Annex C. Interaction With TRADOC
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)


1. Characteristics of Dismounted Battle Space

a. Battle space is that volume of the battlefield determined by the maximum capabilities of a unit to acquire and engage the enemy with both organic and supporting systems. The size, shape, and density of a given unit's battle space, as it applies to both mounted and dismounted forces, is variable dependent upon METT-T and level of command.

b. The concept of battle space goes beyond the three dimensional geographic space of width, depth, and height. It is an important mental construct that involves the ability to visualize enemy and friendly activity. It embraces a holistic view of the entire range of possible conditions and available options that impact on the commander's ability to successfully execute his mission. Battle space also embraces the dimension of time.

c. Commanders seek to dominate the enemy within their battle space, producing decisive results with minimum loss of life. Using weapon systems with greater lethal reach than those of potential adversaries, commanders will be able to mass lethal effect with increasingly dispersed forces.

d. Forces operating in dismounted battle space include light, special operations, and dismounted elements of armored forces. These forces are organized into combined arms task forces at brigade level and below, with combat, combat support, and combat service support capabilities tailored for the specific combat or operation other than war mission.

e. Generation of overmatching combat power by forces operating in dismounted battle space is essential to decisively defeat enemy forces during combat and to rapidly accomplish the mission required during operations other than war.

f. Overmatch is a primarily consideration for conduct of successful dismounted battle space operations. Overmatch is desired in all aspects of combat power; maneuver, firepower, protection, and leadership.

(1) Maneuver Overmatch:

(a) Mobility of dismounted forces must be enhanced to permit high tempo, continuous day/night operations in all-weather conditions. Continuous operations are enhanced by lightening the dismounted soldier's load and increasing his ability to overcome terrain and obstacle restrictions as well as optimizing the performance of his equipment and high physiology.

(b) Dismounted mobility is significantly enhanced by providing situational awareness via the integration of external intelligence and soldier borne sensors. Time required to transit "danger areas" (zones of potential ambush, potential zones of hostile fire, etc.) can be exponentially reduced by providing dismounted squads, platoons, and companies with ability to see the presence or absence of enemy soldiers, direct fires systems, mines, etc.

(c) Mobility overmatch is also achieved via tactical airlift assets (rotary and fixed wing, Army and joint) which are survivable and capable of penetrating hostile terrain.

(2) Firepower/Fire Support Overmatch: Dismounted direct fires must overmatch an opponent in terms of target acquisition, identification, maximum effective range, and lethality effects. Indirect fires overmatch is essential to protect the force and permits the dismounted commander to mass lethal effects without massing (thereby endangering) friendly forces. Elements contributing to firepower/fire support overmatch include battlefield synchronization linkage to the dismounted soldier, common picture of the battlefield which integrates national through organic sensors, fire control systems capable of exploiting battlefield synchronization/situational awareness capabilities, extended range fires, and precision munitions. Goal of firepower/fire support overmatch is to enable the dismounted force to detect, engage, and destroy enemy forces before coming within the range of the enemy's acquisition and engagement capabilities.

(3) Force Protection. Overmatch in force protection accrues in large part from attainment of overmatch in mobility, firepower, and fire support. Other elements of force protection include winning the reconnaissance battle, and the development of advanced passive and active protection measures.

(a) Dismounted forces must win the reconnaissance—counter reconnaissance battle. The use of Reconnaissance, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RISTA) sensors and unmanned vehicles, protects the force and enhances firepower and maneuver.

(b) Advanced Passive Measures are required to reduce the signature of the dismounted force and provide a greater degree of operational freedom from air attacks and acquisition supporting hostile fires. Advances are required in low observable technologies, advanced conventional camouflage, and multispectural camouflage.

(4) Leadership and Dismounted Battle Space Battle Command. Leadership is key to the synchronization of the dismounted battle. Leaders must understand the time dimensions as well as the spatial dimensions of battlefield in order to seize the initiative, dictate terms of close combat, achieve depth in maneuver, and impose their will on the enemy. Fusion of relevant tactical data from soldier level sensors through national assets will permit leaders from fire team leaders through brigade commanders an overmatch in understanding of the battlefield dimensions which significantly enhances lethality, survivability, and decisive capabilities of the dismounted force.