Table of Contents
National Performance Review
Reinventing the Department of Defense
Department of the Army
- U. S. Army Reinvention Center, Headquarters, Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC).
In FY 1996, TRADOC awarded a total of $3.93M in base operations (BASOPS) Opportunity Leveraging
and Development (BOLD) Grants spread over 10 installations for projects that demonstrated the
highest potential return on investment and exportability to other installations. The intent of
the BOLD Grants fund is to provide venture capital for promising BASOPS investment opportunities.
Installations, as well as TRADOC headquarters staff, can nominate reinvention initiatives for
consideration and competition for BOLD Grant funding. The programÕs aim is to encourage
installation garrison commanders to actively identify and pursue reinvention initiatives without
adversely affecting scarce installation resources. This year, Army processed 112 BOLD Grant
initiative nominations and approved 30 for funding. Anticipated in this yearÕs investments of
$3.93M is an annual return on investment of $12.5M and a projected 5-year return on investment
- Research, Development & Engineering Center, U. S. Army Missile Command. This Reinvention
Laboratory has focused on initiatives that have required primarily legislative changes in order
to experiment with simplified and streamlined processes. These initiatives do not generate the
"low hanging fruit", but are long term initiatives whose payoffs may not be measurable
for many years. The lesson learned is that it is possible to get significant legislative change
that is in the spirit and intent of the National Performance Review. Legislative change has been
effected in four distinct areas, and new authorities are in place to realize significant
improvements in DoD laboratory operations in these areas:
- Quickly obtaining laboratory experimental supplies and equipment needed to satisfy
its customers needs for information on advanced technology and risks associated with various
- Obtaining and retaining highly qualified engineers and scientists to develop
- Quickly and cost effectively upgrading laboratory facilities in order to react to
contingencies such as technological breakthroughs and customer-unforeseen priorities.
- Quickly and efficiently establishing Cooperative Agreements with industry, academia, and
international partners in order to leverage diminished DoD funding, designed to generate
significant technological advancements and competitive economic advantage as a nation.
- U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. The Army Research
Institute (ARI) is changing how it does business. The most visible change is its downsized workforce
and streamlined organizational structure. ARI has reduced middle management and administration and
has re-engineered business processes to conform to the new organizational
structure. First, line supervisors now have increased control over their unitsÕ
activities and performance. Additionally, ARI has established performance
metrics and goals with a renewed emphasis on quality, customer satisfaction and
performance accountability. ARIÕs first annual performance plan, under the
guidance of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993, sets goals
on a wide range of metrics that help objectively measure, for example, technical
output, personnel quality, customer satisfaction, resource leverage, and the
impact of our research efforts. Performance on these metrics is being assessed
and tied to managerÕs performance appraisals.
Two other initiatives focus on improved resource management. A new
family-friendly alternative work schedule is being evaluated as a human resource
management tool with the potential to improve employee morale, reduce sick leave
usage, and raise productivity. A new information architecture plan is being
developed and implemented to reduce overhead costs, improve productivity and
support research .
- U. S. Army Concepts Analysis Agency (CAA). Like most Army organizations,
CAA has been mandated to do more with less. Consistent with the concepts of the
National Performance Review , the agency has restructured to provide less
management and more analysis. But to respond to a growing demand for analyses
with fewer resources, CAA must rely on its people. By encouraging and
implementing their ideas for improving quality and productivity, CAA is
leveraging its capabilities.
Initiatives to use information technology include installation of a 50 gigabyte
Superserver for the workstation network, acquisition of portable notebook
processors for conducting analysis in the field of operations, CD-ROM technology
in publishing data volumes, successful application of graphic used interface to
visually assess potential global trouble spots and the introduction of
state-of-the-Army ISSN telephone system for data/voice communications.
The historical trend indicates a 78 percent productivity increase over the past five years.
- U. S. Army Missile Command, Department of the Army Reinvention
Laboratory. This reinvention lab is executing its reinvention campaign. The
campaign consists of three phases: the Preparation of the Workforce (Phase I),
Design of Implementation Processes for Individual Initiative (Phase II), and
Full-Scale Implementation of Reinvention (Phase III).
The Missile Command (MICOM) has completed Phase I. A total of 5,387 MICOM
employees attended the thirteen two-hour mandatory training sessions. The
training consisted of presentations of reinvention certificates to organizations
and reinvention licenses to employees by the Command Group, union perspective by
AFGE, Local 1858 at Redstone Arsenal, videos on Ethical Decision Making, and
Making the Difference, briefing on reinvention, MICOM Reinvention Laboratory
Waiver Program, and administering of the Employee Opinion Survey. Training
videos have been viewed by 202 employees located worldwide.
Part II of Phase I, the customized organization training is an ongoing effort.
The intent of this training is to assist managers in the critical task of
building into all employees a clear understanding of the consequences and
importance of being accountable for actions in a public service arena.
Part III consists of the Redstone 2000 InstituteÕs High-Performance Skills
Course. This course was established to help acquire the skills and competencies
needed in the workplace now and into the 21st century. The course includes:
Team dynamics and team work, world class customer service, interpersonal skills,
ethics and accountability, individual assessment, etc.
Phase II is the Generation and Prioritization of Initiatives. The Command
utilizes several reinvention tools consisting of re-engineering, benchmarking,
and obtaining waiver authorities to develop, understand, analyze and implement
initiatives. Some initiatives are being tested as pilot programs. The MICOM
Acquisition Center has submitted 34 waiver requests with 14 approved under the
OSD/DA Waiver Program and by their acquisition chain of command at higher
Phase III is the Full Scale Implementation of initiatives scheduled to begin when
the first initiative pilot program is completed and approved by the Missile
Command Executive Steering Committee. This implementation phase is expected to
begin within the next six months to a year.
- U. S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), Special Projects Office. The
laboratory has had three years experience in producing strategic plans, annual
performance plans, and annual performance reports. A breakthrough last year in
strategic planning was the inclusion of technical strategic vectors for the
laboratory in addition to the more traditional managerial one. In the peer
review pillar of our Performance Evaluation Construct the lab has established the
ARL Technical Assessment Board under the auspices of the National Research
Council. In the customer feedback pillar, we are entering our third year of
performing 100% surveys of all customers to whom a specific item was delivered.
In the metrics pillar, we are also in the third year of using metrics in the
performance our senior (SES-level) managers as a tool for the Director to
"move" the laboratory in certain directions that he believes appropriate.
The lab is in the process of evaluating over fifty internal processes in the
functional areas of human resources, fiscal management, logistics, and
procurement. Computer modeling has been applied to these processes to identify
areas where efficiencies can be gained. For example, whereas formerly a SF-52,
Request for Personnel Action took 36 steps to process, BPR efforts have
identified 21 of those steps that can be eliminated.
The lab has already obtained 18 waivers in a variety of areas and more than twice
that number are in process. ARL is participating with other DoD Science and
Technology Reinvention Laboratories in designing a new personnel system that will
be much more flexible and which will allow government laboratories to be operated
in a manner more like those labs in the private sector.
- United States Army Management Engineering College (AMEC). The arduous
process of establishing a Reinvention Lab Training Center in accordance with the
established process has begun. However, AMECÕs successes with the work-at-home
program have caused AMEC to conclude that "brick and mortar" training
centers may be an unnecessary cost when AMEC can rent classroom space on an as
needed basis in Denver and Washington, DC.
AMEC has achieved recognition as a pioneer in the technology of concepts
involving multimedia and distance learning and is a recognized leader even by the
private sector. With funds provided by a sponsor, AMEC opened its own multimedia
production lab in FY 1995. The first major product ("Interactive Customer
Assistance CD ROM on the Responsible Use of the Government Wide Purchase
Card") has been delivered to GSA. The second major product ("Simplified
Acquisition and Federal Acquisition Computer Network") will soon be delivered
to DODÕs Reform Communications Center.
- Army National Guard Logistics Directorate. Army National Guard (ARNG)
Retrograde Euope (RETROEUR) Repair Program is the ARNGÕs innovative solution for
providing the Active Component with a cost effective means for redistributing
class VII (rolling stock) equipment from Europe, as part of the drawdown, to
units in the United States. This program has improved readiness in over 400
Active Army, Army National Guard and Army Reserve units. The ARNG sites have
been repairing equipment for less than $36/hr versus Army depot rates of
$70-$120/hr. Vehicles valued at over $1B have been repaired and redistributed to
units for $226M.
Readiness Based Sparing, developed by the Army Material Systems Analysis Activity
employs a totally new methodology to determine authorized stockage levels (ASL)
for class IX repair parts. A demonstration of the 256th Brigade begun in FY 94
resulted in reducing the money tied up in the Brigades ASL by $4.4M
ARNG Truck Refurbishment Program demonstrated a completely new way for the ARNG
to refurbish its tactical wheeled vehicles. The Texas ARNG established a pilot
site to demonstrate the ARNGÕs capability to perform general support (GS) level
refurbishment of trucks in FY 94. The demonstration was continued into FY
1995/1996 Demonstration results established a baseline cost of $35K per truck, a
savings of $6-$30K over what the ARNG had been paying depots.
- U. S. Army Forces Command. Forces Command (FORSCOM), which is a
reinvention laboratory, is pursuing multiple initiatives. They include:
- Reengineering Travel. Forces Command established a Process Action Team
(PAT) in April 1994 to look for ways to improve temporary duty (TDY) travel
administration. The PAT has tested two software programs and is preparing to
purchase a program for implementation. The program will save in excess of
$300,000 for the Headquarters over two years and provide faster reimbursement to
the traveler and the government charge card vendor. Plans are to offer the
program to all FORSCOM activities.
- The Total Inventory Management Program (TIMP). The program focuses on the
reduction of authorized and unauthorized inventory investment and the
redistribution of secondary and major-end items. The TIMP implementation plan
published in 1993 dramatically changed the way inventories were managed in Forces
Command. First year savings were $130M. On-hand inventory was reduced from $1.1B
to $727M. Savings for FY 1994 were $1.3M with projected savings of $5M in FY 95
and $3M in FY 1996. TIMP directly led to significant cost reductions in on-hand
inventories and to the implementation of other FORSCOM initiatives, such as the
FORSCOM Redistribution Center (FRC) and the FORSCOM Excess Prevention Program
- The White Hat Program. The White Hat Initiative focuses on identifying
installation management inhibitors to effective business operations that could
result in changes to the regulations, policies and procedures at FORSCOM or
higher headquarters. This initiative is also an integral part of the FORSCOM
quality effort to involve the work force and gain greater productivity while
improving installation management. Based on input from the workforce at FORSCOM
installation, over 500 White Hat issues have been developed and are being
staffed. Over 200 of these initiatives have been approved; of those sent to
Department of the Army, the Command has a 75 percent approval rate. The White
Hat program has been tremendously successful, both in the empowerment of the
workforce and in demonstrating the CommandÕs desire to use the good ideas of its
- U. S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center
(TARDEC). The big three automakers gathered on November 8, 1995, to jointly sign
a government research agreement that will shift the next generation of automobile
research and development to the fast lane.
Just six weeks after they announced their intentions at the White House, leaders
from Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler co-signed a cooperative research and
development agreement, or CRADA, with the U. S. Army. But unlike most CRADAs,
this blanket-CRADA sets a historic precedent by fast-tracking all future R&D
between the auto makers and the Army. The next time any of the Big Three wishes
to enter into an agreement, all it needs to do is write a 3 to 4 page
"statement of work."
This change in CRADA criteria will allow the Big Three to speed past the
labor-intensive CRADA applications process and cut the approval rate forum
several months to just a few days. This change to allow the auto makers to be
more competitive globally.
As a result of these and other major initiatives, TARDEC is the proud recipient
of the 1994 Federal Quality Improvement Prototype Award. TARDEC is the first
Army organization to earn this honor and is one of only 22 government
organizations to have won the award since its inception in 1989.
Vice President Al Gore presented TARDEC with the prestigious 1995 Presidential
Award for Quality on August 2, 1995 in Washington, DC. TARDEC is the first
department of the army organization to win this award and is only the fourth
federal organization to win since the inception of the PresidentÕs Quality Award
Program in 1989.
- Lodging Success Program. The Lodging Success Program continues to save
significant temporary duty (TDY) dollars by providing contract hotel rooms at per
day rates that average 26 percent below the government per diem rate in the
National Capital Region. Since it began in 1992, the Lodging-Success Program has
simplified the process of obtaining TDY lodging and has saved money for all Army
commands. Annual lodging savings exceed $4 million and more than $1 million are
estimated as saved in rental car cost avoidance. The Lodging-Success Program is
a proven money saver that is effectively serving the needs of Army travelers
while saving significant Army resources. Currently, the Army is expanding the
Lodging Success Program to other high volume travel areas such as Atlanta and the
Virginia tidewater area. The program is also being considered for expansion
DoD-wide as part of a bigger travel reengineering effort.
- The Resource Recovery And Recycling Program (RRRP). Army commanders
continue to act as environmental stewards through the RRRP. Installations
collect, sell, and receive direct reimbursement for their recyclable materials
through the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office. These proceeds are used
to fund pollution abatement, energy conservation, and morale, welfare and
recreation activities. Installations received gross proceeds of $10.8 million in
FY 1994, and $9.2 million in FY 1995. In addition to receiving a direct return of
current year dollars, installations participating in RRRP are realizing
additional savings by reducing current year landfill costs and avoiding or
deferring future year landfill costs.
- The Sale and Outlease Program. Legislative authority allows
installations to retain the proceeds from the sale of non-BRAC excess real
property and outlease of non-excess real and personal property. Examples include
leases of land to utility companies, transportation offices, or private firms;
leases of underutilized warehouses, or offices (classroom space, conference
rooms, etc.) to private companies; and sales of parcels of land to adjacent
farmers. Proceeds from the sale and outlease program are used to fund
environmental restoration projects and repair and maintenance projects. Proceeds
from the Sale and Outlease Program were $17.4 million in FY 1994, and $19 million
in FY 1995.
- ASA(FM&C) Regulatory Waiver Program. Since it began, the Army waiver
program has provided installation commanders relief from prohibitive regulations
that hindered more efficient operations. Additionally, commanders have been
allowed to try innovative procedures that were prohibited by Army or DoD
regulations or policy directives. This program has been quite successful at
"cutting red tape" and has facilitated the on-going effort to improve
Army business practices.
- The Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Resource
Analysis and Business Practices (SAFM-RBA) is the action office for all financial
management related waiver requests. To date, 42 separate requests for regulatory
waiver have been processed. Some of the more significant success stories
- A change to DoD Morale, Welfare and Recreation (MWR) advertising policy now
allows installation MWR activities to generate revenue from the sale of
advertising space in their publications. This is expected to earn Army
installations approximately $2M annually, and is applicable across DoD.
- A change to Army Regulation 71-13 to allow US Army, Japan to lease eleven
non- tactical vehicles, which will allow the conversion of a buildings and
grounds maintenance contract to an in-house operation. This will result in an
annual cost savings of $1M.
- DoD Manual 7600.7-M is being changed to remove the requirement to create and
maintain an "auditable entity file" in internal review offices with three
or fewer auditors. This will allow the smaller internal review offices to be more
efficient in support of their customers.
- Waiver of DoD Directive 7000.14-4 to allow mandatory payroll deduction from
soldiers to pay monthly personal telephone bills. This will result in more
efficient finance and accounting operations, and improve quality service to
- A waiver of DoD Regulation 4160.21M to allow Fort Hood to donate abandoned
bicycles to a local charity. This initiative saves time and money that would be
expended to store and process abandoned bicycles for sale in the normal DRMS
- A change to a 1985 OSD Comptroller policy letter outlining the procedures
for accounting of multi-year appropriations. The change saves personnel resources
that were used to write down unobligated balances at year end, and re-establish
the balances in the next fiscal year.
- A waiver to AR 690-300.355 that will streamline the procedures for making
non- competitive career promotions within an organization. This has improved
efficiency of the internal process and save supervisors' time and effort.
- A waiver to the FAR, section 15.803(b) to eliminate the submission of an
Independent Government Estimate (IGE) as part of the contract negotiation and
award process. Elimination of the IGE will streamline the process and save time
and effort that is expended preparing this non-value added report.
- Legislative Initiatives. The Resource Analysis and Business Practices
Office is continually looking for ways to reduce legislative red tape and improve
businessŠlike operations, generate revenue, streamline processes, and decrease
costs in the Army.
For FY 1995, the office gained enactment of six out of nine legislative
proposals. These included increasing the expense investment threshold from $25K
to $50K, allowing military museums greater flexibility in trading excess
historical artifacts, and removing extensive review requirements on residual
value agreements. The office submitted legislative proposals for Congressional
consideration for FY 1996. The following provides the status of those proposals
that were approved.
- Kuwaiti Reimbursement. Provides authority for DoD to incur obligations up
to $350M in anticipation of contributions from the Kuwaiti Government.
- Permanent Sale and Outlease Authority. Simplifies distribution of funds
generated from the sale of excess real property and outlease of underutilized
real and personal property. Funds would be deposited directly to installations
rather than to a special Treasury account. Received one-year extension of
appropriation authority, but not for simplified process -- resubmitted for FY
- Expense Investment Threshold. Provides authority for purchases of
non-centrally managed items under $100K with Operations and Maintenance
- Acceptance of Non-Government Cash Awards. Allows retention of cash awards
from non-governmental sources. Impetus for this proposal was the
"Innovations in Government" award competition. Funds are to be used for
MWR (¤377 P.L. 104Š106).
- Retention of Proceeds from the Sale of Abandoned Personal Property. Allows
installations to sell abandoned personal property and retain the proceeds.
- Printing Services. Provides for greater use of commercial vendors for
printing services. As submitted, installations would use commercial vendors for
services under $2500. Partially approved -- allows DPS to use commercial vendors
(Section 351 P.L. 104Š106).
- Unified Resource Demonstration Project. Provides authority to test a
concept for merging appropriated fund support to MWR with nonappropriated funds
(NAF). MWR programs would then operate on a total NAF basis.
- Excess Historical Artifacts. Further expands ability to exchange excess
items for services and equipment.
- Military Training Open Allotment. The military training open allotment
is used to fund TDY and per diem costs for training in conjunction with Permanent
Change of Station (PCS) and for Army-directed training. Currently, the funding
for the military training open allotment is held by Operating Agency 22 (OA 22).
Installations and units throughout the Army are authorized to cite the open
allotment. OA22 has fund control responsibility; the installations and units use
the funds and retain all supporting documentation. Therefore, by its very
nature, the military training open allotment is difficult to manage and control.
A recent Army Audit Agency report stated that about 15 percent of the
expenditures made against the training open allotment were not used for
The Resource Analysis and Business Practices Office (SAFM-RB) is working jointly
with the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (DCSOPS), the Deputy Chief of Staff
for Personnel (DCSPER) and the Personnel Command (PERSCOM), to review the
military training open allotment and identify more efficient and less costly
alternatives. Three alternatives to the open allotment were identified. The
alternatives, all of which decentralize the funds and eliminate the open
allotment, are: (1) directly fund the schoolhouse, (2) directly fund the unit,
and (3) provide a specific allotment to PERSCOM.
A test of the "schoolhouse" alternative is being conducted at Fort
Benning beginning in June 1996, and is scheduled to run for one year. Fort
Benning will issue orders for soldiers scheduled to attend Infantry School
courses. A Fort Benning fund cite will be included on the orders. During the
test, the training open allotment will no longer be used to fund per diem or TDY
travel for soldiers attending the Infantry School courses at Fort Benning.
A test of the "unit" alternative is being conducted at Fort Drum
beginning in April 1996, and will run concurrent with the "schoolhouse"
test. This "unit test" will only impact Fort Drum soldiers attending DA
directed training or attending training in conjunction with a PCS from Fort Drum.
A concept paper is being developed by PERSCOM for the PERSCOM alternative. This
alternative will not be tested, because much of the automation and related
procedures being developed for the "schoolhouse test" will be applicable
to the PERSCOM alternative.
The three alternatives will be evaluated against established criteria after
completion of the tests. The criteria include cost, show rates, impact on
soldiers, impact on readiness, fund control, and impact on training. The Army
leadership will be involved in reviewing the test results and determining the
- Reduction of Out-of-Service Debt. In FY 1995, one out of every four
soldiers separated from active duty owing a debt to the Army. These debts were
caused by overpayment of pay, allowances, entitlements, leave, bonuses,
transportation costs, and travel advances; and liability for lost or damaged
government property. Most often, these debts are not identified at outprocessing
and are more difficult to collect after soldiers leave active duty. The costs to
collect are significant (about $38M Operation and Maintenance, Army in FY 1995)
and collections may be too late to be used by the Army appropriations to which
the funds are owed. ArmyÕs 325,605 new debt cases in FY 1995 totaled $88M.
To bring this problem under control, the Resource Analysis and Business Practices
Directorate, OASA(FM&C) and ODCSPER, with assistance from PERSCOM, worked to
identify policy or procedural changes that could make a difference. The primary
focus is on debt avoidance by using a comprehensive separation checklist and more
rigorous outprocessing procedures. The checklist and new procedures will become
standardized across the Army and will require soldiers and their commanders to
take a more responsible role in eliminating out-of-service debt problems.
The new separation checklist (DA Form 137-R [Test]) was distributed to the field
for testing from November 1995 to May 1996. The new checklist requires a
standardized installation clearance process that makes the soldier more
responsible for proper clearing and requires unit commanders to validate
soldiersÕ leave records prior to separation. Failure to complete the checklist
will result in soldiers receiving 55% of final pay at separation, pending Defense
Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) verification of any outstanding debts.
Final payment to the soldier will be made by DFAS within 30 days following
The trend during the test period has shown steady improvement. The percent of
soldiers separating in debt dropped from 28.3% in December 1995 to 23.2% in
February 1996. During the same period, the dollar amount of debt decreased from
$3.1M to $2.3M. Comparing the test period average to the FY 1995 baseline
reflects a decrease of .4% of soldiers separating in debt and a decrease of $805K
from the FY 1995 average.
The new installation clearance process is good for the Army and good for the
soldier. It is expected to dramatically reduce out-of-service debt with no
adverse impact on workload or on the soldier. The emphasis on debt avoidance
actually benefits the soldier. In the past, many soldiers were surprised to
learn months after separation that they owed money to the Army. Alerting them to
this situation during outprocessing helps soldiers understand and pay debts prior
to separation, thus avoiding credit problems as they transition to civilian life.
In addition, this initiative helps us exercise good financial stewardship of the
limited dollars available to accomplish the Army mission.
- Army-wide Partnerships. As the Army actively reviews its basic roles and
missions, installation commanders are effectively pursuing many new and
innovative ways to improve business practices and get even more utility from
every dollar entrusted to our use. Resource managers around the Army are using
many different ways to stretch resources and streamline operations to better
accomplish their missions. At many installations, partnerships are being formed
with parties within and outside the Department of Defense. The result is a
win-win situation - improved relationships, opportunities to reduce cost and
generate revenue, and enhanced quality of life for soldiers and their families.
- At Fort Hood, Dental Command partners with the American Red Cross to train
volunteers to be dental assistants. The installation receives free labor and
expanded care for soldiers and family members; the volunteer gains skills and
- Fort Riley partners with Kansas State University to obtain journalist
interns for the installation newspaper. The installation receives free labor;
the students receive real-world experience and college credit.
- Fort Leavenworth partners with the Kansas State Department of Social and
Rehabilitation Services and receives free labor in exchange for work
- The Commonwealth of Kentucky provides spouse abuse victims shelter in the
local community facility without charge. In return, Fort Knox provides training
to personnel operating the shelter.
- Installations partner with local Chambers of Commerce and State Employment
Offices to sponsor joint job fairs for transitioning military and civilian
personnel and family members.
- Installations enter mutual support agreements with federal and state
forestry personnel to respond to forest fires on the installation and in the
local surrounding area.
- Installations developed reciprocal use agreements with schools and
universities for libraries, classroom and auditorium space, audiovisual
equipment, and instructors.
- Fort Leavenworth partnered with the local school district to provide a joint
sport facility. The installation provided the land and the school district built
the facility. Maintenance is shared.
- Fort Gillem leases unused/underused railroad tracks to Norfolk Southern in
exchange for repair of the rail system and railroad cars.
- Fort Belvoir partnered with the local transportation system to obtain bus
service on post. Travel to work is more convenient and the number of vehicles
on-post is reduced.
- Outsourcing Initiatives. As Army budgets have dropped, the pressures to
minimize the impacts of reduced funding have risen proportionately. The senior
Army leadership strongly endorses major outsourcing and privatization initiatives
to save dollars in the business, or non-core functional areas, and to attract
private capital for renovation of aging infrastructure.
The Resource Analysis and Business Practices Office is a very active participant
in this area. Over the past two years, the office has been involved in a major
effort to identify potential Army outsourcing and privatization candidates, and
to identify and propose legislative changes to laws and regulations that restrict
progress and prevent the DoD from taking full advantage of private sector
Significant progress has already been made in changing laws that govern real
property. The Housing Revitalization Act of 1996 significantly expanded the
flexibility and opportunity for privatization of housing. It enables the
establishment of public-private partnerships, creates a Defense Housing
Improvement Fund into which funds from housing appropriations can be transferred,
and allows the government to enter into various types of guarantees to increase
the attractiveness of private investment. An Army team is working to utilize
these authorities and improve Army family housing.
Privatization of utilities is another area in which the office has been involved.
Currently, about 10 percent of the 465 systems serving Army installations are
privatized. The Army is working toward a goal of privatizing 75 percent of the
Army owned and operated utility systems by the year 2000.
The Resource Analysis and Business Practices Office is also very involved in
identifying for outsourcing administrative functions that are not core tasks.
Current law contains many restrictions that preclude outsourcing and are counter
to good government and managerial principles. This office listed the
restrictions and the required enabling legislation for use by the Army and DoD
leadership when discussing outsourcing with the Congress.
The Congress is taking a keen interest in reducing the cost of government through
outsourcing and privatization. A DoD legislative package, which requests relief
from many of these restrictions, is being prepared for submission to the
- Unified Resource Demonstration Project. Military Morale, Welfare, and
Recreation (MWR) services are made possible through a mix of appropriated fund
(APF) and nonappropriated fund (NAF) support. This dual funding creates
inefficiencies and restricts visibility of the cost of providing individual
services. Dual funding dictates the use of two financial systems, two
procurement systems, and two personnel systems. In addition, because two kinds
of funds and accounting systems are used, managers are not always aware of the
true cost of their programs.
As a result of an Army developed legislative proposal, the FY 1996 Defense
Authorization Act directs the DoD to conduct a two-year demonstration project
that will test merging MWR APF with NAF. This will effectively allow test sites
to conduct all MWR operations under NAF rules. This will provide managers with
simplified procurement rules, one type of personnel, and one overall financial
system and statement that will give infinite detail on the sources and uses of
Although the concept is designed to operate with a totally NAF workforce, since
the concept is being tested rather than implemented, the Services have decided
that there will be no conversions of personnel from APF to NAF for this test.
Managers will have, however, the opportunity to hire NAF personnel to replace
vacant APF positions during the test.
Expected results from the test include reduced costs, greater management
flexibility, ability to provide more services, better services for customers, and
greater financial visibility for all levels of management. Cost savings should
not be limited to direct costs of the programs. Indirect support provided by
non-MWR installation activities for personnel, contracting, and finances services
should also benefit from this test.
- Problem Disbursements and the Joint Reconciliation Program. The Army
Joint Reconciliation Program is a great success story and a prime initiative of
cutting back to basics. The Program combines the financial skills of accounting
and budget personnel with the expertise of acquisition specialists, logisticians,
auditors, and legal staffs in creating horizontal teams to analyze problem
disbursements -- payments that do not match the obligations on the books. These
are of major concern within the Defense Department because if they are not
resolved in a timely manner, current year dollars must be used to pay bills from
previous years. This "getting back to the basics" effort has had
tremendous results. During FY 95, the joint reconciliation program resulted in:
- Reduced "absolute value" unmatched disbursements (UMDs) from $750
million on 30 June 1994 to $368 million in September 1995 -- a reduction of 51
- Reduced "absolute value" negative unliquidated obligations (NULOs)
from $500 million on 30 June 1994 to $148 million in September 1995 -- a
reduction of 70 percent.
- Reduced contingent liabilities associated with the canceling year
appropriations from $539 million in October 1994 to $23 million in September 1995
- a reduction of 96 percent.
ArmyÕs major commands report that their experience with the Joint Reconciliation
Program has led to improvements in their execution of current year obligation
authority. Most important, it has precluded current year funds being diverted
from essential expenditures in support of military readiness.
- Standard Army Retail Supply System - Objective (SARSS-O) Business Process
Review (BPR). SARSS-O BPR is a "putting customers first" initiative.
SARSS-O is the ArmyÕs standard system for requisitioning and issuing supplies in
the Army. When SARSS-O was developed, it was conceptualized within the logistics
community and very little thought was put into financial controls. The system is
a very effective logistics system, but weaknesses on the financial side became
apparent as fielding of the system progressed.
As a result of a FORSCOM Process Action TeamÕs findings and to insure the success
of SARSS-O, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics directed that an Independent
Verification and Validation (IV&V) team be organized to review SARSS-O and make
appropriate recommendations to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of
SARSS-O. The IV&V team was supplemented with a BPR team. There was a perception
that different activities were using different business processes to run SARSS-O.
The BPR team was chartered to determine the current processes and procedures and
to recommend standard financial information, processes and procedures for use by
all SARSS-O users throughout the Army. During the BPR process, team members
interviewed users and customers of SARSS-O to ensure customer needs were
identified, considered, and appropriately reflected in the recommendations.
As a result of the BPR the financial information needs of the customers are being
addressed with the development of the Logistics/Financial (LOGFIN) module of the
PC-based program known as the Integrated Logistics Analysis Program (ILAP). The
Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Financial Operations secured funding
during FY 95 for development of this program. LOGFIN will allow users to access
SARSS-O and appropriate financial systems and produce needed reports on a PC.
This capability will allow research that is currently being performed by
time-consuming manual processes to be performed in a fraction of the time on a
PC. As required funding is obtained, it is planned that ILAP and LOGFIN will be
fielded at appropriate levels throughout the Army.
- Service Based Costing (SBC). The Army recognizes the need for continual
improvement in the efficiency and productivity of its operations of Army bases
and installations. The Army, consequently, has implemented an improved cost
management tool. The US Army Cost and Economic Analysis Center (USACEAC) is
developing a Service Based Costing (SBC) model to capture the cost of base
operations at the service level. SBC measures the full cost to provide a service
(such as day care) and the associated output produced for that service (number of
child care hours provided). SBC provides a simple, quick and meaningful
customer-oriented approach to providing Army decision makers with relevant cost
Since August 1994, 122 different installation services and their associated
output measures have been identified, costed and associated outputs defined at
nine Forces Command Installations and 24 Army Materiel Command installations.
Based on these results, senior Army leadership has decided to implement SBC
Army-wide. Command resource managers now have the necessary information for
these services to quickly assess both the cost and related benefits to support
alternative levels of services for funding consideration. USACEAC is continuing
to refine the definition and number of services covered and support increasing
the number of installations using SBC.
SBC supports the objectives of the National Performance Review by providing the
local managers with customer oriented decision making cost tools. With
established benchmarks for specific services, Army installations managers are
better able to establish best business practices, benefit from shared learning,
and identify areas requiring greater management attention. Adoption of best
business practices will eliminate redundant services or activities, remove
non-essential functions, and improve overall productivity.
With a better understanding of SBC, decision makers are able to focus on customer
needs. Objective output measures for each service provide Army resource
managers with the tools to manage the process output versus the current method of
managing the process inputs. Managing the process output empowers all employees
to be customer oriented and focused on value.
SBCÕs greatest benefit is providing decision makers, Army-wide, with the
necessary information to effectively and efficiently manage resources, adapt to
change, and encourage innovative business practices.
- ArmyÕs Operating and Support Management Information System (OSMIS). The
ArmyÕs Operating and Support Management Information System (OSMIS) data base is
the historical record in cost per mile or cost per hour of all major Army weapon
systems. OSMIS supports three classes of customers -- Budgeting/Programming,
Logistics, and the Acquisition communities.
For the Budgeting/Programming Community, OSMIS provides unique input to the
ArmyÕs Training Resource Model and Flying Hour Program which in turn develops the
Major Commands (MACOM) operating tempo (optempo) training budgets.
For the Logistics community, OSMIS provides key historic performance information
at the end item perspective to support logistics models such as, the Integrated
Logistics Analysis Program (ILAP) and the Revolving Funds Model (REVOLVER).
OSMIS supports the building validation of logistics budget documents, measures
historic rebuild and washout rates for parts, and supports many special study
requests to improve Army logistics management.
One use of OSMIS by the Acquisition community is to identify weapon system
Operations and Support Cost Reduction (OSCR) Initiatives. OSMIS identifies the
high operating and support cost parts and components of major weapon systems for
potential cost reduction programs. After an initiative is implemented, OSMIS can
track the actual savings. In the development of new systems, OSMIS data provides
the identification of major cost driver components of the prior systems to
provide PM focus in the new design.
The US Army Cost and Economic Analysis Center has initiated new OSMIS initiatives
supporting the National Performance Review objectives including revising the
annual reports to a customer-friendly format with more available information, and
broader, cheaper and more timely distribution of the annual report employing the
World Wide Web home page of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial
Management & Comptroller). A CD-ROM version is also available at customer
request. Since 1992, the number of systems tracked has increased from 347 to
414. Customer tailored reports are available. Our customer base expanded from
150 to over 400 clients (Army, DoD and DoD contractors), reflecting continual
improvements in the number of systems, the data utility and the quick
distribution of products. These OSMIS products and services permit resource
managers at all levels to estimate budget demands at all optempo levels.
- Standard Cost Analysis Tools. The US Army Cost and Economic Analysis
Center (USACEAC) is a leader in the development of standard cost and economic
analysis tools. To reduce redundancy, USACEAC has worked jointly with the Air
Force to develop, field, and support the Automated Cost Estimator Integrated
Tools (ACEIT) and Automated Cost Data Base (ACDB). USACEAC adopted ACEIT as the
defacto Army standard in 1992. ACEIT, developed under an early In Process Team
approach, provides powerful and flexible estimating and documentation tools
designed to improve quality and standardization without limiting analyst
Some important unique ACEIT features:
- Automatic standard cost estimating structure - Reduction in
errors/omissions - Facilitation of electronic interchange of in process
estimates - Built in common learning curve equations - Quick linkage to
major cost data bases
ACEIT provides significant savings over traditional cost estimating methods. In
a time of team estimating, ACEITÕs unique features provide easy integration of
the work of a team of independent analysts to effectively develop a single life
cycle cost estimate. This capability is particularly useful in the development
of complex cost estimates for joint service programs.
ACDB links to ACEIT and will be the most complete, readily available
source/repository of Army, Air Force and Navy historic cost and technical data.
Currently, the Army, Air Force and Navy are working jointly on the development
and fielding of 16 weapon system commodity cost databases.
To further the objectives of the National Performance Review, the joint
development of ACEIT has reduced development duplication between the services,
improved cost analysis productivity DoD-wide, accommodated for future expansion
of ACDB employing direct Electronic Data Interchanges (EDI), and benefited from
commonality in training programs (400 analysts trained Army-wide and 1400
ACEIT has significantly enhanced the ArmyÕs ability to meet decision makers needs
for quality life cycle cost estimates while experiencing a loss of over 30
percent of its cost analysts workforce.
- Economic Analysis Manual Update. In July 1995, the US Army Cost and
Economic Analysis Center (USACEAC) published the Department of the Army Economic
Analysis Manual. It has greatly reduced the efforts needed to complete economic
analyses (EA) throughout the Army. The new manual provides a user-friendly,
clear, easy to follow format for displaying the annualized dollars and the
associated descriptive information that is needed for an acceptable EA. It also
provides a comprehensive, well documented example of an acceptable EA. This
example provides answers to many questions with significant savings in time and
effort for preparers, advisers and validators.
The guidance in the new manual decreases the total effort required to produce an
EA through reductions in the required level of documentation. Required
documentation formats were redesigned to capture all appropriate costs and
benefits using less time and resources. A typical EA was reduced in size between
25 to 50 percent, saving an estimated 15 to 20 percent man-year effort. The
reinvented process provides the pertinent information in an easier to follow,
more condensed format.
To further aid the reader, the new manual is structured to facilitate finding
information and guidance on a particular area or subject matter. The layout is
supported by more effective and more informative graphics that display valuable
and well organized information on specific subject areas pertaining to the EA
The new manual provides detailed guidance and clarification on specific Army EA
requirements. It addresses Capital Budget investment projects which were not
addressed in the previous version of the manual, and gives detailed information
on preparing these specific EAs. For Defense Business Operating Fund (DBOF)
Capitol Budget Investment Projects below a certain threshold, the new manual
allows the submission of less rigorous cost comparisons, thereby reducing the
time and effort required to prepare for lower value investment decisions. This
specific information and guidance gives organizations a head start in preparing
justifications for their projects thus adding efficiency to the overall approval
process as the projects are reviewed by HQ Army and Office of the Secretary of
One final feature of the new manual provides the Army Program Managers with a
Cost Element Structure (CES) for Automated Information Systems (AIS) reflecting
the new standard DoD AIS CES format. This enables Army AIS program
managers/proponents to prepare their EAs in a format which will be acceptable to
DoD without the extensive reformatting which was often required in the past.
This streamlined approach shortens by ten to fifteen days one of the most
significant time windows in the process of preparing for a Major AIS Milestone
This new manual supports the objectives of the National Performance Review in a
number of important ways -- it was written with the user in mind, it has
significantly reduced the volume of paper required while improving the
readability of the product, and it has improved analyst productivity Army-wide
while maintaining the quality of the analysis.
- Installation Status Report (ISR). The Installation Status Report (ISR)
is a decision support system designed to determine the status, condition, and
resource requirements of all Army facilities and installations, using the same
standards, criteria, and methodology Army-wide. In the ISR Infrastructure
reporting, identified infrastructure requirements are matched against assets on
hand at the installations. Detailed qualitative and quantitative aspects of each
facilityÕs sustainment, renovation and new construction are reported using the
color rating scale (Red, Amber or Green).
The ISR provides a consistent estimate of the resource requirements to sustain
and improve Army facilities and installations. HQDA uses these estimates to
compare resource plans during the Program Operating Memorandum (POM) building
process. Later in the process, the ISR supports the ArmyÕs defense of resource
requirements for its installations before the Defense Department and Congress.
The ISR process is in keeping with the guidelines of the National Performance
Review and the Government Performance Review Act. The ISR gives the CommanderÕs
overview of the status of facility conditions on an installation, and provides an
assessment of conditions measured against a common set of standards. ISR can be
used to highlight key, systemic problem areas so Army leadership can focus
resources to the areas of most need.
The Resource Analysis Office designed, developed, and implemented the ISR
Army-wide, and the US Army Cost and Economic Analysis Center (USACEAC)
contributed to this effort by providing valid cost factors for over 200 facility
- Outsourcing of Cost and Economic Analysis. The U.S. Army Cost and
Economic Analysis Center (USACEAC) has expanded the Department of Defense and the
Army's cost and economic analysis capability by executing special studies for
selected requirements using contracted resources. Using its available source of
support contracts, USACEAC has frequently operated as the integrator/facilitator
for many cost and economic analysis projects across the DoD and provided
specific, short term cost estimating expertise not readily available elsewhere.
In Fiscal Year 1995, over $11 million of analyses were provided with customer
funding using USACEAC contract instruments with an estimated workload equivalent
of nearly 90 man-years. Outsourcing has permitted work force stability during
periods of unpredictable demands. Recent customers include the Office of the
Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, the Joint Logistics Systems
Center, and the Office of the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization.
When approached by a government agency requesting assistance, a USACEAC staff
analyst reviews the requirement, advises on the selection of the appropriate
available contractor, consults on the development of the task orderÕs statement
of work, and confers with the customer during the performance of the contract.
In support of the objectives of the National Performance Review, USACEAC uses
outsourcing as an effective management tool to address quickly and economically
unusual or short-suspense cost and economic analysis requirements while
maintaining management control of the product quality. Within its fixed
personnel ceiling, USACEAC management can provide, through outsourcing,
additional cost and economic analysis support providing quality products tailored
to the customerÕs needs within tight time constraints.
- Cost Review Board (CRB). The Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial
Management and Comptroller) formed the Army Cost Review Board (CRB) to provide
comprehensive Army Cost Positions (ACPs) acceptable to both the acquisition and
financial management communities and to support the Planning, Programming,
Budgeting and Execution System (PPBES). The CRB reviews cost estimates for major
weapon and information systems.
The CRB has conducted over thirty program reviews, totaling over $150 Billion,
with remarkable success. Since creation of the CRB about three years ago,
acquisition cost estimates in the ACP have differed from OSD Cost Analysis
Improvement Group estimates by less than 1%, and life cycle cost estimates by
less than 4%. The CRB process has essentially eliminated the time consuming,
labor intensive process of finding bill payers and re-prioritizing Army programs
to fix shortfalls.
The Cost Review Board takes an Integrated Product Team (IPT) approach to cost
analysis by bringing together functional experts from the acquisition, combat
developments, and financial management communities. Its review of major weapon
and information systems at critical acquisition decision points has raised, and
assisted in resolving, a number of very critical issues. For example the CRB
recommended a change in the maintenance concept for the Joint Tactical
Information Distribution System that resulted in a cost avoidance of $400
million. It also recommended the use of common hardware and software for Combat
Service Support Control System training, and standardization of policy toward
computer technology replacement for tactical and non-tactical applications. These
will result in a substantial additional cost avoidance for the Army.
The USACEAC, the CRB executive agent, is continuously improving the CRB process.
Current process improvement initiatives have shortened the time required for the
CRB to do its work, saving an estimated 1500 manhours for each Major Program
Review, perform cost risk and uncertainty analyses, and support affordability
excursions. CEAC recently assembled an Army-wide team to reengineer the cost
analysis process. The Army is experimenting with one of its recommendations in
the development of an ACP for the Comanche helicopter program. USACEAC and the
Comanche Program Office are co-chairing a cost IPT to develop a single cost
estimate for the demonstration and validation phases. This has the potential to
reduce resource requirements by eliminating duplicate cost estimates, while at
the same time increasing the quality of the estimate.
The Cost Review Board has dramatically improved cost analysis support to the
materiel acquisition and the PPBES processes. It achieved this success by
reducing the variance between Army and OSD cost estimates for materiel and
information systems and by providing timely, high quality cost estimates to
support the acquisition and PPBES processes.
- Purchase and Requisition Forms Preparation Tool. The P and R Forms
Preparation Tool has streamlined processes and reduced administrative
requirements on budget analysts at all levels of the Army resource management
structure. The tool integrates commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software
products, adding intelligence and functionality to the COTS products to reduce
the formatting and data entry requirements on budget analysts. Data that
previously had to be entered into manual forms several times by the budget
analysts is now automatically retrieved from a database or from previously
prepared forms and placed in the proper places on the current forms. The tool
enforces formatting procedures so that users are not burdened with format
development. In this way, the analysts can concentrate more on the analysis of
the data and program justification/explanation instead of on the more menial
tasks of data entry and formatting. The tool has reduced preparation times for
the PForms and the RForms, made the process of preparing and submitting the forms
much more efficient, and reduced frustrations on the professional budget
analysts. In short, this tool has reinvented how the process is done and made it
much more efficient.
- Funding Letter and Funding Distribution Systems. Two of the applications
that are part of a larger system called the Integrated Resource Management
Information System (IRMIS), the Funding Letter System (FLS) and the Funding
Distribution System (FDS) have together reduced a large amount of red tape and
paper generation routines. The FLS provides automated tracking of Congressional
modifications of appropriation requests submitted by the Army and gives budget
analysts on the Army staff an automated application for distributing those
modification to the sub-elements affected by the modifications. The system then
provides an electronic means for coordinating and approving the distribution of
those changes, producing a document describing those changes that is provided to
the Army commands as guidance for their execution of the approved Army
appropriations. The data generated in the FLS is automatically provided to the
FDS for preparation of funding authorization documents (FAD) that are
electronically coordinated and approved. The approved FAD will, within the next
year, be electronically fed into the ArmyÕs Program Budget Accounting System
(PBAS), which is the official finance and accounting system for control of
obligation and disbursement of Government funds. These two systems in concert
have reduced the amount of data entry required of budget analysts, organized the
information into more meaningful portions, and provided a means for managing the
impacts of Congressional actions on Army budget requests. The systems have also
provided for more accurate recording and storage of the critical appropriations
actions and reduced the amount of paper documents that must be generated to
document the control and distribution of the publicÕs monetary resources. The
systems have also streamlined the coordination and approval processes of the
funding guidance and documentation so that senior managers and budget analysts
can devote more time to analysis and decision-making because they are required to
spend less time on data entry, document formatting, and paper generation.
- PBD Coordination System. The Program Budget Decision Coordination System
is an example of integration of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products into an
intelligent, easy to use tool that reduces the workload on budget analysts and
the production of voluminous paper products. The PBD Coordination System
provides a tool for the entry of PBD guidance at one initial point and the
automatic replication of that data/information throughout the process of
analyzing and responding to program budget decision issues generated by the
Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) impacting Army programs and budget
items. The data and information entered at the receipt of a PBD is stored in a
common database and is automatically inserted into numerous electronic documents
throughout the process of deciding the appropriate Army response to the OSD PBD.
Management information in the form of various reports is generated automatically
from the database and is continuously available to the senior Army decision
makers, relieving action officers of tedious report development work. The system
also provides for electronic coordination of responses developed by the
responsible budget analyst and eliminates the requirement for the manual
distribution and coordination of the response by the preparing analyst. The
capabilities of the system have greatly reduced the manual entry of data over the
highly intensive process, eliminated the physical need for face to face delivery
of documents, and made the entire process much more efficient.
- Executive Information System. The Resource Management Executive
Information System (EIS) provides the senior Army leaders with executive level
information on a wide range of resource management topics. The EIS accesses the
latest information from the Integrated Resource Management Information System
(IRMIS) database and presents that information in limited detail or at summary
level and in graphical or tabular form on the senior managerÕs desktop computer.
The system provides an easily navigable menu to present the information in a
variety of views in terms of total Army, specific appropriation, specific
command, or a combination of these and other views. Incorporated into the EIS
are capabilities for electronic mailing to the Army Secretary, other Assistant
Secretaries or their subordinates the information being reviewed by the senior
leader in order to provide vital information on resource management issues, get
clarification of information, issue direction on actions that should be taken in
response to the information, or for other management reasons. The graphic or
tabular representations being viewed by the senior leader can also be saved or
printed for insertion into documents or briefings being developed for management
actions. The resource management EIS has been provided to senior leaders
throughout the Army staff for their use in reviewing and making executive
decisions relating to the ArmyÕs critical resources. The EIS provides current
information directly to the Army senior leadership, giving them more readily
accessible information and reducing requirements for subordinates to produce
documents and briefings for presentation of that information. This has increased
the efficiency of the staff as a whole and provided more up-to-date vital
information to the senior Army leaders.
- Data Analysis Query System. The Data Analysis Query System (DAQS),
sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial
Management & Comptroller), facilitates the flow of information between
Headquarters, Department of Army and Army installations throughout the world.
The unique architecture of DAQS allows its users easy access to the system using
e-mail on the Internet. This is possible because DAQS operates remotely as an
intelligent mail agent capable of operating without human intervention. DAQS
provides functionality in the following four areas:
- Disseminating information. DAQS distribution engine allows HQDA to
broadcast messages and send files to its user base around the world.
- Generating standard reports. DAQS is capable of generating several
different types of reports. When a request for a report is received, DAQS
processes the request, connects to the HQDAÕs Information Resource Management
Information System database (containing current and historical POM and Budget
data), generates the report as a Microsoft Word document, and mails the resulting
document back to the user. This has allowed DAQSÕ users access to the same
reports formerly only available via the Pentagon mainframe.
- Distributing software. Using DAQS allows users to request HQDA-provided
software. DAQS mails the requested software directly to the user as an attached
file along with any instructions necessary for installation and operation of the
- Processing program and budget data. During a program or budget cycle, the
ArmyÕs financial analysts at the major commands can send their POM/Budget data to
DAQS via e-mail. Upon receiving this data, DAQS first validates the data. If the
data is in error, the data is automatically mailed back to the analyst along with
an error report. This allows the MACOM to quickly correct their data, and
resubmit to HQDA. Once the data is correct, DAQS interfaces with HQDAÕs IRMIS
database and automatically stores the data. At all times during this process,
the current status of a given submission is sent by DAQS to the submitting party
and the appropriate managers at HQDA. In addition, DAQS maintains statistics for
all POM/Budget submissions which in turn is used to generate several different
reports that help HQDA track the overall status of a given POM/Budget cycle.
This process has dramatically improved the entire POM/Budget submission process
by improving the quality of the MACOMÕs data, automating time-intensive manual
processes, and providing accountability.