[Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1999]
[Page 105-114]
[DOCID: f:1999_bud.bud07.wais]
From the Budget of the U.S., FY 1999 Online via GPO Access
[wais.access.gpo.gov]

[[Page 105]]

 
                          7.  ENFORCING THE LAW

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

  We said that we had to keep being tough on criminals, but we had to do 
some intelligent things. We said that we had to punish people more, but we 
have to give children something to say yes to, and we've had five years of
declining crime rates and last year the biggest drop in violent crime in 
35 years.                              
                                      President Clinton                                                        
                                      July 1997                                                                 
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

  Over the past five years, the Administration has made significant 
progress in cutting crime across the Nation. The strategy has been 
simple: put more community police officers on the streets to involve 
citizens in partnerships with the law enforcement authorities; impose 
punishments that fit the crime for people who break the law; and develop 
prevention programs to give children alternatives to crime and drugs and 
a chance for a positive future. The results have been extraordinary--
five years of falling crime rates and, in 1996, the biggest drop in 
violent crime in 35 years.
   Although crime remains mainly a State and local responsibility, the 
last five years show that the Federal Government can play an important 
role in reducing crime. The budget continues the Administration's 
aggressive anti-crime efforts, with a particular emphasis on reducing 
juvenile crime and violence. It builds on the success of community-based 
efforts such as the Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) program, 
which will put 100,000 more police officers on the street by the year 
2000, with a new Community Prosecutors Initiative to help prosecutors 
reorient their emphasis from simply processing cases to addressing 
quality-of-life issues and preventing crimes from occurring in the first 
place. The budget also proposes funds to prevent violence against women, 
help States and Indian Tribes build prisons, and address the growing law 
enforcement crisis on Indian lands.
  The budget strengthens the Administration's aggressive efforts to 
control illegal immigration by targeting resources to stop those who 
want to enter the United States illegally, detain and quickly remove 
those who slip by, and make it harder for illegal immigrants to get 
jobs. It proposes to strengthen border enforcement in the South and 
West, increase efforts to identify and remove incarcerated illegal 
aliens, and expand efforts to verify the employment eligibility of newly 
hired non-citizens.
  The budget also continues the Administration's commitment to combat 
drug use, particularly among young people. It devotes resources to youth 
prevention programs in order to change permissive attitudes toward drugs 
and reverse the trend of increased drug use by youth. The budget 
proposes to expand programs that stress treatment and prevention, 
domestic law enforcement, international assistance, and interdiction. It 
continues to build on the innovative Drug Courts initiative, provides 
$50 million for a new School Drug Prevention Coordinators initiative, 
and proposes $85 million for drug testing and treatment of those in the 
criminal justice system. It also provides increased funds for targeted 
interdiction efforts that enhance port and border security and disrupt 
drug trafficking overseas. The budget increases spending for drug 
control efforts by about $1.1 billion, to $17.1 billion.

[[Page 106]]

<GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT>

Fighting Crime

  The budget proposes $25.7 billion to control crime, a $1.5 billion 
increase over 1998 (see Chart 7-1). Of the total, $5.8 billion would go 
for programs authorized in the 1994 Crime Act, an increase of $300 
million over 1998 (see Table 7-1). While enhancing Federal anti-crime 
capabilities, the budget seeks to empower States and communities, which 
play the central role in controlling crime, particularly violent crime.

  Community Policing: The cornerstone of the President's program to 
fight crime, particularly violent crime, is his plan to place 100,000 
more police officers on the streets by 2000. Putting the idea of 
community policing into action, the program seeks to cut crime, 
violence, and disorder by applying proven, effective programs and 
strategies. The COPS initiative will fund almost 83,000 more police 
officers by the end of 1998 and, for 1999, the budget proposes $1.4 
billion to put 16,000 more officers on the street. COPS also enables 
local law enforcement agencies to buy sophisticated crime equipment and 
hire support personnel, which, in turn, enable communities to deploy 
more officers.
  Community Prosecutors Initiative: Community prosecution is the natural 
next step to community policing. The budget provides $50 million, on a 
competitive basis, for local prosecutors' offices to work directly with 
neighborhood residents, join forces with police and other criminal 
justice agencies to solve local crime problems, and shift their emphasis 
from simply processing cases to preventing crimes from occurring in the 
first place.
  Law Enforcement on Indian Lands: Homicide and violent crime rates on 
Indian lands are rising, even as crime rates in the rest of the country 
fall. Indian lands have only 1.3 police officers per 1,000 citizens, 
compared with the average of 2.9 officers per 1,000 citizens in non-
Indian areas with similar population density. Moreover, jails on Indian 
lands fall far short of basic standards in such areas as staff and 
inmate safety. The budget proposes a $182 million initiative within the 
Jus-

[[Page 107]]

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

                        Table 7-1.  VIOLENT CRIME REDUCTION PROGRAM SPENDING BY FUNCTION                        
                                 (Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                              Dollar    Percent 
                                                                 1997      1998      1999     Change:   Change: 
                                                                Actual   Estimate  Proposed   1998 to   1998 to 
                                                                                               1999       1999  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Prevention:                                                                                                     
  Violence Against Women.....................................       259       415       415  ........  .........
   Drug Courts...............................................        30        30        30  ........  .........
  Residential State Prison Drug Treatment....................        30        63        72        +9       +14%
  Drug Testing/Drug Treatment................................  ........  ........        85       +85         NA
  Juvenile Justice Substance Abuse Prevention................  ........  ........         5        +5         NA
  Other Prevention Programs..................................        34        27        28        +1        +4%
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
    Subtotal, Prevention.....................................       353       535       635      +100       +19%
                                                                                                                
State and Local Assistance:                                                                                     
  Community Policing.........................................     1,420     1,430     1,420       -10        -1%
  Incarceration of Violent Offenders.........................       670       721       711       -10        -1%
  Prosecutors/Violent Youth Courts...........................  ........  ........       210      +210         NA
  Incarceration of Undocumented Criminals....................       330       420       350       -70       -17%
  Other State and Local Assistance...........................       789       873       673      -200       -22%
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
    Subtotal, State and Local Assistance.....................     3,209     3,444     3,364       -80        -2%
                                                                                                                
Federal Law Enforcement Assistance:                                                                             
  Department of Justice......................................     1,002     1,350     1,609      +259       +19%
  Department of the Treasury.................................        89       131       132        +1        +1%
  Judicial Branch............................................        30        40        60       +20       +50%
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
    Subtotal, Federal Law Enforcement........................     1,121     1,521     1,801      +280       +18%
                                                              ==================================================
Total, Violent Crime Reduction Program Spending..............     4,683     5,500     5,800      +300        +5%
                                                                                                                
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NA = Not applicable.                                                                                            

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
tice and Interior Departments to address the public safety crisis in 
Indian country by strengthening Indian country law enforcement in such 
areas as the number of officers per capita and the quality of detention 
facilities, primarily through anti-crime grants to Indian jurisdictions.

  Violence Against Women: Violence against women is a continuing 
problem. Studies show that law enforcement intervention often breaks the 
cycle of domestic violence, preventing subsequent incidents. The budget 
proposes $415 million to maintain efforts to combat gender-based crime. 
Funding for these programs will also enable States to further expand 
outreach to previously under-served rural, Indian, and other minority 
populations.
  Juveniles: The budget proposes $291 million for ongoing programs to 
fight juvenile crime and $95 million to support more local community 
prevention programs such as mentoring, truancy prevention, and gang 
intervention. To prevent young people from becoming involved in the 
juvenile justice system, the budget expands programs that provide 
supervised afternoon and evening activities for youth. These programs 
include $200 million for community schools, supervision, and youth 
services grants, an increase of $40 million over 1998.

[[Page 108]]

  Gangs: The President has worked hard to crack down on violent youth 
gangs and to keep guns out of the hands of criminals and away from 
children. He launched a tough Anti-Gang and Youth Violence Strategy to 
help communities hire more prosecutors and probation officers, and to 
keep schools open later when youth crime rates peak. The budget provides 
$100 million for prosecutorial initiatives to target gangs and $50 
million for court-related activities such as more probation and parole 
officers and special court programs to expedite youth violence and gun 
cases.
<bullet>   Youth Crime Gun Interdiction Initiative: The budget provides 
          $28 million to crack down on illegal gun traffickers in 27 
          cities. Of the $28 million, $12 million would go to trace 
          firearms used by youth in crimes and give law enforcement the 
          crucial investigative leads about the sources of these 
          firearms, and $16 million would go to hire over 160 new agents 
          of the Treasury Department's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and 
          Firearms to help follow up on these leads.
<bullet>   Safe Streets Task Forces: The budget proposes $105 million to 
          continue the Safe Streets program, which blends the efforts of 
          the FBI and other Federal law enforcement agencies with those 
          of State and local police departments to investigate street 
          crime and violence.

  Crime in Public Housing: The budget also targets violence in public 
housing, proposing $310 million to support anti-drug and anti-crime 
activities, including Operation Safe Home and the One Strike, You're Out 
program.
<bullet>   Operation Safe Home: The Department of Housing and Urban 
          Development's Offices of Public and Indian Housing and 
          Inspector General jointly administer Operation Safe Home, 
          which brings together residents, managers, and various Federal 
          and local law enforcement agencies to rid public housing 
          communities of crime.
<bullet>   One Strike, You're Out: The President believes that public 
          housing is a privilege, not a right, and residents who commit 
          crime and peddle drugs should be evicted immediately.

  Fraud in Agriculture (USDA) Programs:  USDA estimates that over $50 
million a year in Food Stamps go illegally to convicted felons and 
prison inmates, and that a sizable number of retailers who accept Food 
Stamps make money off of them illegally. The budget includes $23 million 
to crack down on fraud and abuse in Food Stamps and other USDA programs, 
such as child nutrition, rural rental housing, and emergency and 
disaster assistance payments.
  Violent Offenders: The Administration seeks to ensure that convicted 
violent offenders serve at least 85 percent of their sentences behind 
bars. The budget proposes $711 million in State and Tribal grants to 
build new prisons and jail cells under the Violent Offender 
Incarceration and Truth in Sentencing (VOI/TIS) Program; the 1999 
funding level finances about 9,500 new prison beds. The VOI/TIS proposal 
also would provide $150 million to reimburse States for the costs of 
incarcerating criminal aliens and $25 million to improve State and local 
correctional facilities that hold Federal prisoners and detained illegal 
aliens.
  Terrorism: While acts of domestic terrorism have been isolated events, 
such as the Oklahoma City and World Trade Center bombings, the 
Administration has sought more Federal resources to ensure the safety 
and security of the public and the Government from these violent and 
devastating criminal acts. The budget builds on the President's 1997 
Antiterrorism/Counterterrorism/Security initiative by providing $6.7 
billion to combat terrorism, of which $4.3 billion would support the 
Defense Department's (DOD) terrorism-related and force protection 
efforts. While much of the proposed funding continues current terrorism-
related programs in physical protection and law enforcement activities, 
the budget also funds initiatives in the following high-priority areas:
<bullet>   Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism: The budget proposes 
          $16 million for the Justice Department to improve State and 
          local response capabilities to weapons of mass destruction, 
          and increases of $49 million for DOD domestic preparedness and 
          response capabilities; $7 million for the Energy Department's 
          emergency response capabilities for nuclear terrorist events; 
          and $2 million for the Department

[[Page 109]]

          of Health and Human Services' Metropolitan Medical Strike 
          Teams, which handle the medical response to an incident 
          involving weapons of mass destruction.
<bullet>   Cyber Crime/Critical Infrastructure: To improve the 
          Government's ability to detect and counter cyber crime and 
          other threats to the Nation's critical infrastructure, the 
          budget proposes $27 million to enhance the investigative and 
          prosecutorial efforts of the FBI, the U.S. Attorneys, and the 
          Justice Department's Criminal Division, and $37 million to 
          enable the Justice Department's Counterterrorism Fund to 
          support critical infrastructure protection efforts. The budget 
          also supports DOD's and other agencies' critical 
          infrastructure-related research and development programs.
<bullet>   Aviation Security: The budget provides an increase of over 
          $110 million to the Federal Aviation Administration for 
          explosives detection security equipment and cargo screening 
          research and development--supporting recommendations of the 
          White House Commission on Aviation Security and Safety.

  Technology Improvements: Technology improvements give law enforcement 
agencies the tools to fight crime. The Communications Assistance for Law 
Enforcement Act ensures that law enforcement agencies can conduct court-
authorized wiretaps as the Nation converts from analog to digital 
communications technology. With $114 million available in 1998 to help 
develop the technology changes to provide this capability, the budget 
proposes $100 million in 1999 to continue the effort. The budget also 
proposes $100 million to enable the Treasury and Justice Departments to 
upgrade their wireless communications systems' efficiency, security, and 
compatibility with the radio systems of State and local public safety 
agencies.

Meeting the Challenges of Immigration

  The Administration has sought to control our Nation's borders and stop 
illegal entry. Working through the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service (INS), it has reversed decades of neglect with an aggressive 
border control strategy. Since 1993, the Administration has added over 
3,800 new Border Patrol agents--almost doubling the agent workforce--and 
introduced innovative border deterrents and advanced technology to stop 
illegal entry along the Nation's Southwest border.
  As a Nation of immigrants, the United States will continue to welcome 
those who seek legal entry and refugees who seek protection. In 1997, 
the Nation welcomed nearly one million new naturalized U.S. citizens. 
INS is redesigning the naturalization process to meet the challenges of 
processing over a million new applications for citizenship a year in a 
way that ensures uncompromising integrity.
  Since 1993, working with Congress, the Administration has increased 
INS funding by 148 percent. The budget, which proposes $4.2 billion for 
INS, 10 percent more than in 1998, continues to support efforts to 
advance border control, improve illegal alien detention and removal 
capabilities, and achieve efficient processing of those seeking 
citizenship (see Table 7-2).

  Border Control and Enforcement: By the end of 1998, Border Patrol 
agents will number over 7,800, a 98-percent increase over the 3,965 who 
patrolled the Nation's 5,000 miles of border in 1993. With more agents 
needed to fill enforcement gaps and enhance Border Patrol presence along 
the Southwest border--especially in border States like Texas, New 
Mexico, and Arizona--the budget proposes to add 1,000 new Border Patrol 
agents (see Chart 7-2).
  The budget maintains the Administration's commitment to ``force-
multiplying'' technologies, including ground sensors, high-resolution 
color and infrared cameras, and state-of-the-art command centers, which 
will increase the effectiveness of these agents and enable INS to better 
control the border. Agents will be able to shift their focus from 
observing the border to responding to known border incursions and 
raiding smuggler operations and holding areas. Multi-year funding for 
these force-multiplying technologies will have the equivalent effect of 
adding over 1,300 agents to the Southwest border.
  The budget provides funds to expand border fencing and barriers, 
install permanent light-

[[Page 110]]

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

                      Table 7-2.  IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE FUNDING BY PROGRAM                     
                                 (Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                              Dollar    Percent 
                                                       1993      1997      1998      1999     Change:   Change: 
                                                      Actual    Actual   Estimate  Proposed   1998 to   1998 to 
                                                                                               1999       1999  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriated Funds:                                                                                             
  Border Patrol....................................       354       730       877       998      +121       +14%
  Investigations and intelligence..................       142       254       269       305       +36       +13%
  Land border inspections..........................        83       151       168       182       +14        +8%
  Detention and deportation........................       161       476       428       554      +126       +29%
  Program support and construction.................       227       564       600       684       +84       +14%
                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------
    Subtotal, Apropriated Funds....................       967     2,175     2,342     2,723      +381       +16%
                                                                                                                
Fee Collections and Reimbursements:                                                                             
  Citizenship and benefits.........................       308       626       787       827       +40        +5%
  Air/sea inspections and support..................       255       355       427       486       +59       +14%
  Immigration support..............................  ........        11       242       152       -90       -37%
                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------
    Subtotal, Fee Collections and Reimbursements...       563       992     1,456     1,465        +9        +1%
                                                    ============================================================
Total, Immigration and Naturalization Service                                                                   
 resources.........................................     1,530     3,167     3,798     4,188      +390       +10%
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
ing, and construct support roads along the Southwest border. These 
deterrents help control the border by increasing the chances that Border 
Patrol agents will apprehend those trying to enter illegally. Since 
1993, INS has added over 189 infrared night scopes, 4,675 ground 
sensors, 63 miles of fencing, and 17 miles of border lighting, and has 
added or improved over 1,000 miles of roads to help control drug 
trafficking, alien smuggling, and illegal entry. The budget provides 
funds for another nine miles of border lighting and additional fencing, 
and for maintaining border deterrents now in place.

  Border Patrol and Detention Construction: Over the past year, INS has 
focused on meeting its infrastructure needs by building more Border 
Patrol stations, border enforcement checkpoints, and detention 
facilities. The budget supports INS' construction program by providing 
funds to build and renovate eight Border Patrol stations, construct four 
new highway checkpoint systems and a rail yard inspection facility, and 
expand detention capabilities at four facilities.
  Detention and Removal of Illegal Aliens: The Administration is 
committed to removing those who have entered the country illegally. With 
the resources of the past two years, INS has focused on removing 
criminal aliens held in Federal, State, and local facilities to ensure 
these criminals are not allowed back on the street. In 1997, INS removed 
111,794 aliens, including 50,165 criminal aliens. It estimates that it 
will remove over 127,300 aliens in 1998, and 134,900 in 1999. The budget 
supports INS' detention program by proposing a $90.8 million increase 
for facility, transportation, and bedspace improvements to detain and 
swiftly remove those who have entered illegally.
  State and Local Alien Incarceration: Through the State Criminal Alien 
Assistance Program (SCAAP), the President has provided unprecedented 
help to reimburse State and local governments for the costs of 
incarcerating illegal criminal aliens. In 1997, the Federal

[[Page 111]]

<GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT>

Government provided $500 million to reimburse 47 States and over 200 
localities--covering most costs associated with incarcerating aliens in 
non-Federal facilities. The budget continues this commitment, providing 
$500 million for reimbursements. The Federal Government plans to ensure 
that States and localities receiving SCAAP funds fully cooperate with 
INS in its efforts to expedite criminal alien removals.

   Citizenship and Benefits: INS estimates that with so many more people 
now seeking to naturalize, the Nation will welcome about a million new 
citizens a year over the next few years. To process new applications, 
INS is reengineering the naturalization process and plans to have 
significant pieces of its redesigned system in place by spring 1998. It 
will ensure that applicants are: (1) given accurate and timely 
information; (2) processed through the system correctly; and (3) 
adjudicated swiftly and fairly. The system will also ensure that INS is 
handling each case--from initial request through oath-taking--
responsively and with uncompromising integrity. INS also plans an 
extensive community outreach effort that will target immigrant 
population centers to ensure that they are served efficiently.
  Organization and Structure: The final report of the Commission on 
Immigration Reform called for major changes in how the Federal 
Government sets and implements immigration policy. In particular, it 
urged a separation of the enforcement and benefit functions that INS now 
performs.
  The Administration has studied these and other reform proposals and is 
developing a plan to enhance immigration law enforcement while improving 
the delivery of immigration services and benefits. It recognizes that 
enforcement and benefits are interrelated and, thus, neither should be 
addressed without the other in mind. The plan, however, will make 
Federal immigration activities more efficient and effective by 
separating enforcement and benefit and service operations--both in 
headquarters and in the field--thereby strengthening accountability and 
lines

[[Page 112]]

of authority. In addition, the plan will enhance coordination among 
Federal agencies involved in immigration and establish greater 
accountability within each agency. Together, these reforms within 
individual agencies and across the Government will support and sustain 
the Administration's progress over the last five years in enforcing our 
immigration laws and fulfilling the Nation's commitment to its 
immigration heritage.

Combating Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime

  Drug use and drug-related crime cost our society about $67 billion a 
year \1\ and poison the schools and neighborhoods where our youth strive 
to meet their full potential. Illicit drug trafficking thrives on a 
culture of crime, violence, and corruption throughout the world. Drug 
use is a major contributing factor in the spread of AIDS and other 
deadly diseases. All Americans, regardless of economic, geographic, or 
other position in society, feel the effects of drug use and drug-related 
crime.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  \1\ ``Substance Abuse: The Nation's Number One Health Problem,'' Key 
Indicators for Policy, Institute for Health Policy, Brandeis University 
(1993).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  The budget proposes $17.1 billion for drug control programs, a seven-
percent increase over 1998, including increases for all elements of the 
fight against drug use, such as drug treatment and prevention, 
especially for children and adolescents; domestic law enforcement; 
international programs; and interdiction (see Table 7-3).

  Community-Based Prevention: The budget proposes $2.4 billion for drug 
prevention programs, 12 percent more than in 1998. Although drug use 
among youth fell steadily, and dramatically, in the 1980s, teenage drug 
use has since increased and anti-drug attitudes have softened--due 
partly to drug glamorization in the media and highly publicized drug 
legalization efforts. The Administration remains committed to sending a 
single ``no use'' message to America's youth.
<bullet>  National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: The Office of 
          National Drug Control Policy, in conjunction with other 
          Federal, State, local, and private experts, is developing a 
          $195 million national media campaign, including paid 
          advertisements, targeting youth and their parents on the 
          consequences of illicit drug use. Anti-drug messages have 
          already aired in 12 target cities and on the Internet.
<bullet>   Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Program: Students 
          can reach their full potential only in safe, disciplined 
          learning environments. The Safe and Drug Free Schools and 
          Communities program helps 97 percent of school districts 
          implement anti-drug and anti-violence programs in schools. The 
          budget proposes $556 million for this program, including $125 
          million in competitive grants to high-need areas that use 
          proven program designs.
<bullet>   School Drug Prevention Coordinators: The budget provides $50 
          million for a new School Drug Prevention Coordinators program 
          to ensure that half of the Nation's middle schools will have a 
          knowledgeable director of drug and violence prevention 
          programs. These coordinators will ensure that local programs 
          are effective and link
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

                                        Table 7-3.  DRUG CONTROL FUNDING                                        
                                 (Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)                                 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                               Dollar    Percent
                                                                  1997      1998      1999     Change:   Change:
                                                                 Actual   Estimate  Proposed   1998 to   1998 to
                                                                                                1999      1999  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Demand reduction..............................................     4,943     5,376     5,867      +491       +9%
Supply reduction..............................................    10,090    10,601    11,203      +602       +6%
                                                               -------------------------------------------------
  Total, Drug Control Funding.................................    15,033    15,977    17,070    +1,093       +7%
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 113]]

school-based prevention programs to community-based programs.
<bullet>   Drug Free Communities Act: The budget proposes $20 million 
          for activities under this Act, which helps increase citizen 
          participation in our efforts to reduce substance abuse among 
          youth and provides funds to help community anti-drug 
          coalitions carry out their important missions.

  Drug Intervention: The budget proposes $3.4 billion to treat drug 
abuse, seven percent more than in 1998. The Administration realizes that 
an effective treatment system must confront drug abuse where the 
challenge is the hardest--in the streets of urban, suburban, and rural 
drug markets, and in the criminal justice system. Closing the treatment 
gap between those who could benefit from substance abuse treatment and 
the current capacity of the public treatment system remains a top 
priority. These chronic drug users consume a disproportionate amount of 
illicit drugs and inflict a disproportionate share of drug-related costs 
on society.
<bullet>   Substance Abuse Treatment: The budget provides $3.4 billion 
          for substance abuse treatment activity, seven percent more 
          than in 1998. The increase is based not only on the need to 
          close the treatment gap, but on a body of evidence showing 
          that treatment is the most cost-effective way to reduce drug 
          abuse. These efforts will enable hundreds of thousands of 
          pregnant women, high-risk youth, and other under-served 
          Americans to get drug treatment services.
<bullet>  Drug Courts: The budget proposes $30 million for Drug Courts. 
          In an effort to break the cycle of drugs, crime, and violence, 
          these courts present an alternative to incarceration for 
          people who commit non-violent crimes and express a desire to 
          participate in, and would benefit from, rehabilitative drug 
          treatment. Drug Courts encourage serious commitment to the 
          treatment process through graduated sanctions such as 
          increased drug-testing and supervision, and, when necessary, 
          incarceration.

  Domestic Drug Law Enforcement: The budget proposes $8.8 billion for 
drug-related domestic law enforcement, four percent more than in 1998, 
to help bolster community-based law enforcement efforts, shield the 
Southwest border from illicit drugs, target major domestic organizations 
trafficking in heroin, and enhance coordination among Federal, State, 
and local law enforcement agencies. The budget proposes an increase of 
$13 million, or 30 percent, for the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to 
enhance domestic anti-heroin efforts. The Federal Government will 
continue its focus on providing leadership and training; facilitating 
multi-agency cooperative efforts through the High Intensity Drug 
Trafficking Areas program, the Southwest border initiative, and other 
efforts; and offering incentives to States and localities to use the 
most effective drug control methods.
<bullet>   Methamphetamine: Methamphetamine is quickly becoming the 
          growth drug of the 1990s. The DEA trains its agents, as well 
          as State and local law enforcement agencies, to seize 
          clandestine methamphetamine laboratories. The budget proposes 
          to continue the DEA's anti-methamphetamine efforts with a $25 
          million increase, more than doubling the 1998 figure.

  International Programs and Interdiction: The Administration's 
comprehensive approach to combating drug use includes an enhanced 
international strategy, making it harder for drug-criminals to smuggle 
illicit drugs into the United States. The budget includes funds to 
upgrade interdiction efforts along the Southwest border and in the 
Caribbean, and to provide heightened assistance to foreign governments 
to curtail drug cultivation and production.
<bullet>   Source Nation Efforts: Internationally, the United States 
          focuses primarily on interdiction in source countries and 
          transit zones, disrupting the drug organizations and their 
          production, marketing, and money laundering structures. The 
          budget proposes to increase funding for counternarcotics 
          programs in Peru to $50 million, 66 percent more than in 1998, 
          to continue illicit coca crop eradication efforts and support 
          alternative crop development. It proposes increased funding 
          for counternarcotics programs in Colombia to $45 million, 50 
          percent more than in 1998, to

[[Page 114]]

          continue enhanced coca, opium poppy, and marijuana crop 
          eradication efforts. And it proposes $247 million, 20 percent 
          more than in 1998, to provide training, logistics, equipment, 
          intelligence, and communications support to source nations, 
          mainly   Columbia, Peru, and Bolivia.
<bullet>   Southern Tier of the United States: The Administration 
          remains committed to shielding the Nation's Southern tier from 
          the drug threat. The budget proposes to enhance the Customs 
          Service's border enforcement efforts at land and sea ports-of-
          entry by providing $54 million for advanced technology, which 
          includes automated targeting systems and non-intrusive 
          inspection systems, to improve narcotics interdiction. The 
          budget further solidifies the interdiction effort by providing 
          $104 million for another 1,000 border patrol agents and an 
          increase of $36 million, or nine percent over the 1998 level, 
          for the Coast Guard's interdiction activities.



>