Annex D. Space And Missile Defense Technologies
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)


B. Testbeds/Ranges

Aero Optical Evaluation Center (AOEC). The AOEC facility is the world's largest and most capable shock tunnel. With its ultimate capability it will duplicate flight conditions for hypersonic interceptors. The facility has successfully isolated tunnel disturbances from vehicle measurements resulting in direct and correct measurements of aero-optical and aerodynamic conditions. The facility can quantify seeker performance, vehicle control, and aerodynamics. Multiband aero-optic and radiation effects can be quantified with the AOEC instrumentation suite. Jet interaction control effects, mixing, and combusting flows over seeker heads creating aero-optical effects that can be quantified at AOEC. Pressure and heating loads and force and moment measurements can be made during AOEC tests. This facility is unique to DoD in that it can test all BMDO interceptors at flight conditions, ultimately resulting in actual reduction in quantity of flights. The AOEC facility provides a path for flight test program cost reduction by providing a good understanding of flight test issues prior to flight.

POC: Dr. Harold Romero, MDSTC; (205) 955-3408; PMA A3360.01

Army Missile Optical Range (AMOR). AMOR is a contractor-operated compact laser radar range located at the U.S. Army Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. It serves primarily as an experiment facility supporting laser and LADAR measurements of selected materials and targets. It is currently utilized to support the USASSDC Imager Measurements Program, with the objective of exploring certain capabilities of active imaging systems. AMOR provides a cost-effective test bed for extensive data collection and for component/concept validation and verification.

AMOR utilizes reflective optics, which are essentially two 80-power telescopes, to optically construct the far field. A two-meter diameter primary mirror is the only common optical element between the transmitter telescope and the receiver telescope. Minimizing the number of common transmitter and receiver optical elements is essential to reduce stray light problems. The separate transmitter and receiver optical trains result in a 1 milliradian bi-static angle. The optics are mounted on a concrete platform which is vibrationally isolated from the building. The target mount is capable of translating and rotating targets.

AMOR performs large cross section (2 meter) measurements at 10.6, 1.06, and 0.53 micrometer wavelengths on tactical and strategic targets. In addition, range and Doppler resolved signature are obtained at AMOR. Current capability has been expanded to allow simultaneous active and passive sensor testing.

POC: Mr. Rodney Robertson, MDSTC; (205) 955-3795; PMA A1161/A3360

Extended Air Defense Test Bed (EADTB). The EADTB offers a breadth of scope from the fire-unit level up to theater level in a constructive simulation framework. An object-based simulation architecture supports this breadth of applicability by allowing the user to develop system models called specific system representations (SSRs). The user can then place numbers of these simulated systems on a host gameboard without a requirement for rewrite of other existing system models or modification of the supporting architecture. The EADTB supports a wide range of levels of detail in model development and offers the flexibility of simultaneous use of high- and low-detail SSRs in a single simulation exercise. This flexibility allows the analyst to apply a high-detail SSR to simulate a key system, such as a THAAD/PATRIOT enclave at a critical location, while simulating the surrounding theater context with a lower-detail and/or higher-aggregation representation. Thus, the EADTB can simultaneously assess both system performance and value added at a higher echelon, reducing the need for multiple simulations and the attendant requirement for model harmonization. The rule-set based EADTB SSR language will support growth beyond Extended Air Defense to explicitly model both surface warfare and NMD at a similarly wide range of levels of detail and aggregation. By placing model-development power in the hands of users, the EADTB has stimulated the ongoing development of a range of system models by system proponent agencies across all three Services. These proponent agencies will certify their EADTB models for a documented range of uses and contribute them to SSR library, which will be accessible to other EADTB users. The EADTB will thus become the first simulation to offer access to a library of system models contributed and certified by a diverse group of joint-service and, potentially, international sources.

The combination of an object-based framework, flexibility in level of model detail, promotion of the sharing of certified models, and Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) compliance will provide a number of benefits to EADTB users:

The EADTB is rapidly moving towards the assumption of these roles for the joint and international TMD community.

POC: LTC P. Macklin, USASSDC; (205) 955-4883; PMA A3352

Extended Air Defense Simulation (EADSIM). EADSIM is a workstation-hosted, system-level simulation which is used by combat developers, materiel developers, and operational commanders to assess the effectiveness of TMD and air defense systems against the full spectrum of extended air defense threats. EADSIM provides a many-on-many theater-level simulation of air and missile warfare, an integrated analysis tool to support joint and combined force operations, and a tool to augment maneuver force exercises at all echelons with realistic air defense training.

EADSIM is used by operational commanders, trainers, and analysts to model the performance and predict the effectiveness of ballistic missiles, surface-to-air missiles, aircraft, and cruise missiles in a variety of user-developed scenarios. EADSIM supports the four pillars of TMD in a full tactical context by modeling: (1) Active Defense [Surface-to-Air engagements, Air-to-Air engagements, Multi-tier engagements, and TBM engagements (boost, midcourse, terminal phases)]; (2) Passive Defense (IR and Radar signature); (3) Attack Operations (Surface-to-Surface attacks, Air-to-Surface attacks, Surveillance, and Intelligence collection); and (4) BM/C4I (Engagement logic, Command and Control structure, Communications networks, and Protocols).

EADSIM models fixed- and rotary-wind aircraft, tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, infrared and radar sensors, satellites, command and control structures, sensor and communications jammers, communications networks and devices, and fire support in a dynamic environment which includes the effects of terrain and attrition on the outcome of the battle. EADSIM can easily be confederated with campaign-level models such as the Corps Battle Simulation and Vector-in-Commander, with high-fidelity models such as BRAWLER, and with virtual simulators such as the TI Reconfigurable Simulator configured as a Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle.

Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) Virtual Prototype. The MDBIC has initiated an effort to develop an ATR workstation, within a Silicon Graphics Computer, that emulates an ATR suite of equipment normally found at National-level agencies. The ATR emulation will consolidate both ATRs and decision aids into a Virtual Prototype within the Force Projection TOC or its equivalent Echelon Above Corps TOC. The purpose is to provide an imagery analysis and cruise missile detection/discrimination capability to a Corps or Division Commander by direct sensor to TOC down-links and thus expedite the BMC3 process. The ATR Virtual Prototype will be DIS compatible with the MDBIC synthetic battlefield environment and when operational will determine the optimum echelon placement of the capability to support TMD operations. The need for this capability arises from past experience where ground target imagery and target location was often too late to attack hostile targets. The ATR workstation will employ numerous ATR algorithms to extract multi-spectral CCD targets from their clutter background. The work station will also employ discriminants to rapidly identify cruise missiles, aircraft, and ballistic missiles from RSTA sensors that are either airborne (i.e., Aerostat) or ground-based such as the PATRIOT, THAAD, Corps SAM/MEADS, and GBS air defense radars. This effort is a coordinated effort with the Army Modeling and Simulation Office as a SIMTECH initiative.

POC: Mr. Rick Berg, USASSDC; (205) 955-3508

High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). HELSTF has been managed by USASSDC since October 1990. It has a four-part mission: (1) support Army and DoD high energy laser Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E); (2) develop, integrate, and operate high energy lasers and related instrumentation, facilities, and support systems; (3) conduct and evaluate laser effects tests on materials, components, subsystems, systems, and weapons; and (4) provide a limited Anti-Satellite (ASAT) contingency capability, if called upon. HELSTF is a multi-service facility with representatives from the Navy and Air Force on site.

HELSTF became operational on 6 September 1985 when the Air Force conducted the first Lethality and Target Hardening program test for the BMDO. Since then, HELSTF has provided test support to DoD, NASA, industry, universities, and foreign governments under appropriate user agreements. The facility has a wide variety of test capabilities, including non-laser vacuum testing of space vehicles and high-speed, high-resolution IR tracking of missiles and target intercepts.

The Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL) is the workhorse laser for the site and is the only high energy laser operating in the free world. The associated Sea Lite Beam Director (SLBD) is the only laser beam director capable of transmitting a high energy laser beam. The SLBD provides extremely high pointing and tracking accuracies required for near earth orbit object tracking.

The Pulsed Laser Vulnerability Test System is a threat surrogate laser system for testing the vulnerability and susceptibility of U.S. systems to potential enemy directed energy systems. Two other chemical lasers, the Laser Development Device and the Low Power Chemical Laser, provide a wide spectrum of power levels and exposures for high energy laser customer research, development, test, and evaluation.

The instrumentation at the site is the most extensive in the United States. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) supports the site with a full meteorological research and development station with numerous specialized instruments for laser propagation prediction and characterization. Laser diagnostics are on hand to measure and characterize the laser beam and its effects on the targets. Data processing is available for all data acquisition as well as post-test analysis.

HELSTF is ideally suited to explore concepts of directed energy weapons employment without the need to develop all new laser systems. The location at WSMR is the only instrumented laser range in the free world capable of engaging flying targets with high energy lasers. The WSMR support provides all of the assets of the range, which includes the most advanced optical and radar tracking systems available. Communications and data links with the Army Space Operations Center provide real time satellite communications and tracking for the customer. Command and control procedures may also be exercised over those links for end-to-end systems testing. The wide range of capabilities at HELSTF makes it able to support a broad range of DoD system applications related to optical systems, space environment, atmospheric propagation, KE and directed energy system concept demonstrations, and all ranges of laser operations and tests. Future expansion of HELSTF will include the addition of more advanced lasers now in development and further advances in laser beam propagation using atmospheric compensation systems.

A program to increase utilization of HELSTF is the High Energy Laser Light Opportunity (HELLO). It is a grouping of experiments from academia, industry, and OGAs. The first test, performed in September 1994, was conducted by California Institute of Technology, Phillips Petroleum, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Army Research Laboratory. In order to increase its flexibility and responsiveness to its customers, HELSTF expanded the HELLO program in August 1995 from one test to an ongoing series of tests. Instead of a specific date, HELLO will now be an open-ended invitation.

POC: Mr. Kenneth White, USASSDC; (505) 679-5538

Tools to Facilitate the Rapid Assembly of Missile Engagement Simulations (TFRAMES). Originally developed under the Kinetic Energy Weapon (KEW) Digital Emulation Center (KDEC), an analysis center supporting the evaluation of weapon technologies and interceptor performance, TFRAMES is a software development tool that minimizes the time and effort to go from missile model formulation to working simulations. Running on virtually any platform, TFRAMES has been used for a number of applications from a small fly-out tool, mini-rocket, which serves as a support tool for EADSIM, to use in development of BMDO's next standard threat generation model to be used by NASA in modeling the X-33.

POC: Mr. Jeff Randorf, USASSDC; (205) 955-3854

Lexington Discrimination System (LDS) Test Bed. The LDS test bed, located at MIT/Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, MA, uses actual filed data to test discrimination algorithms and architectures in real time. This is the only such test bed available to the BMD community. Development began in FY85 and, after demonstrating the first real-time imaging of satellites at Kwajalein in FY87, emphasis shifted to development of a real-time radar algorithm test bed using staged data from the COBRA JUDY sensor. Algorithm development, testing, and evaluation produced the basis of today's advanced test bed. The LDS now allows automated real-time switching of a set of active or passive algorithms (forming a real-time algorithm architecture) to determine the identity of a single target from the threat train. The new LDS will also support sensor resource allocation studies. A study has indicated that the LDS could serve as an end-to-end element discrimination test bed, with elements testing their individual algorithms from subsystems connected directly to LDS. This idea is currently under consideration by BMDO.

POC: Mr. Patrick A. Tilley, MDSTC; (205) 955-3885; PMA A1155.03 & .13

Mosaic Optical Sensor Technology Test Bed (MOSTT). The MOSTT Program test facilities support the development, characterization, testing, and calibration of low background, IR surveillance sensors and interceptor seekers. These test facilities consist of the Portable Optical Sensor Testbed (POST) chamber and the Characterization of Advanced Low background Mosaics (CALM) chamber. The POST Chamber is a low background (20 degrees K, hard vacuum) IR sensor test chamber which has characterized/ calibrated several important BMDO flight sensors including DOT, AOA/AST, and Queen Match. It is currently supporting the GBI program contractors and will be used to support the SMTS program in FY97. The CALM chamber is a low background (20 degrees K, hard vacuum) IR detector FPA test chamber. It is the only known FPA test chamber which can accurately scan a spot across an FPA at operational scan rates under low background conditions. It has served a critical role in the development of the high sensitivity Arsenic doped Silicon mosaic detector technology. These test facilities are government owned and contractor operated. In conjunction with the MOSTT contractor activities, the effort involves the U.S. Navy Naval Research and Development (NRaD) infrared and radiation test facilities in San Diego, CA. The NRaD activity focuses on performing optical characterization and radiometric measurements in a radiation environment on optical materials and full scale components.

POC: Mr. Clyde Elliott, MDSTC; (205) 955-3757; PMA A3360.01 &.11

Surveillance Test Bed (STB). The STB is a high-fidelity surveillance system simulation that generates performance assessment by modeling in detail the surveillance functions, radar and optical sensors, signal and data processing, targets, and environments. The STB is being developed at the Advanced Research Center (ARC) to conduct system demonstration/validation experiments to address MD/TMD surveillance issues, concerns, potential risks, and requirements definition. The surveillance functions included in the STB are detection, acquisition, track, association/correlation, bulk filtering, discrimination, data fusion, and sensor tasking. These functions are represented by algorithms called test articles (TAs). The STB consists of two major parts: the test environment and the TAs. The test environment generates the necessary information to exercise the TAs, provides for the necessary logging of data, and displays the desired measures of effectiveness and performance after test execution.

POC: Mr. Henry Hollman, MDSTC; (205) 955-5458

U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll/Kwajalein Missile Range (USAKA/ KMR). Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) is an element of the DoD Major Range and Test Facility base managed by the USASSDC under DoD Directive 3200.11. KMR supports missile defense research and technology programs for USASSDC and the BMDO as well as strategic offensive weapons system development and operational testing conducted by the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Navy. KMR also assists in tracking and monitoring NASA space missions and provides deep-space surveillance and object identification for the USSPACECOM. Current testing emphasis is on theater ballistic missile discrimination in the radio, infrared and visual spectral frequencies, and on NMD C3 and interceptor seeker technology systems.

KMR is located on the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the Central Pacific, approximately 2100 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii. It is the home of some of the world's most sophisticated data gathering devices, offering a diverse mixture of radar, telemetry, and optical sensors to observe and record ballistic reentry vehicles, and to accumulate target signature data bases for BMD applications.

KMR is comprised of a group of data collection, command and control, and support instrumentation located on eight islands within the Atoll and a data reduction facility at Lexington, MA. KMR's general instrumentation is comprised of those assets found on most major ranges to include S-band telemetry, optics, C-band tracking radars (FPQ-19 and MPS-36), impact scoring, range safety, communications, and support functions such as calibration and photographic laboratories. In addition to the general instrumentation, KMR has one-of-a-kind video systems and high-powered radars. The latter, located at the Kiernan Reentry Measurements Site, consists of ALCOR, a 3 Mw, C-Band observables radar; ALTAIR, a 7 Mw, UHF/VHF radar; MMW, a 60 kw radar operating at Ka- and W-bands; and TRADEX, a 2 Mw radar operating at S- and L-bands. These radars are capable of independent or fully integrated operation via the Kwajalein Mission Control Center.

POC: Mr. Les Jones, USASSDC; (205) 955-1874