[DOCID:1999_tab_hist-39]
[Historical Tables, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1999]
[Page 160-165]
From the Budget of the U.S., FY 1999 Online via GPO Access
[wais.access.gpo.gov]

[[Page 160]]


 
                                Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-1999                                
                                                                (in millions of dollars)                                                                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Category                           1949       1950       1951       1952       1953       1954       1955       1956       1957  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:                                                                                                                                       
  Department of Defense..............................       688        700        775      1,100      1,412      1,385      1,397      1,683      1,882 
  Atomic energy defense..............................        74         72         71        104        141        166        153        215        252 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense...........................       762        772        846      1,204      1,553      1,551      1,550      1,898      2,134 
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Nondefense:                                                                                                                                             
  General science, space, and technology:                                                                                                               
    NASA.............................................        42         43         44         51         50         48         43         50         55 
    NSF..............................................  .........  .........  .........  .........  .........         4          8         15         28 
    Atomic energy general science....................        40         49         50         60         63         64         73         78         91 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................        82         92         94        111        113        116        124        143        174 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy.............................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         27         42         77 
  Transportation:                                                                                                                                       
    DOT..............................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         13 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         13 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:                                                                                                                                               
    NIH..............................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A 
    Other............................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         45         51         69         81        134 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture........................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         49         53         62         82         86 
  Natural resources and environment..................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         38         38         32         38         45 
  All other \1\ .....................................       N/A        N/A        N/A        N/A         50         39         31         42         48 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense \1\ ............................       178        282        279        291        295        297        345        428        577 
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development \1\ .......       940      1,054      1,125      1,495      1,848      1,848      1,895      2,326      2,711 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development                                                                                                         
 classified as grants (all nondefense)...............        11         14         14         14         14         13         21         31         40 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See footnotes at end of table.                                                                                                                          


[[Page 161]]


                           Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-1999--Continued                          
                                                                (in millions of dollars)                                                                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Category                           1958       1959       1960       1961       1962       1963       1964       1965       1966  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:                                                                                                                                       
  Department of Defense..............................     2,178      4,950      5,517      6,466      6,689      6,792      7,419      6,623      6,675 
  Atomic energy defense..............................       281        414        420        456        401        352        446        454        422 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense...........................     2,459      5,364      5,937      6,922      7,090      7,144      7,865      7,077      7,097 
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Nondefense:                                                                                                                                             
  General science, space, and technology:                                                                                                               
    NASA.............................................        72        115        330        646      1,112      2,291      3,693      4,497      5,275 
    NSF..............................................        31         47         57         70         84        100        147        147        176 
    Atomic energy general science....................       126        157        183        214        231        264        288        309        339 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       229        319        570        930      1,427      2,655      4,128      4,953      5,790 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy.............................................       109        129        159        173        397        462        502        478        452 
  Transportation:                                                                                                                                       
    DOT..............................................        26         53         77         89         83        111        107        159        117 
    NASA.............................................  .........  .........  .........  .........        31         36         40         58         75 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................        26         53         77         89        114        147        147        217        192 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:                                                                                                                                               
    NIH..............................................       N/A        N/A        247        295        398        511        637        523        536 
    Other............................................       N/A        N/A         30         35         36         40         66         67        202 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       157        216        277        330        434        551        703        590        738 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture........................................        97        104        107        117        129        142        154        179        205 
  Natural resources and environment..................        54         88         68        106        100        118        120        140        160 
  All other \1\ .....................................        57        111        127        119        146        146        177        206        284 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense \1\ ............................       729      1,020      1,385      1,864      2,747      4,221      5,931      6,763      7,821 
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development \1\ .......     3,188      6,384      7,322      8,786      9,837     11,365     13,796     13,840     14,918 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development                                                                                                         
 classified as grants (all nondefense)...............        46         55         57         58         66         75         85        100        110 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See footnotes at end of table.                                                                                                                          


[[Page 162]]


                           Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-1999--Continued                          
                                                                (in millions of dollars)                                                                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Category                           1967       1968       1969       1970       1971       1972       1973       1974       1975  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:                                                                                                                                       
  Department of Defense..............................     7,649      8,071      7,762      7,519      7,639      8,238      8,529      8,960      9,284 
  Atomic energy defense..............................       419        473        552        502        469        599        610        446        431 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense...........................     8,068      8,544      8,314      8,021      8,108      8,837      9,139      9,406      9,715 
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Nondefense:                                                                                                                                             
  General science, space, and technology:                                                                                                               
    NASA.............................................     5,042      4,462      4,025      3,518      3,143      3,059      3,045      2,900      2,876 
    NSF..............................................       209        248        280        292        334        407        432        539        571 
    Atomic energy general science....................       359        281        385        393        380        370        372        292        310 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................     5,610      4,991      4,690      4,203      3,857      3,836      3,849      3,731      3,757 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy.............................................       478        515        469        451        454        329        379        525        933 
  Transportation:                                                                                                                                       
    DOT..............................................        69        107         96        224        444        291        299        322        307 
    NASA.............................................        89        128        162        183        205        221        235        283        309 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       158        235        258        407        649        512        534        605        616 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:                                                                                                                                               
    NIH..............................................       795        784        859        879        912      1,096      1,318      1,413      1,631 
    Other............................................       110        199        214        194        211        279        341        245        258 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       905        983      1,073      1,073      1,123      1,375      1,659      1,658      1,889 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture........................................       215        231        232        246        268        296        293        315        352 
  Natural resources and environment..................       181        207        232        301        351        507        539        511        647 
  All other \1\ .....................................       347        466        392        451        599        611        643        683        627 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense \1\ ............................     7,894      7,628      7,346      7,132      7,301      7,466      7,896      8,028      8,821 
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development \1\ .......    15,962     16,172     15,660     15,153     15,409     16,303     17,035     17,434     18,536 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development                                                                                                         
 classified as grants (all nondefense)...............       125        140        152        167        182        206        224        238        249 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See footnotes at end of table.                                                                                                                          


[[Page 163]]


                           Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-1999--Continued                          
                                                                (in millions of dollars)                                                                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Category                           1976        TQ        1977       1978       1979       1980       1981       1982       1983  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:                                                                                                                                       
  Department of Defense..............................     9,341      2,312     10,210     10,726     11,045     13,469     15,739     18,363     20,566 
  Atomic energy defense..............................       478        143        664      1,351      1,083      1,174      1,199      1,447      1,732 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense...........................     9,819      2,455     10,874     12,077     12,129     14,643     16,937     19,809     22,298 
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Nondefense:                                                                                                                                             
  General science, space, and technology:                                                                                                               
    NASA.............................................     3,227        846      3,506      3,454      3,655      4,262      4,798      2,697      1,999 
    NSF..............................................       623        194        668        701        775        838        900      1,020        998 
    Atomic energy general science....................       257         72        267        274        305        345        501        401        464 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................     4,107      1,112      4,441      4,429      4,735      5,445      6,199      4,118      3,461 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy.............................................     1,424        521      2,197      2,542      3,304      3,289      3,681      3,330      2,728 
  Transportation:                                                                                                                                       
    DOT..............................................       329        100        315        326        350        412        409        341        270 
    NASA.............................................       324         82        336        379        408        449        481        523        539 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................       653        182        651        705        758        861        890        864        809 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:                                                                                                                                               
    NIH..............................................     2,098        548      1,314      2,439      2,626      2,898      3,352      3,435      3,532 
    Other............................................       194        130        335        325        614        784        732        906        929 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal.......................................     2,292        678      1,649      2,764      3,240      3,682      4,084      4,341      4,461 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture........................................       416        100        469        499        549        563        643        696        717 
  Natural resources and environment..................       646        166        585        675        895        951        912        838        856 
  All other \1\ .....................................       631        -14        577        841        715        801        822        664        570 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense \1\ ............................    10,169      2,745     10,569     12,455     14,196     15,592     17,231     14,850     13,602 
                                                      ==================================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development \1\ .......    19,988      5,200     21,443     24,532     26,325     30,235     34,168     34,660     35,900 
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development                                                                                                         
 classified as grants (all nondefense)...............       285         80        272        252        256        288        251        290        197 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See footnotes at end of table.                                                                                                                          


[[Page 164]]


                           Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-1999--Continued                          
                                                                (in millions of dollars)                                                                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Category                                 1984       1985       1986       1987       1988       1989       1990       1991  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:                                                                                                                                       
  Department of Defense.........................................    23,850     28,165     33,396     34,732     35,605     37,819     38,247     35,330 
  Atomic energy defense.........................................     1,915      2,195      2,260      2,365      2,427      2,547      2,831      2,557 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense......................................    25,765     30,360     35,656     37,097     38,032     40,366     41,078     37,887 
                                                                 =======================================================================================
Nondefense:                                                                                                                                             
  General science, space, and technology:                                                                                                               
    NASA........................................................     3,023      2,410      2,863      2,693      3,252      4,220      5,624      6,277 
    NSF.........................................................     1,127      1,182      1,399      1,426      1,513      1,570      1,520      1,631 
    Atomic energy general science...............................       505        510        510        576        618        680        784        834 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................     4,656      4,102      4,772      4,695      5,383      6,470      7,927      8,741 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy........................................................     2,762      4,249      2,622      2,321      2,287      2,454      2,342      2,501 
  Transportation:                                                                                                                                       
    DOT.........................................................       342        467        489        347        323        322        272        333 
    NASA........................................................       515        559        568        557        580        755        701        795 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................       857      1,027      1,057        905        903      1,077        973      1,127 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:                                                                                                                                               
    NIH.........................................................     3,942      4,412      4,837      4,942      6,022      6,634      7,092      7,257 
    Other.......................................................       617        719        738        869        849        912      1,162      1,272 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................     4,560      5,131      5,574      5,811      6,872      7,546      8,253      8,528 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture...................................................       754        775        798        796        838        908        937        990 
  Natural resources and environment.............................       846        884        924        886      1,052      1,056      1,220      1,323 
  All other \1\ ................................................       787        689        738        745        732        883      1,081      1,085 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense \1\ .......................................    15,221     16,856     16,485     16,159     18,068     20,394     22,732     24,296 
                                                                 =======================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development \1\ ..................    40,986     47,216     52,141     53,256     56,100     60,760     63,810     62,183 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development classified as                                                                                           
 grants (all nondefense)........................................       223        215        319        464        478        412        345        401 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
See footnotes at end of table.                                                                                                                          


[[Page 165]]


                           Table 9.8--COMPOSITION OF OUTLAYS FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: 1949-1999--Continued                          
                                                                (in millions of dollars)                                                                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                       1998       1999  
                            Category                                 1992       1993       1994       1995       1996       1997     estimate   estimate
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
National defense:                                                                                                                                       
  Department of Defense.........................................    35,504     37,666     35,474     35,356     36,936     37,702     36,446     36,593 
  Atomic energy defense.........................................     2,666      2,730      2,581      2,343      2,492      2,475      2,578      2,824 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total national defense......................................    38,170     40,396     38,055     37,699     39,428     40,177     39,024     39,417 
                                                                 =======================================================================================
Nondefense:                                                                                                                                             
  General science, space, and technology:                                                                                                               
    NASA........................................................     6,641      7,004      6,663      8,243      6,963      8,137      7,975      7,880 
    NSF.........................................................     1,733      1,753      1,873      1,894      2,077      2,015      2,111      2,360 
    Atomic energy general science...............................       784        789        669        700        705        703      1,438      1,734 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................     9,157      9,546      9,205     10,837      9,745     10,855     11,524     11,974 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Energy........................................................     2,593      2,517      2,654      3,152      2,938      2,641      1,527      1,573 
  Transportation:                                                                                                                                       
    DOT.........................................................       373        420        519        604        534        545        496        885 
    NASA........................................................       976      1,084      1,215        749      1,120      1,237      1,424      1,370 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................     1,348      1,504      1,734      1,353      1,654      1,782      1,920      2,255 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Health:                                                                                                                                               
    NIH.........................................................     7,936      9,063      9,620     10,299      9,642     10,599     12,171     13,066 
    Other.......................................................     1,721      1,311      1,008        961        856        859        898      1,021 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal..................................................     9,656     10,374     10,628     11,260     10,498     11,458     13,069     14,087 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Agriculture...................................................     1,070      1,129      1,158      1,186      1,168      1,178      1,228      1,247 
  Natural resources and environment.............................     1,593      1,762      1,747      1,662      1,610      1,590      1,734      1,785 
  All other \1\ ................................................     1,141      1,150      1,271      1,283      1,398      1,392      1,353      1,366 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total nondefense \1\ .......................................    26,558     27,982     28,397     30,733     29,011     30,896     32,355     34,287 
                                                                 =======================================================================================
Total conduct of research and development \1\ ..................    64,728     68,378     66,453     68,432     68,439     71,073     71,379     73,704 
                                                                 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Memorandum: Conduct of research and development classified as                                                                                           
 grants (all nondefense)........................................       296        344        376        348        303        290        301        426 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Includes off-budget Postal Service amounts as shown in the footnote to Table 9.7.                                                                   
N/A: Separate detail not available; however, the data are included in the totals.                                                                       
Note: The Atomic energy defense component includes relatively small amounts of R&D for FEMA beginning in 1983.