Chapter IV. Technology Development
Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP 1997)


H. Computing and Software

1. Scope

The Computing and Software technology area is focused on supporting soldiers through development of novel computer hardware and integrated systems for Army applications. The Army’s computing technology programs include (1) Scalable Parallel Systems and Applications; (2) High Performance Specialized Systems and Applications; (3) Networks and Mobile Computing; and (4) Wearable Computers. Software technology programs include (1) Software Engineering; (2) Data Engineering; (3) Artificial Intelligence; (4) Human Computer Interface; (5) Assured Computing; and (6) Distributed Interactive Computing. Information processing systems, computers, and communications, and the ability to rapidly adapt them to changing battlefield environments are an integral part of the technology edge to provide decisive victory in land combat.

The challenge is to identify efforts that preserve, extend, and leverage the Army’s past, present, and future investments in software. The Army views integrated battlefield information systems and intelligent weapon systems as one of its most important sources of combat advantage into the next century. Yet, the software to support such integrated systems represents a challenge to conventional engineering, procurement, sustainment, and technology insertion practices.

Software Technology encompasses a wide spectrum of highly technical specialties, activities, and processes including, but not limited to, the following: (1) Developing and producing algorithms and tools for the construction, operation, and life-cycle management of general application software and all of its associated artifacts; (2) All aspects of software engineering and life cycle management; (3) Software engineering processes and methodologies, tools, and frameworks (software environments) and Domain Specific Software Architectures (DSSAs) to make it easier to design, build, test, and maintain software; (4) Supplying the software "building materials" used to make software systems more reliable, uniform, predictable, and suitable for reengineering and reuse efforts; and (5) Information and data engineering that provide timely access to quality coordinated technical information. Software Technology at its foundation applies the general software engineering paradigms to "Work Smarter" (through process technology advancements), "Work Faster" (through advancements in tools and environments), and "Work Less" (through architectural and reuse technology advancements) to provide a technical environment for more intelligent and efficient application specific engineering. Ultimately, Software Technology provides intelligent systems capable of integrating information, human-computer interactions, and general application software engineering functionalities to meet the real needs of the soldier on the battlefield (Figure IV-H-1).

Figure IV-H-1. DoD Software and Intelligent Systems Program

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2. Rationale

On the 21st century battlefield, the Army must rely on technologically superior systems to counter numerically larger forces, to reduce casualties and damage to urban infrastructure, and to enhance rapid, decisive action. Coupled with sophisticated applications software, high performance computing (HPC) systems and advanced communication technology enable (1) the design and optimization of "smarter," more cost-effective precision weapons; (2) rapid dissemination of battlefield information to tactical forces; (3) swift, global command and control based on accurate, comprehensive knowledge of the current situation which greatly enhances the autonomy and survivability of individual units; and (4) enhanced readiness and strategic planning capabilities through large-scale, distributed, authentic simulations. Research in this technology area encompasses computer and software engineering, operational simulation, battlefield environments, and science applications tools.

Many Army Science and Technology (S&T) problems require computational performance rates measured in trillions of floating point operations per second (teraflops or TFLOPS). These include problems in chemistry and materials science, computational fluid dynamics, parametric weight/vulnerability reduction, automatic target recognition, high performance weapons design, and dispersion of hazardous materials. Since no single HPC architecture will effectively handle this spectrum of problems, Army S&T researchers require a variety of computer systems which, in aggregate, support the highest fidelity and greatest speed in analyzing problems of ever increasing size and complexity. These diverse S&T applications also require massive, hierarchical data storage and scientific visualization capabilities to provide meaningful results. HPC utility will fundamentally drive or limit solutions to these critical problems.

The profound impact of modern, computer-driven technology has been amply demonstrated in recent hostile operations like Desert Storm and Joint Endeavor. Software is and will continue to be a force multiplier.

The Army is faced with a paradox. Systems are being extended in life and expected to achieve Land Force Dominance with diminished resources, in a changing world, with a reduced defense industrial base. Yet, the Army is expected to field lethal, versatile, and rapidly deployable systems in response to the requirement to win decisively and quickly on any battlefield and to do so with minimum casualties. [AMP 92—the Army Modernization Plan]

Computer resources in general and software resources in particular offer a solution to this paradox. The U.S. Defense strategy continues to be dominance based on superior technology. Changes in the world’s geopolitics combined with current economic constraints have broadened the focus of attention on technology to include issues of flexibility and adaptability. In today’s weapon system technology, software serves the role of providing these characteristics. Therefore, weapon systems will become more dependent on software to achieve these requirements. According to the Chief of Staff, Army, one of the most important lessons apparent from the Army’s performance in Operation Desert Storm was the profound impact of modern, computer-driven technology on the outcome of battle. Desert Storm demonstrated the need to adapt and deploy the technology when and where it is needed.

The Army’s challenge is that existing hardware/software systems are being extended and expected to achieve dominance through increased capability while resources for that capability continue to shrink. Much of the evolving capability is provided by software. A change in hardware through product improvement has all the appearance of a new item while a change in the software supporting that hardware is not viewed as a new item. This visibility mismatch furthers the gap between the perceived and actual costs of hardware and software sustainment. The goal of the Army software science and technology effort is to reduce software development and sustainment cost and schedules by an order of magnitude in the next 10 years.

An advantage of software is that it allows for short lead times and can be deployed over satellite communications links with essentially no logistics volume, weight, or fuel cost. However, software has usually been the critical path in product development. State-of-the-art training technology can provide expert systems that can train soldiers to use the new software on the battlefield. Changes to deployed systems can feasibly be made in theater through software modifications that have been previously tested in the Army’s stateside Life Cycle Software Engineering Centers (LCSEC) where synthetic environments, interacting with real materiel, are used to demonstrate successful performance of the changed system.

With technology progressing at a rapid pace, the dilemma is that state-of-the-art software systems today become enormous cost burdens in the near future. Some systems deployed today and still in production require dated software maintenance and change techniques that are frozen in time and appear to be enormously expensive to sustain (e.g., interoperate, respond to threats). Yet, the cost to make these changes in hardware, to produce new hardware, to refurbish materiel, and to redeploy would be even more unacceptable.

The Army recognizes that research and development in software engineering, life cycle management, and environments are to a large extent commercially driven. Systems currently under development, and the employment of advanced concepts and operational scenarios that have a greater reliance on synthetic environments will exacerbate the current dilemma faced in supporting deployed software. A paradigm shift is required in the way that software is viewed, supported, and developed. Increased reliance on commercial products will further increase costs unless the Army creates a win-win Defense-Industry scenario. The use of COTS software can product significant benefits in reduced development and maintenance costs and improved product portability and maintenance; however, there are risks and issues associated with using COTS software. These include COTS applicability for real-time systems, life-cycle costs, modifications which may be required by Defense systems, and integration and performance issues which come into play when combining several COTS products into a single system.

The Army Software Technology Investment Strategy represents the distillation of extensive work performed by technical experts from industry, academia, and government software engineers and scientists to create such a scenario. The work plan is focused on the needs of the Army, windows of opportunity, and a realizable implementation given limited resources.

3.Technology Subareas

a. Scalable Parallel Systems and Applications

Goals and Time Frames

This subarea is concerned with development, exploitation, and deployment of high performance computers offering scalable performance for a broad range of Army and DoD applications. Scalable parallel systems technology includes parallel architectures, compilers, and programming tools essential to facilitate their effective use, systems software, mass storage, I/O, and visualization technologies. Applications requirements drive the design of these systems. Early access to new systems by DoD and Army users accelerates development of specific applications as well as knowledge, algorithms, and programming tools for solving problems. Current performance levels of 100 GFLOPS (gigaflops, or billions of floating point operations per second) will sustain a 10-fold increase by FY98 to reach the goal of 1 TFLOP.

The Army relies upon the DoD HPC modernization program to provide essential capabilities as described in the following DoD objectives:

Major Technical Challenges

Deployment of state-of-the-art HPCs provides an environment that allows the Army to solve critical mission problems and to tackle problems that are currently intractable. Improved HPC capability shortens design cycles by reducing the need to rely on handcrafted prototypes and destructive testing. Robust, high-speed connectivity is essential for daily collaboration with remote users.

Major issues are: (1) insertion of increasingly powerful processing nodes; (2) faster interprocessor communication; (3) global management of memory and data in cooperation with the operating system; (4) scalable I/O processing to match processor speeds; (5) software and applications development; and (6) the "learning curve" for Army users when programming in a massively parallel environment. DARPA has been a major national force in the development of scalable architectures and continues to be a dominant force in scalable computing.

b. High Performance Specialized Systems

Goals and Time Frames

The High Performance Specialized Systems subarea includes the development of innovative technologies such as optical processing, embedded systems, neural networks, and systolic processing that meet military requirements but have limited commercial potential. Target goals for these systems include a 200-fold increase in data reliability, a 10-fold system weight reduction, and a 5-time increase in digital data processing speed. The Army relies on DARPA and the other Services to provide technology for its systems applications.

Major Technical Challenges

The diverse deployment criteria for specialized Army systems makes hardening and repackaging essential. In addition, image and speech recognition dictates that DoD and the Services examine optical processing and neural computing. Incorporating fuzzy logic into neural networks for Army problems requires further research into expressing expert knowledge and combinatorial complexity in simple linguistic rules while reducing demands on computing resources.

c. Networks and Mobile Computing

Goals and Time Frames

Winning the information war is a primary objective in the Army’s modernization strategy. This requires integrated networking of battlefield and research-based computing systems. High speed and high capacity networks enable the interaction of research-based computing assets. Networking has long been the mechanism to foster scientific collaboration, and the Services were launched into this realm by the ARPANET initiative of the 1970s. This ARPA (now known as DARPA) program has grown to be integrally responsible for the Internet explosion which serves as the catalyst and foundation for the National Information Infrastructure project. Ten to 100 gigabit networking will be available by the year 2000.

As part of the DoD HPC Modernization Program, the Defense Research and Engineering Network (DREN) is being designed to maintain intersite communication performance levels commensurate with the I/O bandwidths of the HPC systems to which DREN will provide access (Figure IV-H-2). Bandwidth requirements are projected to approach 622 Mbps within 2 to 3 years, and over 1 Gbps (billion bits per second) within 5 years to support and enable distributed computing performance in the TFLOPS range. These requirements represent an order of magnitude (x10) increase over currently available bandwidth within one year and more than two orders of magnitude (x100) increase over current bandwidths within 5 years.

Figure IV-H-2. Interim DREN Configuration - 1Q FY95

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The Army has provided the technical lead in producing the interim DREN connectivity in anticipation of the award of the DREN component of the DoD HPC Modernization Program. Current Army mission projects in networking include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and Asynchronous Transfer mode (ATM) experiments over a NASA Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) conducted in order to develop high bandwidth digital communications over widely separated LANs to allow widespread access to expensive resources (FY96); (2) wireless LAN testing of COTS high bandwidth equipment carried out to find the best suited wireless LAN for distributed simulation and communication for fast set-up/tear-down of military sites (FY96); (3) video, interactive graphics, and telecommunications over a desktop PC and fractal compression schemes allowing high data rate communications between distributed PC users, providing interactive voice, text, and graphics to a general PC user audience; and (4) executable protocol specifications using VHDL replacing ambiguous English language specifications with an unambiguous computer language specification to ensure that various COTS/GOTS telecommunications equipment will be interoperable (FY97).

Major Technical Challenges

The challenges include recognizing and identifying the most promising commercially available products and adapting these to Army needs. Since the environment and the conditions used in the commercial and military sectors are not synonymous, some adaptation may be required, especially in four areas: sensing, analysis, distribution, and assimilation. These factors turn combat information into knowledge, described by mathematical algorithms, and distribute the information in a hostile battlefield environment. The objective is to provide real-time, knowledge-based operations and seamless battlefield communications.

Technical issues being addressed include protocols for reliable, seamless connectivity as remote hosts increase in number and the exploration of high bandwidth data channels to offset the need for large-scale localized data storage. Security and data integrity issues are also of interest.

d. Wearable Computers

Wearable computers and their applications are starting to become feasible. They may act as intelligent assistants in many forms, from small wrist devices to head-mounted displays. They have the potential to provide anywhere, anytime information and communications. Possible applications include telemedicine (augmented reality), memory aids, maintenance assistance, distributed mobile computers in wireless networks (individual communication with soldiers on the battlefield), and desktop computing such as word processing, scheduling, and databases.

e. Software Engineering

The Army Software Technology Investment Strategy (ASTIS) is a targeted strategy based on a principle that capitalizes on conditions of imperfect competition with our adversaries and rapid technological change. Stated in warfighter terms, "Hit them where we are strong and they are weak, with the technology transfer equivalent of overwhelming force." The ASTIS vision may be found in Figure IV-H-3.

Figure IV-H-3. Software Technology Investment Strategy Vision

This vision is realized through the establishment of a Virtual Advanced Software Technology Consortium (VASTC). Assets of a VASTC will be a distributed matrix of an integrated government, academic, and defense-industrial software and computer resource asset base.

The word "virtual" in VASTC emphasizes:

A roadmap establishing, prototyping, demonstrating, and scaling up incremental capabilities hinging on this principle will yield an emphasis and paradigm shift. Each effort in the roadmap has the Strategy’s building blocks of integrated, process, product teams, and the paradigm shift built in (see Figure IV-H-4). The result will constitute the creation of a distinct techno-economic paradigm built around flexibility rather than simple volume production and relying on a commercial infrastructure versus a dedicated defense-industrial complex.

Figure IV-H-4. Software Technology Investment Strategy

The ASTIS guides the industrial structure toward key critical technology sectors. These sectors include computers and software support for the development of capital goods such as aircraft, ground transportation vehicles and systems, and flexible manufacturing facilities as well as telecommunication and battlefield information systems. These are the sectors having the greatest growth and technological potential.

(1) Virtual Advanced Software Technology Consortium (VASTC)

Goals and Time Frames

The VASTC offers industry and academia distributed yet integrated advanced technology transfer incubation facilities where the emerging technology comes together to enable risk-reducing "proof of principle" demonstrations conducted with access to materiel in an operational environment, evolving synthetic environments, a distributed high performance computing infrastructure, and advanced large-scale program management techniques. The VASTC establishes a rapid software technology transition channel for the Army and the Nation.

Figure IV-H-5 is a graphical depiction of a single software technology incubation cell. The VASTC incubators scale up immature, emerging, and mature technologies and integrate these technologies into existing environments. Real systems are the test articles and have the beneficial side effect of reducing risk on the actual programs. Deployed (in service engineering), new developments, and advanced concept systems provide scale-up opportunities and real world challenge problems. Yet, the artifacts from the incubators are reusable components that are targeted to domain-specific software architectures.

Figure IV-H-5. Software Technology Incubator Concept

The VASTC offers the government an engine to continuously reduce risk and insert technology into existing weapon system software. The VASTC is also a software technology training factory. People are educated and trained on the use of the new technologies, while analyzing and modernizing existing systems. The software training factory operates on existing systems with new technologies. The VASTC training factory will optimize resources and reduce risk by acting as a booster to future builds of existing systems.

Regardless of a VASTC participant’s role (e.g., academic, principal investigator, IR&D exploration, governmental staff development, or retreading), the technology will flow with the participants. The VASTC will be a national asset and an engine of technology transfer, influencing commercial practice and government products.

Major Technical Challenges

Key to realizing the vision of the VASTC will be the capability to provide integrated automation capabilities throughout the software life-cycle. Process automation is a relatively new area of research with many technical challenges. A common underlying infrastructure for each of the individual technologies being automated that allows ease of integration and supports evolutionary development will be necessary. Early efforts will be directed at developing this underlying infrastructure and providing an open interface that encourages tool vendors to build tools that support VASTC.

Next Generation Life Cycle Software Engineering Center

Goals and Time Frames

The amount of Army software (old, modified, new) requiring life cycle software engineering services is increasing exponentially along with life cycle costs. To address this issue and bring costs under control, the Army has initiated a conceptual shift in how future life cycle engineering services will be accomplished. At the core of this initiative is the Next Generation Life Cycle Software Engineering Center Prototype. The goal of this new center is to reduce weapon system software development and support costs by at least an order of magnitude. The goal will be achieved by creating a seamless software engineering directorate within the Army Materiel Command (AMC) that shares resources, knowledge, and best practices among its members with a focus on the customer. The concept is being prototyped at the Tank Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) and scaled to an AMC-wide infrastructure capable of supporting FORCE XXI.

Major Technical Challenges

New networking tools and architectures must be sought out to fully achieve interoperability between geographically dispersed member organizations. Also new management processes will be needed that can adapt to the many different systems supported by member organizations and their organizational cultures. Additionally, current software development and maintenance methods will need to be integrated into a seamless activity capable of being performed throughout this virtual center.

Requirements Validation

Goals and Time Frames

Embedded software packages, like software for aircraft control, are critical in the sense that if they fail, soldiers die. A study is ongoing to determine how rapid prototyping technology and graphic visualization of software can be used to validate the air worthiness of flight control software. If feasible, in FY97, a prototype version of a requirements validation tool will be developed to be incorporated into the Aviation and Troop Command (ATCOM) LCSEC and the Next Generation Life Cycle Software Engineering Center.

Major Technical Challenges

Since air worthiness depends not only on the reaction of integrated hardware and software to stimuli inflight but also on human reaction to the stimuli, accurate models of this human reaction must be developed.

Computer-Aided Prototyping

Goals and Time Frames

Computer-aided prototyping is an evolutionary software development paradigm that involves the end user of the software in the requirements development process. This paradigm makes use of prototype demonstrations and user feedback to iteratively develop a functional prototype. Prototypes are executable specifications of software systems partially generated and partially built from atomic components retrieved from a reuse repository. Current efforts are directed at maturing and commercializing this technology to enable practical use by the Life-Cycle Software Engineering Centers in the RDECs to include the NGLCSEC. Our goal in FY97 is to investigate the incorporation of groupware technology into our rapid prototyping testbed to realize a collaborative software development capability.

Major Technical Challenges

Groupware tools for electronic meetings and information sharing are insufficient to handle the vast amounts of data and interaction necessary to provide a practical collaborative capability. New paradigms for interactive development that incorporate not only real-time interaction, but also delayed time interaction are necessary to realize this vision. Additionally, tools which provide for the formal verification of requirements developed using group tools must be sought to make this a viable goal.

System Evolution Record

Goals and Time Frames

Future system development will require vast amounts of data to be collected and made available throughout a system’s life cycle. A System Evolution Record (SER) is needed to serve as a "cradle-to-grave" repository for all artifacts and decisions made during the evolution of a software system. An initial model of a SER is being prototyped. Our goal for the next and subsequent years is to implement the SER and begin to model different pieces of the software development process to integrate with the SER.

Major Technical Challenges

New techniques for capturing design decisions must be developed to allow for the linking of these design decisions into the SER. Hypergraphs must also be developed that will store not only the artifacts to be contained in the SER and the decisions already mentioned, but also dependencies between them.

f. Artificial Intelligence

Goals and Time Frames

Exploiting emerging high performance computing, storage and retrieval, and communications systems for the Army’s electronic battlefield (EBF) requires advanced software capabilities incorporating artificial intelligence (AI). After 2000, Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) software capabilities are expected to include cooperating intelligent systems, coupling of symbolic and neural processing, and autonomous synthetic agents and robots. The result will be a large synthetic computing environment in which networking and process management are handled automatically and are transparent to the users. Features will include multilevel secure data routing, loci of computation, workload partitioning, and interconnection of government and industry/academia expert and information centers with built-in ownership protection. By 2010 planning systems capable of complete support of military operations and deployment with less than 24 hours notice will become available.

The Army Federated Labs Broad Agency Announcement will focus basic research in five areas, each of which will need Artificial Intelligence Technologies. These areas are Advanced Sensors, Advanced and Interactive Displays, Software and Intelligent Systems, Telecommunications and Data Distribution, and Distributed Interactive Simulations. Three approved consortia will work on Army-specific basic research over the next 5 to 8 years. The Army Artificial Intelligence Center manages the Army Artificial Intelligence Program, which is focused on applied research and prototyping to deliver artificial intelligence solutions in support of Force XXI. A number of expert systems have been delivered, and emerging technologies such as fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms are being used to build advanced technologies.

Major Technical Challenges

The study of Artificial Intelligence has produced advanced technologies that can be placed in three categories: Mature, Emerging, and Immature. Expert and rule-based systems are examples of mature technologies that are being widely used in commercial applications. The major challenge is to develop prototypes for Force XXI and identify appropriate technology insertion in existing systems and systems under development. Fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, and neural networks are examples of emerging technologies. The development of prototypes for exploratory development and risk mitigation will clarify the technical issues. Finally, intelligent agents and machine learning are examples of immature technologies. These are the focus of the basic research efforts in the Army Federated Labs.

g. Human-Computer Interface

Goals and Time Frames

Human-computer interactions deal with the systematic application of scientific knowledge about humans to design the simulated human and its behavior as well as the interface software through which real humans interact with the synthetic environment. The Army programs addressing the physical human-machine interface and the human engineering aspects are described in Section N, Human Systems Interface. Information display and human-computer communications technologies are steadily advancing. COTS user interface management tools, standards-based approaches for product development, style guides, graphical information visualization, etc., are now available for commercial and military applications. The Army programs addressing human-computer interactions rely on these general tools to make computers and associated networks easier to use as well as to build. This is a continuous process.

Major Technical Challenges

An important aspect is the adaptation and interface of the large number of previously developed application-specific closed architecture codes with the COTS human-computer interaction tools. Connected speech systems with increasing natural language interpretation and voice recognition that can be trained quickly for different voices are appearing, but they lack robustness for military applications. Group system capabilities are needed to provide for multi-user interfaces in to software systems.

h. Assured Computing

Goals and Time Frames

Assured computing and high assurance software are concepts which provide compelling evidence that the computer system/software will respond correctly under all required circumstances with respect to specific high assurance criteria such as security, safety, or timeliness. The system should provide a high level of assurance that it can enforce a specific security policy relating to, for example, confidentiality, integrity, or access. It ensures it will not enter a hazardous state. Other properties which may require high assurance include integrity, availability, and fault tolerance. High assurance is required for software that implements critical requirements. These requirements are implemented by system characteristics or properties, whose absence or minimal existence may cause serious errors in the operation of a system. Critical requirements may exist in abstractions at all levels—from the end user environment interface down through various computer subsystems and operating systems to the computer hardware. A critical requirement at a high level of abstraction would be human safety. Low abstraction level requirements include guaranteed timely performance, freedom from deadlock, and unacceptable degradation, automatic fault recovery or fault masking, and controlled access to secure data.

Major Technical Challenges

Safeguarding of information, loss-of-service protection, and damage prevention to programs and data through errors or malicious actions requires multi-level security, defense against malicious software, and credible procedures for technical evaluation, certification, and accreditation of software. Speed of access to data, in a tactical missile system, for example, can determine success or failure. Authentication, access control, and audit together provide the foundation for information and system security. A number of technical issues arise in the form of database tuning mechanisms, access methods and control, query optimization, concurrency control, and replication and reliability protocols. Defensive Information Warfare provides secure, possibly COTS-based, computing clusters, databases, and tools to support high assurance computing. DoD is currently implementing Defense Technology Objectives (DTOs). These DTOs are planning objectives for achieving specific functional and operational capabilities as elements of Joint Warfighting Capability Objectives (JWCO). Three DTOs that specifically address high assurance computing are Survivable Information Systems, Defensive Information Warfare, and Assured Communications. Currently 12 JWCOs are defined in the Joint Warfighting Science and Technology Plan (dated May 1996). The Army has relied on NSA to provide the required assured computing technologies.

I. Distributed Interactive Computing

Goals and Time Frames

Instant access to information on computer systems throughout the world is now a reality. "Surfing the web" has become a national pastime for internet users in and out of the government. The World Wide Web (WWW) provides the capability for anyone with access to the internet to access information on every imaginable subject at any time of the day or night, and on any machine that contains a WWW server. This technology is being exploited in many ways to increase information sharing between agencies and to further our movement toward a "paperless" Army. WWW servers have been established at virtually every organization that provides information or services to the Army. Publications and forms have been made available electronically and policies should encourage the use of electronic forms and publications. Applications are now available that can be accessed completely through the web, making every web server available to almost any user.

This is a relatively new area of investigation, and definitive near-, mid-, and far-term goals are still in the early stages of formulation. The tremendous rate of growth in WWW technologies offers the promise of many significant advances within a very short timeframe. Army planning will, in part, be driven by the rapid changes in available marketplace technologies.

Major Technical Challenges

The most critical challenge in this area is the ability to provide secure access to sensitive information, allowing easy access to authorized users while preventing unauthorized access. This technology is moving faster than even industry can keep up with. Most of the development of WWW applications is being done by "hackers" working nights and weekends with no wish for compensation. Capabilities for increased information availability and increased interactivity have resulted in our inability to control what information flows and where. Future research must design ways to protect critical information while providing access to necessary information and capability.

4. Roadmap of Technology Objectives

The roadmap of technology objectives for computing and software is shown in Table IV-H-1. The Army software program is structured to take advantage of emerging commercial software technologies and relies on the DoD software program for most of the generic software technology, including tools and techniques for software engineering, reuse, and life-cycle management. This program is integrated into the Tri-Service Reliance and addresses only those technology areas where DoD program investment will not satisfy Army-specific application needs.

Table IV-H-1. Technical Objectives for Computing and Software

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