3. International Cooperation
The Army's strategic goal in international cooperation is to promote basic strategy of technology leveraging. Leveraging refers to activities that multiply the effects of U.S. investment in technology by taking advantage of the investments and capabilities of others.
Programs can range from cooperation in basic science and technology, through co- development and foreign weapons testing and evaluation, to co-production, foreign sales, and downstream logistics support. Most international programs are focused on exploratory development and the earliest stages of advanced development. We also support small research ("seed") contracts with world-class researchers and maintain research offices in London and Tokyo.
Our strategy encourages partnering with our allies to ensure that our programs incorporate and reflect the best available technology worldwide. Leveraging the technology investments that we make with those made by our allies eliminates duplication of effort and ensures the best technology at the lowest cost to the Army. We use a combination of techniques and methods that are shown as the building blocks of international cooperation in Figure VII-9. The foundation of international cooperation is the exchange of information (or data), loans of materiel, and the exchange of defense professionals, primarily scientists and engineers (S&Es). This is the fundamental level of cooperation--the base of the triangle. Information and data are exchanged under the Defense Data Exchange Program, in which the Army actively participates in individual data or information exchanges with more than 25 countries in more than 250 technologies. The Army also exchanges defense professionals with allies to work on-site on common technical problems and opportunities. These exchanges occur formally, through the International Professional (S&E) Exchange Program and the short-term Abbreviated Professional Exchange Program (APEX), and informally, through visits and interactions at technical symposia, conferences, and meetings.
Figure VII-9. Building Blocks of International Cooperation
At the next level, international cooperation is facilitated by science and technology forums (bilateral and multilateral) which foster and coordinate international cooperative activities. Three such forums are the bilateral Technology Working Groups (TWGs) with Israel and France, and "home-on-home" visits with the United Kingdom (UK). Other activities at this level include the multilateral forums of The Technology Cooperation Program (TTCP), whose members include Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States; and the NATO Defense Research Groups and Standardization Groups. Such forums provide management oversight and direction to individual technical experts participating in international exchange programs.
International cooperation at a level beyond simple information exchange (such as exchanges of equipment and laboratory samples, or co-development of hardware and software) generally occurs through cooperative research and development (R&D) programs. Cooperative R&D is executed under a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA), which spells out terms, conditions, and commitments of the United States and the partner country in pursuing agreed-to R&D objectives. A recently implemented variation of the traditional focused MOU agreement is the Technology Research and Development Program (TRDP), which is also known as an umbrella MOA. This type of MOA, which has been implemented with the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Canada, allows for project annexes in specific areas of R&D cooperation and reduces the need and time required for renegotiating common elements of all MOAs (e.g., intellectual property rights) with a given ally.
In an effort to leverage all domestic and international resources, Army agencies are now joining with other U.S. Government agencies to pool their talents and resources on high-payoff cooperative R&D projects where there are common interests and requirements. One such program is the U.S. India Fund run by the Department of State. This program is designed to promote basic research with Indian universities and government facilities. Another, better- known program is the NATO Cooperative R&D Program, now expanded to include other major non-NATO allies--Korea, Japan, Israel, Egypt, and Australia. This program is also known as the Nunn program after the original amendment to the FY86 DoD Authorization Act, sponsored by Senator Sam Nunn.
Proposed Nunn-funded projects address key Army technologies (both conventional Army defense and dual-use) that respond to areas of significant interest to our Allies and where a joint approach (with our Allies) is critical. Funding for these projects, of course, remains dependent on the DoD-wide approval and agreement process.
The Foreign Comparative Test Program provides funding to determine whether foreign systems satisfy U.S. Army requirements. Finally, our strategy for international cooperation includes co-production and procurement of systems with the ultimate goal of standardization and interoperability of equipment.