3. Army Efforts with Other DoD Agencies
Many Army S&T activities are coupled with programs of the other Services and with other Department of Defense agencies. The major agencies with which the Army interacts are the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), and the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). Working relationships between Army and agency technical staffs have included coordinated program planning, parallel funding, and, in some cases, joint agency/Army program management by Army S&T organizations.
a. Defense S&T Reliance
Defense S&T Reliance is based on a set of formal agreements among and implemented by participants in Department of Defense science and technology development.
Reliance today involves full membership for each Military Department, the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, Defense Mapping Agency, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The Deputy Director of Defense for Research and Engineering (DDDR&E) is also an active participant in the Reliance process.
The goals and objectives of Defense S&T Reliance reflect the enduring challenges that face the Defense S&T Community. The goals of Defense S&T Reliance are to:
- Enhance the quality of Defense S&T activities.
- Ensure the existence of a critical mass of resources that will develop "world class" products.
- Reduce redundant S&T capabilities and eliminate unwarranted duplication.
- Gain productivity and efficiency through collocation and consolidation of in-house S&T work, when appropriate.
- Preserve the vital mission-essential capabilities of the Services throughout the process.
Reliance agreements involve joint planning, collocated in-house work, and lead Service/Agency assignment. They encompass both in-house and related contract work.
The Reliance process obtains guidance from the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and OSD's policy formulation bodies. Strategic guidance from OSD, the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) statements, warfighting requirements, and rationale required by the S&T community for it to define and implement an effective Defense S&T program.
b. The Defense Special Weapons Agency and Treaty Verification
The Services, the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and the Department of Energy (DoE) weapons laboratories are involved in a long-term nuclear weapons effects (NWE) technology and test program. Major program elements include NWE research, NWE simulators, and (in the past) underground nuclear tests. The project is gathering essential data for effectively hardening those technologies that are incorporated in current and future military systems. Army laboratories and DSWA are also working jointly in the development of advanced simulation technology.
The Chemical Weapons (CW) Convention Treaty includes a provision for compliance monitoring via on-site inspection. DSWA is the DoD Executive Agent for RDT&E programs related to treaty verification and compliance, while the Army is the DoD Executive Agent for chemical and biological defense. Accordingly, the Army and DSWA have created a working environment, via a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA), in which the Army is the lead performer for sampling methodology and audit trails, chemical agent sensor assessments, sampling and protective devices and equipment, and field demonstrations of available technology. U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center is coordinating Army technology efforts in this area. The program is funded by DSWA. The MOA was signed in FY90, and detailed technical planning and implementation continues.
c. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) was founded in 1958 to foster innovative military research and development. It has a long history of close cooperation with the Army in pursuit of advanced technology for future battlefields. For instance, DARPA supported technological proof of principle for the Tank Breaker system that forms the basis for the Army's Javelin developmental fire-and-forget anti-tank missile. DARPA also conducted the Assault Breaker experiment, which linked smart munitions with advanced target acquisition radar. This deep attack system was developed by the Army and Air Force and was used successfully in Operation Desert Storm as the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) and the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS).
DARPA works closely with the Army and other Service users to ensure that it prioritizes emerging technologies that will be of the most importance in meeting the nation's security needs. DARPA provides the Services with ready access to all the nation's research capabilities in industry, academia, and government research centers and laboratories for the solution of emerging military requirements.
One of the most important programs in which DARPA and the Army are currently cooperating is the Advanced Land Combat (ALC) technology program. A joint program office including the Army, Marine Corps, and DARPA has been set up at DARPA to develop the Hunter Vehicle component of the Rapid Force Projection Initiative under ALC. This program will integrate advanced materials and structures in an ultra-lightweight hull that can be readily transported by rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft to trouble spots anywhere in the world.
The Hunter Vehicle will demonstrate novel countermeasure techniques that are melded together with innovative high performance ballistic materials to defeat a range of threats. This effort will be performed in concert with survivability projects undertaken by the Army.
A critical component of these survivability activities will be a device to automatically identify friendly forces without relying on an exploitable signature of some kind. DARPA has been working closely with the Army in demonstrating a reliable near-term combat identification system, and is developing concepts and technologies for a longer-term system for future combat identification.
d. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization
The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), chartered in 1984 to manage the Department of Defense's efforts in ballistic missile defense, is now the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), which reports to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology. While BMDO is the focal point for policy and program formulation, the operational aspects of BMD work are performed through the BMD Executive Agents and their research facilities, Service commands, and other installations at various locations throughout the United States.
A detailed description of U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) roles, responsibilities, and contributions with respect to BMD, the Army Space and Strategic Defense Program, and the Army S&T program is given in Volume II, Annex D.
e. U.S. Special Operations Command
The U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), established in 1987, unifies all continental-based special operations forces under a single commander. USSOCOM's unique responsibilities include the following missions: unconventional warfare, direct actions, special reconnaissance, foreign internal defense, counterterrorism, psychological operations, civil affairs, counterproliferation, and information warfare. Among these missions, USSOCOM was granted the authority to develop and acquire special operations-peculiar equipment, materiel, supplies, and services. In 1992, Congress recognized that USSOCOM R&D funding was inadequate to support the command's technology needs and directed that USSOCOM compete for other agencies' technology base development needs. USSOCOM's science and technology budget is principally technology demonstration (80 percent) with lower funding in technology development (20 percent).
A review by technology managers within the USSOCOM and the U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) headquarters staffs has shown that many Special Operations Forces (SOF) technology needs and requirements are being or can be addressed in Army laboratories and centers, and that the SOF community can maximize its return on investment by coupling with current and planned Army technology efforts. One example of the joint interaction of these R&D organizations is the 21st Century Land Warrior program. USSOCOM and USASOC have played active roles in the Army Materiel Command's Technology-Base Seminar War Games and have conducted inter- command seminars, exercises, and equipment expositions to improve their partnership with the Army R&D community. The SOF community also plays an active role in TRADOC's development of the Soldier, provides input into the Army Modernization Plan, and participates in the Army's Future Soldier System Tech Base Executive Steering Committee, the group that coordinates and determines the appropriate technologies for upgrading the soldier of the future. Annex F in Volume II of this ASTMP discusses USSOCOM's current technology program and technology requirements for improving their operational capabilities.
f. Scientific Services Program (SSP)
The Army Research Office (ARO) monitors this competitively awarded program which consists of six components:
- Short-Term Analysis Service (STAS).
- Laboratory Research Cooperative Program (LRCP).
- Conferences, Workshops, and Symposia.
- Summer Faculty Research and Engineering Program (SFREP).
- Summer Associateship Program for High School Science and Mathematics Faculty (HSSMF).
- Post Laboratory Research Cooperative Program/Post Summer Faculty Research and Engineering Program (PLRCP/PSFREP).
The STAS program is the largest component, processing between 200 and 300 projects annually, originating from all three Services and other government agencies. The objective of the STAS program is to competitively award short-term projects to academic or small business scientists who complement, but do not duplicate, government expertise. Awards are usually less than $100,000 each, less than a year's duration, and award is usually made within 30 days of receipt of the work order. The SFREP has become a popular program with about 150 faculty being placed at Army labs or centers each year. The total SSP annually awards about $1015 million.