L. Behavioral, Cognitive and Neural Sciences
Table E.III-11summarizes international research capabilities in the various subareas related to this field. Basic research in these areas contributes directly to: 1) the ability of a soldier to analyze and act on information presented on a video display terminal (multi-modal display systems and iconography), 2) training in virtual and constructed realities, and 3) determining fitness for duty as well as when training goals have been achieved.
Table E.III-11. Behavioral, Cognitive & Neural
|BEHAVIORAL, COGNITIVE AND NEURAL SCIENCES||UNITED KINGDOM||FRANCE||GERMANY||OTHER COUNTRIES||JAPAN||PACIFIC RIM||FSU|
|Cognitive Skills and Abilities||a, b, d
||a, b, d
|| b S. Korea
Due to reduced activity
|Noncognitive Skills and Abilities||a, b, d
||a, b, c
||a, b, d
|Perceptual Processes||a, b
|| S. Korea
|a, b Due to reduced activity
|Leadership||Multinational force integration
Cognitive Skills and Abilities - a: Distributed simulation and constructed reality (US ADS system); b: iconograph compatibility with human user; c: aging and performance; d: vital sign remote
Noncognitive Skills and Abilities - a: Neurophysiological measures of human performance; b: pharmacological performance sustainers; c: neuropsychological profile; d: stress reduction
Perceptural Processes - a: Multimodal data presentation (couple visual presentation on display panel with auditory display); b: iconographic compatibility with human user
The current era in command and control systems is characterized by acquisition of such large amounts of data simultaneously that processing of the information is limited by perceptual processes of the human mind. To manage this reality, C3 systems have made progress in iconographic representations and in multimodal data presentation by using auditory input to complement visual display systems. Color coded icons can be used to present complex data in a relatively simple manner. Auditory cues improve the operator's attentiveness and response to changing incoming data. Nonetheless, as our ability to sense battlefield conditions improves through the use of multiarray sensors, the amount of information to be processed will increase dramatically. The task then is to present the large volume of data in a compressed and comprehensible manner. Research therefore addresses mechanisms by which the data presented can be compressed; also required is information concerning the ability of the operator to comprehend the data and how this ability changes as a function of sleep deprivation, medication, and aging. Iconographic systems are under development in the US, Canada, EC, and Japan. The Netherlands, Israel, and some Pacific Rim nations also have efforts in this area. Unobtrusive measures of vital signs require miniaturized sensors (of blood pressure, respiration, electrical conductivity) and compact, light weight relay systems. The US, Japan, EC (including the Netherlands), and Pacific Rim nations, including Taiwan, South Korea, and Malaysia, have increasing capability in this area.
The advent of computer generated auditory and visual data presentation modes led to advanced distributed simulation (ADS) techniques and programs. This allows multiforce operations to be imaged from distributed sites. Such technology facilitates training activities and integration of activities across the services. The software and hardware used in model systems are developed in the US, Japan, and EC. Pharmacological performance sustainers (e.g. melatonin) are being explored for efficacy. Nations with extensive programs in the pharmaceutical area or in processed foods have capabilities here. These include the UK, Japan, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Sweden, and Germany.