4. Roadmap for Space Systems
Army efforts in the application of space are to normalize space applications in operations in the Army. Toward this objective, a number of projects are ongoing for the application and development of technologies to exploit space to meet Army requirements. The roadmap for Space Exploitation is shown in Figure III-Q-1. The projects in the Space Exploitation area follow.
Figure III-Q-1. Roadmap for Space
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GPS Azimuth Determining System (90-97). The GPS Azimuth Determining System (GPS ADS) is a combat multiplier that provides pointing with survey quality accuracy using the principle of microwave interferometry to signals transmitted from NAVSTAR GPS to provide azimuth, position, elevation, and roll to an azimuth accuracy of 1.0 mils and elevation accuracy to 3.5 mils in 4 seconds. The GPS ADS will be used to meet the pointing requirements of indirect fire weapons, radars, intelligence systems, communications tracking, combat aviation, maneuver, blue force tracking, and forward observers. It will be installed on numerous platforms as a system enhancement. Supports: System upgrades in Multiple MLRS, AFAS, Precision Strike, Trailblazer, and THAAD.
Theater Direct Access Demonstration (95-98). A tactical satellite launched by DARPA will be used to conduct a proof of concept technology demonstration with Army TENCAP systems to show the capability of satellite mission tasking direct from theater forces. The Joint Army/DARPA/NSA program will conduct the technology demonstration of this concept in support of Early Entry and Battle Command doctrine. Supports: Tactical Satellite system and system upgrades to Army TENCAP.
Multi/Hyperspectral Data Applications (94-00). The Army will demonstrate several technologies to be used in the collection of multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for the exploitation of remote earth sensing imagery. This has applications in the areas of reconnaissance and intelligence, as well as terrain analysis. The collection sensors will be used to develop the data base required to identify spectral signatures for future exploitation. The prototype sensor will demonstrate Army tactical utility in ground and flight test. Combine phenomenology between spectral and polarization will be investigated for detection and identification of tactical targets. These sensors will assist in the development of Army requirements for the next generation of remote earth sensors. Sensor technology will transition to Army sensor packages, to UAV, or to space systems. Supports: Precision Strike, TMD Weapons, and Advanced Image Collection and Processing.
Laser Satellite Communications (95-99). A proof of concept demonstration will be conducted using ground-to-ground and ground-to-air systems for laser communications. This technology has the potential to increase the data capacity above that of existing communications while decreasing the weight, size, and power requirements. Data rates up to 1 gbps are possible. The proof of concept will be developed into a technology demonstration and in the future transition into a dual use terminal or a tri-band to support the Common Ground Station. Mountain top-to-mountain top experiments have been successfully completed. Feasibility studies are being done to assess the ground-to-ground and space-to-ground roles. More hardware is being built to perform ground-to-ground and ground-to-air experiments. Future experiments will put hardware on a satellite to perform space-to-air and space-to-ground experiments. Supports: Digital Battlefield Communications ATD, Communications Transport System, and Force XXI.
Battlefield Ordnance Awareness (BOA) (FY96-02). The program is to demonstrate a near real-time ordnance reporting system using onboard processing with space sensors. This technology will improve battlefield visualization of friendly and enemy ordnance fires and cruise missile launches. It addresses the need to target ordnance delivery for counterfire purposes, a major battlefield deficiency. The BOA capability will identify the ordnance by type and provide position information for counter fire opportunities, as well as Battle Damage Assessment, blue forces ordnance inventory, information for dispatch for logistical and medical support, and search/rescue. Advanced processor technology will be used with state-of-the-art plane staring arrays to provide critical information to the commander. Supports: TMD Weapons, Depth and Simultaneous Attack, Early Entry Battle Labs, and Field Artillery Systems.
Laser Boresight Calibration (95-98). This program will develop a solid-state laser calibration capability for Joint Tactical Ground Station (JTAGS) system. The laser calibrator will provide a known ground registration point for space-based sensors resulting in improved launch point predictions and impact area for Theater Ballistic Missiles (TBM). It will reduce the command and control timelines plus improve the overall responsiveness of the Joint Precision Strike and TMD forces by significantly reducing the TBM search box. The improved line-of-sight target accuracy will result in higher quality missile warning, alerting, and cueing information. This capability will be integrated into the JTAGS P3I. Supports: Theater Missile Defense (TMD)-JTAGS, Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS).
Range Extension/Surrogate Satellite (94-99). The goal of this demonstration is to support Army C4I modernization by developing and demonstrating key technologies and capabilities for flexible and affordable intra-theater long range communications. It includes the use of surrogate satellites, enhancements to current SATCOM equipment, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) cross links. A range extension testbed was developed in FY96, followed by commercial UAV demonstrations, SATCOM terminal modifications in FY97 (to use with the relay/surrogate satellite), battlefield paging, network controller and switching, and UAV cross links to be completed in FY99. A fully integrated demonstration of a SHF network will be conducted in FY99. This demonstration also supports C4, and is referenced further in C4, Section III-E. Supports: Digital Battlefield Communications, UAV Payload Program, Communications Transport System, Force XXI.