4. Roadmap for Air Defense Artillery
Table III-L-2 presents a summary of demonstrations and systems found in the Air Defense Artillery roadmap (Figure III-L-1). Modernization of ADA depends upon the development of these key systems for air defense coordination.
Table III-L-2. Air Defense Artillery Demonstration and System Summary
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Figure III-L-1. Roadmap for Air Defense Artillery Modernization
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a. Advanced Technology Demonstrations Leading to Modernization of Air Defense Artillery Units
Air Defense Artillery systems consist of a complementary mix of weapons, sensors, and command and control systems. Air Defense Artillery modernization focuses on S/SU/AC developments and their associated demonstrations. The Multifunction Staring Sensor Suite (MFS3) ATD will have a major impact on the Air Defense mission. Additionally, the mission area will derive benefits from many other ATDs, to include: the Rapid Force Projection Initiative ACTD, the Target Acquisition and Battlefield Combat Identification ATDs, and the recently completed Combined Arms Command and Control and Bistatic Radar for Weapons Location ATDs.
Multifunction Staring Sensor Suite (MFS3) ATD (98-01). The MFS3 ATD will integrate multiple advanced sensor components including staring infrared arrays, multifunction laser, and acoustic arrays. In support of air defense, it will demonstrate the capability for automated surface-to-surface, surface-to-air, and air-to-ground search, acquisition, and non-cooperative identification. More detailed information can be found in Section G, Mounted Forces. Supports: BSFV-E (Linebacker).
b. Technology Demonstrations Leading to Modernization of Air Defense Artillery Systems
The following are primarily focused on the Air Defense Artillery Mission Area.
Masked Targeting (MT) Technology Demonstration (98-00). MT will demonstrate technologies and systems to support future air superiority and defense requirements. The MT concept encompasses sensors and weapons that address both line-of-sight (LOS) and terrain masked threats. MT will demonstrate a ground-based, organic sensor for direct targeting and a sensor payload for tactical unmanned air vehicles to provide targeting for indirect fire systems. This system will provide the maneuver force air defender with organic automated target detection, acquisition, ID, and ranging information. Supports: BSFV-E (Linebacker) and future missile systems.
2.75-Inch Anti-Air Technology Demonstration (97-99). The objective of the 2.75-Inch Anti-Air TD is to provide a comprehensive upgrade to the Stinger missile system through the incorporation of an advanced imaging infrared seeker to enable the engagement of hostile helicopters in clutter at extended ranges (23x). This demonstration will go beyond the current concept development program of a form factored seeker with commercial breadboard-type signal processing electronics to demonstrate the ability to package the signal processing electronics in 2.75-inch diameter. In addition, signal processing algorithms for target detection, tracking, and IR counter countermeasures will be developed and demonstrated via hardware in the loop simulations, ground tests, and captive carry tests. This system will maintain compatibility with existing Stinger launchers and retain Stinger's excellent capability against fixed-wing aircraft. Supports: FAAD Stinger Block II and all launch platforms.
Ducted Rocket Engine (DRE) Technology Demonstration (96-98). This TD is discussed in detail in Fire Support, Section N.
Future Missile Technology Integration (FMTI) Technology Demonstration (94-98). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Aviation, Section D.
Compact Kinetic Energy Missile (CKEM) Technology Demonstration (96-99). This technology is discussed in detail in Mounted Forces, Section G.
High Mobility Ground-Launched AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) Technology Demonstration (HMGL-AMRAAM) (96-99). The primary focus for this technology demonstration will lead to a low cost, highly mobile air and cruise missile defense capability based on the robust capabilities of the Joint Air Force/Navy/USMC AIM-120 AMRAAM missile. This concept will integrate this extremely capable digital fire-and-forget missile onto a highly mobile Avenger-based heavy HMMWV ground launch platform. Cueing for the systems will be provided by the AN/MPQ-64 Ground-Based Sensor (GBS) (or any other three-dimensional sensor) and remote fire control will be managed with the Simplified Hand Held Terminal Unit (SHTU). The AIM-120 AMRAAM launched from a HMMWV-based system provides medium range, high rate of fire missile with the multiple simultaneous target engagement capabilities needed to fill the gap between Stinger and Patriot. The mix of short (Stinger) and medium (AIM-120) range missiles will provide both the IR and RF guidance and homing needed to counter the evolving Cruise Missile and UAV threats. Supports: AIM-120 AMRAAM, RFPI ACTD, Current and Future Missile Systems.
Electronic Integrated Sensor Suite for Air Defense (EISS-AD) (94-97). The EISS-AD is a Joint Service (Army/Navy) effort designed to address known Combined Arms FAAD capability deficiencies. It will demonstrate a survivable air defense system for rapid insertion forces (U.S. Marine Corps) and close combat heavy forces (U.S. Army). The objective is to demonstrate an integrated sensor suite that provides automated target acquisition, tracking, and identification of aircraft in an operational air defense environment at standoff range. In addition, an on-the-move capability will be demonstrated. This demonstration will consist of the integration of state-of-the-art electronic sensors to include an improved Infrared Search and Track Capability (IRST), target confirmation hardware with special processing Noncooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) technologies, and eye safe laser rangefinder (LRF). Supports: BSFV-E (Linebacker), Corps SAM.
Guidance Integrated Fuzing (95-97). The objective of Guidance Integrated Fuzing is to develop and demonstrate guidance integrated fuzing techniques for millimeter wave active homing seeker systems in air defense missiles, utilizing a mix of target signature measurements, target backscatter modeling, and endgame modeling. This effort will also provide algorithms for integrated guidance and fuzing to track high speed targets from the munition to achieve accuracy for warhead kills. In addition, near-far field target signatures from millimeter wave, monopulse instrumentation radar will be collected. It is expected that this effort will generate high fidelity target models to support highly accurate guidance integrated fuzing simulations to validate robust system designs. Supports: Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC3), Corps Surface-to-Air Missile (Corps SAM).
Armicide Technology Demonstration (97-00). The Armicide Tech Demo will demonstrate a concept designed to serve as an adjunct for Anti-Radiation Missile (ARM) defense to the major air defense systems such as Patriot and the THAAD Ground-Based Radar (GBR). Armicide will use the organic air defense system radars to provide the fire control to engage the ARM target. Thus the need for providing an expensive counterarm sensor is avoided. Armicide consists of the following main components which are currently within the realm of engineering implementation, or available with minor modifications: (1) a medium caliber command guided smart munition which does not require an expensive homing seeker; (2) two rapid fire conventional launchers, whose design and technology are in use by all Services, as well as internationally; (3) a fire control processor/transmitter; and (4) the host radar (Patriot and GBR) that will provide target and interceptor tracking information to the fire control unit. This function will be discussed at a later time and will not impact the normal mission function of the radar. Supports: Patriot, THAAD GBR.
c. Benefits to Air Defense Artillery Systems
Benefits to the air defense mission area that may be derived from ATDs, STOs, and Advanced Concepts are as follows:
- New search and track capabilities which could be adapted into air defense's multi-sensor capabilities.
- Improved integration of sensors and fire control systems providing faster "slew-to-cue" capabilities for air defense weapons.
- Propellant and guidance movements that may be incorporated into air defense weapons to provide dead zone and self-protection coverage.
- Combat identification enhancements to ensure higher accuracy of positive identification of hostile and friendly targets, therefore reducing possibility of fratricide.
- Communication enhancements improving the vertical and horizontal sharing of critical battlefield information and increasing the accuracy and volume of data being shared.
- Survivability enhancements that will lower the susceptibility of air defense sensors to ARMs and will decrease existing air defense systems vulnerability to indirect fire.
- Fuzing improvements that will lead to higher probability of kills of both conventional targets and weapons of mass destruction.
- Digitization of the battlefield.