Annex E. International Armaments Strategy
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)


H. Mechanical Sciences

Table E.III.7 summarizes international research capabilities in each major subarea of mechanical sciences.

Table E.III-7. Mechanical Sciences

MECHANICAL SCIENCES UNITED KINGDOM FRANCE GERMANY OTHER COUNTRIES JAPAN PACIFIC RIM FSU
Structures and Dynamics Smart/active
structures,

Structural
acoustics,

Modeling
and simulation
Smart/active
structures,

Modeling and
simulation
Smart/active
structures,

Modeling and simulation
Italy

Smart/active
structures,
Modeling
and simulation
Brazil
Israel
S.Africa
Poland

Smart/active
structures,

Modeling
and simulation
Smart/active
structures,

Modeling
and simulation
India
S. Korea
China

Smart/active
structures,

Modeling
and simulation
Russia
Ukraine

Smart/active
structures,

Modeling
and simulation
Fluid Dynamics CFD

Theoretical


Experimental,
CFD

Theoretical

Experimental
CFD

Theoretical

Experimental
Canada
CFD

Australia

Experimental,

Theoretical
CFD

Theoretical

Experimental,
  Ruissia
Ukraine

CFD

Experimental,

Theoretical
Combustion and Propulsion

Small GT,

Recipricating
engines,
Sol/liq. gun

Small GT,


Solid gun,


Recipricating engines

Recipricating engines,
Solid gun

Small GT
Canada
Australia
Solid gun,

Recipricating engines

Small GT
S. Korea
Solid gun
Recipricating engines
Sol/liq. gun,

Small GT
S. Korea
India
Solid gun
S. Korea
Solid gun
S. Korea
Recipricating engine
Russia
Novel gun propulsion
Small GT,
Recipricating engine

CFD - Computational fluid dynamics; GT - Gas turbine engine; Sol/liq gun - Solid/Liquid gun propulsion

The area of Structures and Dynamics consists of structural dynamics and simulation and air vehicle dynamics. Within structural dynamics, priority research applies to ground vehicle and multibody dynamics, structural damping, and smart structures. The goal of significant vibration reduction in army vehicles offers substantial increases in weapons platform stability, weapons system reliability, weapons lethality, and crew performance. Within air vehicle dynamics, priority research applies to integrated aeromechanics analysis, rotorcraft numerical analysis, helicopter blade loads and dynamics, and projectile elasticity. In solid mechanics, research areas are the mechanical behavior of materials, integrity and reliability of structures, and tribology. The latter area contributes to damage tolerance, damage control, and life prediction, while tribology contributes to lubrication, dynamic friction, and low heat rejection.

Basic research in fluid dynamics can directly contribute to advances in predicting the capabilities of maneuvering projectiles. Future advances would enhance the ability to predict the capabilities of smart munitions, integrated propulsion systems, flight dynamics, guidance and control, and structural dynamics within the Army. Fluid dynamics research priority areas are unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, and vortex dominated flows. Complementary research on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of multibody aerodynamics would provide a capability to predict and define submunition dispensing systems. Multidisciplinary research in this area will lead to hypervelocity launch technology as well as low speed military delivery systems.

Combustion and Propulsion research supports advanced technology development providing continued advancement in small gas turbine engine propulsion, reciprocating engine propulsion, and solid, liquid, and novel gun propulsion technology. The development of high performance small gas turbine engines requires basic research in turbomachinery stall and surge, as well as advances in CFD simulation. These basic research areas directly contribute to highly loaded, efficient turbomachinery components. This type of research is necessary to meet the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) goals of a 120% increase in turbo shaft power to weight ratio. Reciprocating engine technology research tends to move forward at a more evolutionary pace with advances in ultra-low heat rejection, enhanced air utilization, and cold start phenomena as priority areas. Solid gun propulsion technology requires research priority to be placed on ignition and combustion dynamics and high performance solid propellant charge concepts. Liquid gun propulsion requires priority research in atomization and spray combustion, ignition and combustion mechanisms, and combustion instability, hazards and vulnerability. Novel gun propulsion depends on electrothermal-chemical (ECT) propulsion, active control mechanisms, and novel ignition mechanisms.

In the field of Structures and Dynamics, the UK, Germany, Italy, France, and Japan all demonstrate world class capabilities in smart/active structures and modeling and simulation development. India, South Korea, China, Brazil, Israel, South Africa, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine all demonstrate potential future capabilities in the same area. However Russia and Ukraine’s potential appears to be dwindling because of lack of resources. The UK also demonstrates a world class capability in structural acoustic research and development.

A balanced world class capability in the theoretical, experimental and CFD elements of fluid dynamics research is not resident in any single foreign country. There are a number of examples of world class capability in specific areas of research which hold promise for military applications. Computational fluid dynamics studies in the United Kingdom, France, and Japan can contribute significantly to missile, rotor and explosive design. France and Japan also excel in theoretical ability and Japan also exhibits excellent experimental ability. The UK, France ,and Germany are maintaining a mature experimental capability. Both Russia and Ukraine have had mature experimental and theoretical ability, however they show a declining capability, largely due to a lack of resources.

In the Combustion and Propulsion area, the UK and France both demonstrate world class capabilities in small gas turbine engine development. Canada, Germany, and Japan approach this level of capability in limited areas, but show good potential over the next decade to make significant contributions to small gas turbine power to weight ratio improvement. Germany leads in reciprocating engine development technology with Japan also demonstrating world class capability. Both countries particularly excel in the application of ceramic materials to low heat rejection technology. The UK also demonstrates excellent reciprocating engine development capability, with France, Canada, Australia, and South Korea exhibiting good future potential. Russia and Ukraine both have demonstrated mature capability in the past, however limited resources reflect a declining future potential. Novel gun propulsion technology leadership is still maintained by Russia, however their future growth potential may be muted. Liquid gun propulsion development technology is lead by the UK with Japan showing significant potential. Solid gun propulsion development technology is resident in a number of countries including the UK, France, Germany, Canada, and Australia. Japan and South Africa both demonstrate significant future potential.