............       272       300       300      +10%      +10%
                                                                                                                
Department of Education: Education Research...................  ........        50        50        NA        NA
                                                                                                                
 Climate Change Technology Initiative:                                                                          
  Energy......................................................       729     1,060     1,144                    
  Environmental Protection Agency.............................        90       205       241                    
  Housing and Urban Development...............................  ........        10  ........                    
  Agriculture (ARS and Forest Service)........................  ........        10        21                    
  Commerce....................................................  ........         7         8                    
                                                               -------------------------------                  
    Multi-agency total........................................       819     1,292     1,414      +58%      +73%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
Total.........................................................    28,915    31,096    38,034       +8%      +32%
                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ NSF data excludes $63 million per year in Function 054, Defense-related activities.                         
                                                                                                                
\2\ Does not include Manufacturing Extension Partnership.                                                       
                                                                                                                
\3\ Excludes transfer in 1999 of research function from Agriculture Department feeding programs.                

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 96]]


Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Departments of 
Agriculture (USDA) and Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The budget 
proposes a combined $2.7 billion increase over five years for these 
agencies for R&D on energy efficiency, renewable energy, and carbon-
reduction technologies. The budget also proposes $3.6 billion in tax 
incentives over five years to stimulate the adoption of more efficient 
technologies in buildings, industrial processes, vehicles, and power 
generation.
   An example of efforts to develop break-through technologies to cut 
greenhouse gases and improve energy efficiency is the Partnership for a 
New Generation of Vehicles--a Government-industry effort to develop an 
attractive, affordable car that meets all applicable safety and 
environmental standards and is up to three times more fuel efficient 
than today's cars, reaching roughly 80 miles per gallon. The budget 
proposes a similar Government-industry effort to develop more efficient 
heavy truck engines. Other key parts of the CCTI are Government-industry 
partnerships on energy-efficient technologies for commercial buildings 
and homes; stronger labeling and efficiency requirements for appliances 
and office equipment; the deployment of new technologies in the 
industrial sector to capture waste heat and convert it into electricity; 
and R&D spending and incentives for renewable energy sources like 
biomass, wind, photovoltaics, and fuel cells (See Tables 6-2 and 6-3)

   National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA): The Fund 
supports several ongoing activities, including: $2.1 billion for Space 
Science, a program that has outperformed all expectations in 1997 with 
the highly successful Mars Pathfinder mission; $1.4 billion for Earth 
Science (formerly Mission to Planet Earth), which explores the influence 
of natural processes and human activities on the environment, and which 
will launch the first of NASA's new generation of Earth Observing System 
Satellites, known as AM-1, in 1998; $389 million for Advanced Space 
Transportation Technology, including funds for the X-33 and X-34 
reusable launch vehicle technology demonstrations; $786 million for 
NASA's Aeronautics Research and Technology programs, including Aviation 
Safety R&D; and $760 million in future-year funds to support launch 
vehicles that would lower NASA's launch costs.
   National Science Foundation (NSF): The Fund provides $3.7 billion, 10 
percent more than in 1998, for NSF, whose broad mission is to promote 
science and engineering research and education across all fields and 
disciplines. NSF supports nearly half of the non-medical basic research 
conducted at academic institutions, and provides 30 percent of Federal 
sup-
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

                           Table 6-2.  CLIMATE CHANGE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE (AGENCIES)                          
                                            (In millions of dollars)                                            
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                               Dollar    Dollar 
                                                                  1997      1998      1999     Change:   Change:
                       Selected Agencies                         Actual   Estimate  Proposed   1998 to   1999 to
                                                                                                1999      2003  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Discretionary Budget Authority:                                                                                 
  Energy......................................................       657       729     1,060      +331    +1,899
  Environmental Protection Agency.............................        86        90       205      +115      +677
  Housing and Urban Development...............................  ........  ........        10       +10       +10
  Agriculture.................................................  ........  ........        10       +10       +86
  Commerce....................................................  ........  ........         7        +7       +38
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
    Subtotal, budget authority................................       743       819     1,292      +473    +2,710
Tax Incentives................................................  ........  ........       421      +421    +3,635
                                                               =================================================
    Total Initiative..........................................       743       819     1,713      +894    +6,345
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 97]]


  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

       Table 6-3.  CLIMATE CHANGE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE (SECTORS)       
                        (In millions of dollars)                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Dollar 
                                            1998       1999     Change: 
              Key Sectors                 Estimate   Proposed   1998 to 
                                                                  1999  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Discretionary Budget Authority:                                         
  Buildings............................        146        264       +118
  Industry.............................        156        216        +60
  Transportation.......................        246        356       +110
  Electricity..........................        220        332       +112
  Carbon Sequestration and Cross-                                       
   Cutting Research....................  .........         42        +42
  Policy Analysis, Market Incentives...          6         26        +20
  Program Direction....................         45         57        +12
                                        --------------------------------
    Total..............................        819      1,292       +473
------------------------------------------------------------------------

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
port for mathematics and science education. Because most NSF awards go 
to colleges and universities, they not only generate knowledge, they 
also train the next generation of scientists and engineers.

   Department of Energy: The Fund provides the resources for DOE's 
science research and nuclear fusion programs, for constructing the 
National Spallation Neutron Source, for the international partnership on 
the Large Hadron Collider, and for DOE research under the Climate Change 
Technology Initiative (discussed earlier in this chapter).
   Department of Agriculture: The Fund provides $777 million for the 
Agricultural Research Service, $33 million more than in 1998, and $56 
million for the Economic Research Service, which conduct a broad range 
of food, farm, and environmental research programs. The budget also 
provides $423 million for Cooperative State Research, Education, and 
Extension Service (CSREES) programs, including $130 million for the 
National Research Initiative, a 34 percent increase over the 1998 level. 
CSREES provides grants for agricultural, food, and environmental 
research, and for higher education. National Research Initiative 
competitive research grants improve the quality and increase the 
quantity of USDA's farm, food, and environmental research. The budget 
proposes a Food Genome Initiative to expand efforts to understand the 
genomes of important plants, animals, and microbes. In addition, it 
increases funding for the Forest Service's Forest and Rangeland Research 
program to conduct research on sensitive and complex natural resource 
management issues, forest health restoration, wildland fire fuels 
reduction, wildlife habitat restoration, alternative uses of forest and 
rangeland resources, and inventory and monitoring methods.
   Department of Commerce's NIST: The Fund provides $260 million for 
NIST's Advanced Technology Program (ATP), growing to $399 million by 
2003, to promote unique, rigorously competitive, cost-shared R&D 
partnerships between Government and private industry to more quickly 
develop high-risk technologies that promise significant commercial 
payoffs and widespread economic benefits. The Fund also provides $340 
million for NIST's Standards and Technology Laboratories, including $300 
million for ongoing programs and new initiatives in disaster mitigation, 
semiconductors, and trade-related standards and $40 million to build an 
Advanced Measurement Laboratory on the NIST campus in Gaithersburg, Md.
   Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration/Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR): The 
Fund provides $251 million for OAR to conduct research to provide the 
scientific basis for national policy decisions in areas such as climate 
change, air quality, and stratospheric ozone depletion, as well as

[[Page 98]]

research to promote economic growth through efforts in marine 
biotechnology and environmental technologies.
   Department of the Interior's U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): The Fund 
provides $807 million for science that directly supports natural 
resource and environmental decision making. Increases for USGS support 
research on pollutant transport in ground water; enhanced understanding 
of species habitat; and improved monitoring of water quality, species 
habitat, and natural hazards. USGS plans to use its mapping, remote 
sensing, and natural resources monitoring capabilities to develop new 
ways to improve the availability and dissemination of domestic natural 
disaster hazards information, as well as to support NASA's Earth 
Observing System satellites.
   EPA: The Fund provides $487 million for EPA's Office of Research and 
Development (ORD), which performs most of EPA's research and provides a 
sound scientific and technical foundation for environmental policy and 
regulatory decision-making. ORD also provides technical support to EPA's 
mission, integrates the work of its own scientific partners, and 
provides leadership in addressing emerging environmental issues.
   Department of Veterans Affairs' Medical Research: The Fund provides 
$300 million--about a third of the Department's overall research program 
of nearly $1 billion--for clinical, epidemiological, and behavioral 
studies across a broad spectrum of medical research disciplines.
   Department of Education: The Fund includes $50 million a year for 
five years for the Education Research Initiative, a partnership between 
the Education Department and the National Science Foundation--consistent 
with recommendations by the President's Committee of Advisors on Science 
and Technology, the National Academy of Education, and the National 
Research Council's Committee on the Federal Role in Education Research. 
The initiative will support large-scale research focused on the best 
approaches to raising student achievement through, for example, learning 
technologies and innovative approaches to reading and mathematics 
instruction that take advantage of the latest research findings on brain 
function and learning.
   Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Agency for Health Care 
Policy and Research (AHCPR): The Fund provides $46 million for AHCPR to 
support research on the outcomes and effectiveness of clinical 
treatments, health care quality, and the organization, financing, and 
delivery of health care. AHCPR works primarily through peer-reviewed 
grants to academic health centers, universities, and non-profit research 
organizations.
   HHS' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): The Fund 
includes a $25 million increase for CDC's population-based research 
activities to provide new peer-reviewed grants that will enable academic 
centers to perform population-based research to help prevent diabetes, 
heart disease, workplace injuries, and cancers.

Science and Technology Highlights

   Federal investments in science and technology contribute to the 
Administration's economic, educational, health, environmental, and 
national security goals. Along with programs of the Research Fund for 
America, the budget proposes increases for a host of other important 
activities. (For total Federal R&D funding, see Table 6-4; for science 
and technology highlights, see Table 6-5.)

   Increasing Total Support for Science and Technology: The budget marks 
the sixth straight year that the President has proposed increases in 
R&D--at $78.2 billion, $2 billion or three percent more than in 1998. 
The budget also provides an increasing share for civilian R&D 
investments, which comprise 48 percent of the total.
   Boosting Funding for Basic and Applied Research: The budget proposes 
$17 billion for basic research and $16.4 billion for applied research--
increases of $1.2 billion and $848 million, respectively, over 1998. 
These investments, which include increases of nine percent for NIH, 11 
percent for NSF, and 11 percent for DOE, reflect the Administration's 
commitment to obtaining knowledge that will provide future economic and 
social benefits and improve our ability to meet economic needs without 
adversely affecting health and the environment.

[[Page 99]]

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

                                Table 6-4.  RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS                                
                                 (Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                               Dollar    Percent
                                                                  1997      1998      1999     Change:   Change:
                                                                 Actual   Estimate  Proposed   1998 to   1998 to
                                                                                                1999      1999  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
By Agency:                                                                                                      
  Defense.....................................................    37,238    37,430    37,010      -420       -1%
  Health and Human Services...................................    12,941    13,836    15,136    +1,300       +9%
  National Aeronautics and Space Administration...............     9,348     9,752     9,501      -251       -3%
  Energy......................................................     6,234     6,477     7,174      +697      +11%
  National Science Foundation.................................     2,463     2,607     2,893      +286      +11%
  Agriculture.................................................     1,562     1,559     1,552        -7       +*%
  Commerce....................................................       978     1,079     1,080        +1       +*%
  Transportation..............................................       612       676       775       +99      +15%
  Interior....................................................       592       609       631       +22       +4%
  Environmental Protection Agency.............................       564       637       631        -6       -1%
   Veterans Affairs...........................................       588       608       670       +62      +10%
  Other.......................................................       883       928     1,106      +178      +19%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Total.......................................................    74,003    76,198    78,159    +1,961       +3%
                                                                                                                
By R&D Type:                                                                                                    
  Basic Research..............................................    15,017    15,773    16,966    +1,193       +8%
  Applied Research............................................    14,393    15,553    16,401      +848       +5%
  Development.................................................    42,352    42,474    42,161      -313       -1%
  Equipment...................................................       688       721       837      +116      +16%
  Facilities..................................................     1,553     1,677     1,794      +117       +7%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Total.......................................................    74,003    76,198    78,159    +1,961       +3%
                                                                                                                
By Civilian Theme:                                                                                              
  Basic Research..............................................    13,927    14,673    15,811    +1,138       +8%
  Applied Research............................................    10,348    11,244    11,772      +528       +5%
  Development.................................................     7,896     8,010     8,229      +219       +3%
  Equipment...................................................       542       577       693      +116      +20%
  Facilities..................................................     1,243     1,252     1,318       +66       +5%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Subtotal....................................................    33,956    35,756    37,823    +2,067       +6%
                                                                                                                
By Defense Theme:                                                                                               
  Basic Research..............................................     1,090     1,100     1,155       +55       +5%
  Applied Research............................................     4,045     4,309     4,504      +195       +5%
  Development.................................................    34,456    34,464    34,057      -407       -1%
  Equipment...................................................       146       144       144  ........  ........
  Facilities..................................................       310       425       476       +51      +12%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Subtotal....................................................    40,047    40,442    40,336      -106       -*%
                                                                                                                
By R&D Share:                                                                                                   
  Defense.....................................................    40,047    40,442    40,336      -106       -*%
  Civilian....................................................    33,956    35,756    37,823    +2,067       +6%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Total.......................................................    74,003    76,198    78,159    +1,961       +3%
  Civilian (percent)..........................................       46%       47%       48%        NA        NA
                                                                                                                
R&D Support to Universities...................................    12,682    13,633    14,471      +838       +6%
Merit (Peer) Reviewed R&D Programs............................    21,438    22,689    24,324    +1,635       +7%
                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA = Not applicable.                                                                                            
* Less than 0.5 percent.                                                                                        

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

   Strengthening University-Based Re- search: University-based 
research--a mixture of basic and applied science, development, equipment 
procurement, and facilities investment--is key to America's future. 
While fostering innovation and expanding the scientific frontier, 
university-based research also trains the next generation of scientists 
and engineers. The budget proposes $14.5 billion, an increase of $838 
million over 1998.

[[Page 100]]

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

                                     Table 6-5.  SELECTED PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS                                    
                                 (Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                               Dollar    Percent
                                                                  1997      1998      1999     Change:   Change:
                                                                 Actual   Estimate  Proposed   1998 to   1998 to
                                                                                                1999      1999  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National Aeronautics and Space Administration: International                                                    
 Space Station................................................     2,149     2,301     2,270       -31       -1%
                                                                                                                
Department of Commerce:                                                                                         
  Manufacturing Extension Partnership.........................        95       114       107        -7       -6%
  National Telecom. and Info. Admin. NII Grants...............        21        20        22        +2      +10%
                                                                                                                
Department of Transportation:                                                                                   
  Intelligent Transportation System Initiative................       235       326       250       -76      -23%
  Flight 2000 Demonstraton Program............................  ........  ........        90       +90        NA
                                                                                                                
Department of Defense:                                                                                          
  Dual Use Applications Program/Commercial Operations and                                                       
   Support Savings Initiative.................................       123       120       158       +38      +31%
  Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations..................        57        77       116       +39      +50%
                                                                                                                
National Science and Technology Council Initiatives:                                                            
  U.S. Global Change Research Program:                                                                          
    Health and Human Services.................................         4         4         5        +1      +25%
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration.............     1,369     1,417     1,372       -45       -3%
    Energy....................................................       109       108       113        +5       +5%
    National Science Foundation...............................       166       167       187       +20      +12%
    Agriculture...............................................        57        58        59        +1       +2%
    Commerce..................................................        62        62        71        +9      +15%
    Interior..................................................        29        29        29  ........  ........
    Environmental Protection Agency...........................        14        15        21        +6      +40%
    Smithsonian...............................................         7         7         7  ........  ........
    Tennessee Valley Authority................................         1  ........  ........  ........  ........
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal................................................     1,818     1,867     1,864        -3       -*%
                                                                                                                
  Large Scale Networking and High-end Computing and                                                             
   Computation: \1\                                                                                             
    Defense...................................................  ........  ........       187        NA        NA
    Health and Human Services.................................  ........  ........       107        NA        NA
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration.............  ........  ........        91        NA        NA
    Energy....................................................  ........  ........       128        NA        NA
    National Science Foundation...............................  ........  ........       310        NA        NA
    Commerce..................................................  ........  ........        22        NA        NA
    Environmental Protection Agency...........................  ........  ........         5        NA        NA
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
    Subtotal..................................................  ........  ........       850        NA        NA
                                                                                                                
Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles..................       234       227       277       +50      +22%
                                                                                                                
Emerging Infectious Diseases..................................       314       339       370       +31       +9%
                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA = Not applicable.                                                                                            
                                                                                                                
* Less than 0.5 percent.                                                                                        
                                                                                                                
\1\ Meaningful comparisons between 1999 and earlier years are not possible because of significant program       
  restructuring.                                                                                                

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

   Protecting Human Health: The budget reflects the Administration's 
continued focus on R&D to protect human health. It funds merit-based, 
peer-reviewed research programs at the NIH that have made the United 
States the world's leader in medical research, and it also supports the 
development of an AIDS vaccine, the fight against emerging infectious 
diseases, research on cancer, efforts to reduce the demand for drugs, 
and a food safety initiative.
   Investing in Innovation to Create New Jobs and Industries: Many of 
the new jobs created under this Administration have been high-tech, 
high-wage jobs in industries like biotechnology and computing. The 
budget maintains a strong investment in technology to foster these high-
priority, civilian science

[[Page 101]]

and technology industries and jobs. Along with funding the ATP program 
as part of the Research Fund for America, the budget continues funding 
for Manufacturing Extension Partnerships to help small businesses become 
more competitive by adopting modern technologies and production 
techniques, and for high performance computing research.
   Investing in Environmental Research: Environmental research is 
critical for developing the scientific understanding and technological 
tools to allow the Nation to enhance environmental quality for current 
and future generations. The budget supports vital research on safe and 
clean food, air, and water, and on ecosystem management, biological 
diversity, and ozone depletion. The budget increases support for energy 
efficiency and renewable energy programs, and for programs to help us 
understand, prepare for, and mitigate the effects of changing climate 
conditions and natural disasters. These investments provide a scientific 
basis for developing cost-effective environmental policies, create the 
knowledge base for citizens to make wise environmental decisions, and 
enable new and better approaches to environmental protection.
   Investing in a 21st-Century Education: Information technology has 
revolutionized America's businesses, but has not yet had as profound an 
effect in America's classrooms. Through the President's Education 
Technology Initiative, the Federal Government is helping to ensure that 
America's classrooms are equipped with modern computers and connected to 
the Internet, that educational software becomes an integral part of the 
curriculum, and that teachers will be ready to use and teach with 
technology. Federal science and technology investments contribute to 
these goals; they include the Education Research Initiative--a joint 
Education Department and NSF partnership (described earlier in this 
chapter)--and NSF's activities in Knowledge and Distributed 
Intelligence. (For more discussion of education technology, see Chapter 
1, ``Investing in Education and Training.'')
   Investing in Research to Keep Our Nation Secure: The budget furthers 
the Administration's investments in defense research to ensure that our 
military maintains its technological superiority. The budget also 
supports programs to keep nuclear weapons out of the hands of 
terrorists, use science-based techniques to ensure the safety and 
reliability of our nuclear weapons stockpiles, support research in 
critical infrastructure protection, and promote global stability by 
bolstering strong international science and technology partnerships. The 
budget also supports the Dual Use Applications Program (DUAP), which 
puts commercial industry's technical know-how and economies of scale at 
the service of national defense.

Other Program Highlights

   The Administration continues to support a wide variety of science and 
technology programs at individual agencies.

   NASA International Space Station: With the first launch to assemble 
this unique orbital laboratory only a few months away, the budget 
includes $2.3 billion to keep subsequent assembly missions on schedule. 
It also includes funds in later years to minimize the risk and cost of 
the project. NASA is developing the Space Station with the European 
Space Agency, Japan, Canada, and Russia.

 Department of Commerce:

   Manufacturing Extension Partnership: The budget proposes $107 million 
for this Nation-wide network of 75 centers and 300 field offices that 
offer technical assistance and information about the newest business 
practices to help the Nation's 382,000 smaller manufacturers compete 
more effectively, leading to stronger economic growth and job creation.
   National Telecommunications and Information Administration's National 
Information Infrastructure Grants Program: The budget proposes $22 
million for grants to fund innovative projects that demonstrate how 
information technology can improve the delivery of educational, health, 
and other social services. These grants are highly competitive and have 
stimulated several hundred million dollars in non-Federal matching 
funds.

 Department of Transportation:

   Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Initiative:  The budget 
proposes $250 million for the ITS initiative--a package of tech

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nologies to enhance the safety and efficiency of our surface 
transportation infrastructure. The budget includes $100 million for the 
Deployment Incentives program, which will begin the Nation-wide 
deployment of ``intelligent infrastructure,'' such as interactive 
traffic signals and traveler information systems.
   Flight 2000 Demonstration Program:  Responding to recommendations of 
the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, the budget 
proposes $90 million for the Flight 2000 Demonstration Program, which 
will test and validate equipment and operating procedures over Alaska 
and Hawaii. The program will lead to a revolution in air traffic control 
known as ``free-flight,'' which promises significant savings and will 
allow travelers to reach their destinations more safely, quickly, and 
efficiently.

 Department of Defense (DOD):

   DUAP and Commercial Operations and Support Savings Initiative 
(COSSI): The budget proposes $158 million to develop dual-use 
technologies and adapt cost-saving commercial technology for military 
uses, enabling DOD to use commercial technologies, products, and 
services more widely. The military services would fund most of DUAP and 
COSSI directly, reflecting Administration efforts to increase the 
services' direct involvement in all phases of the programs.
   Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs):  The budget 
proposes $116 million for demonstrations to quickly harness technology 
and innovation for military use, at less cost. ACTDs bring technology 
experts and military operators together early in system development to 
eliminate communication barriers, improve the management of development 
programs, and address key warfighter challenges. ACTDs focus on three 
key objectives: to evaluate the military utility of new technology 
applications before committing to buy them; to develop corresponding 
battlefield operation concepts and doctrine in order to use new 
capabilities as wisely as possible; and to provide new capabilities to 
combat forces. Forty ACTDs are now under way, while six have been 
completed.

National Science and Technology Council Interagency Initiatives

   Science and technology is a primary focus of many Federal agencies. 
The National Science and Technology Council provides the management 
oversight that will ensure efficient and effective inter-agency 
coordination for key science and technology initiatives that involve 
multiple agencies, such as:

   U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP): The budget proposes 
$1.9 billion to increase understanding of climate change and 
variability, atmospheric chemistry, and ecosystems. USGCRP results help 
develop climate change policies. The 1997 launch of the Tropical 
Rainfall Measurement Mission satellite will provide previously 
unavailable, detailed, and accurate rainfall measurements, filling a 
significant gap in our understanding of the Earth system. In 1998 and 
1999, USGCRP will launch more satellites, and will focus on 
investigating regional climate changes.
   Large Scale Networking and High-end Computing and Computation: The 
budget provides $850 million for this R&D effort, originally called High 
Performance Computing and Communications, which the Administration has 
restructured to focus on clearer goals, milestones, and performance 
measures. As part of this effort, the budget provides $110 million for 
the Next Generation Internet Initiative, which will create a research 
network that is 100 to 1,000 times faster than today's Internet, and 
invests in R&D for smarter, faster networks that support new 
applications, such as telemedicine, distance learning, and real-time 
collaboration.
   Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: The budget proposes 
$277 million, a 22-percent increase over 1998, for this cost-shared, 
industry partnership, which centers on three research goals: to develop 
advanced manufacturing techniques; to use new technologies for near-term 
emissions improvements; and to develop production prototype vehicles 
three times more fuel-efficient than today's cars, with no sacrifice in 
comfort, performance, or price. Federal funding focuses mainly on the 
third goal. The program will lead to ``concept cars'' in the year 2000 
and production prototypes in 2004.

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   Emerging Infectious Diseases: The budget proposes $370 million, nine 
percent over the 1998 level, for research on new tools to detect and 
control emerging infectious diseases and on the biology and pathology of 
infectious agents.