News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



MEDICAL AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (Section Q)

IV.Q.02—Field Wake/Rest Discipline in Sustained and Continuous Operations.  The physical and cognitive demands of operational missions interact with limited and fragmented opportunities for rest and sleep. The concept of water discipline emerged from an understanding that there is no alternative to adequate water intake for optimal performance; the same concept holds true for sleep discipline. Systematic sleep and rest, consistent with the demands of the OPTEMPO, must be provided to maintain performance quality and sustainability. This research will develop and demonstrate effective means for counteracting the effects of inadequate restorative sleep and rest on military performance. By FY98, develop and validate animal and human laboratory models and test methods to identify and screen the safety and efficacy of sleep and vigilance enhancing compounds in a military setting. By FY98, incorporate human laboratory database derived models of the effects of sleep deprivation on performance in Louisiana Maneuvers Continuous Operations simulations. By FY99, develop a continuous operations simulation to demonstrate and refine the Sleep–Induction/Rapid Reawakening and stimulant components of the Sleep Management System (SMS). By FY99, develop and demonstrate a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive means for assessing a soldier’s level of mental fatigue and alertness, transitioning to development the wrist–worn sleep/activity monitor with integrated microprocessor system.

STO Manager

TSO

TRADOC POC

Dr. Fred Hegge
MRMC
(301) 619–7301
DSN: 343–7301
LTC Bill Pratt
SARD–TM
(703) 695–8443
DSN: 225–8443
LTC Dunham
CSS–BL
(405) 442–5647
DSN: 639–5647

 

IV.Q.03—Performance Limits Models.  Warfighting thermal performance status is characterized in this STO using multidimensional advances employing USARIEM’s state–of–the–art thermal models and mannequin systems, which make available quantitative assessment of heat and vapor transfer properties of clothing and individual protective systems. The information offered by such efforts generate a complete set of tools for implementing physiological thermal predictive control strategies useful over wide thermal and high terrestrial environments. The specific goals are to: (1) biophysically quantify, on both healthy and physically stressed soldiers, the impact of protective clothing and other systems such as handwear, footwear, and high technology fiber material needed for operations in harsh environments; (2) develop and validate operational and thermoregulatory models to predict performance using integrated schemes employing new concepts and materials such as microclimate cooling, enhanced chemical protective clothing and cold weather clothing systems; and (3) exploit the broad spatial coverage of weather satellite data resources to provide environmental inputs to thermal strain prediction models and incorporate recent advances in satellite data collection and image processing technologies needed for the Warfighter. By FY96, develop and validate a microclimate cooling model for concept support of the 21st Century Land Warrior, and develop and validate models to predict performance degradation and injury due to cold–air exposure. By FY97, develop a statistical model of rifle marksmanship as affected by environmental (heat and cold) and operational stressors (fatigue and food/water deprivation). By FY 98, complete the integration of real–time satellite–derived weather data into thermal strain decision aids for battlefield commanders.

STO Manager

TSO

TRADOC POC

Dr. Fred Hegge
MRMC
(301) 619-7301
DSN: 343-7301
LTC Bill Pratt
SARD-TM
(703) 695-8443
DSN: 225-8443
LTC Dunham
CSS-BL
(405) 442-5647
DSN: 639-5647

 

IV.Q.09—Biomechanics for Improved Footwear.  By the end of FY97, develop a prototype combat boot embodying materials, design, construction fabrication techniques, and other features to enhance the biomechanical efficiency of the wearer. By the end of FY99, demonstrate a 10–15 percent reduction in the probability of occurrence of stress–related, lower extremity disorders among ground troops wearing the new combat boots.

Supports: U.S. Marine Corps, Advanced Development–RJS1/63747/D669–Clothing and Equipment, Engineering Development–RJS1/64713/DL40–Clothing and Equipment; DBS Battle Lab.

STO Manager

TSO

TRADOC POC

Carolyn Bensel
NRDEC
(508) 233-4780
DSN: 256-4780
Bill Brower
SARDA-TT
(703) 697-8432
DSN: 227-8432
Chris Kearns
DBL
(706) 545-6391
DSN: 835-6391

 

IV.Q.11—Helicopter Crewmember Sustainment and Performance.  By FY97, reduce performance decrements by 25 percent in aircrews following deployment across time zones and during night operations by demonstrating the efficacy of melatonin in operational units and by developing a software package to optimize crew rest strategies. By FY98, identify CM to optimize aircrew endurance and protection during sustained rotary–wing flight operations, including criteria for better helmet design to prevent fatigue from head–supported mass, hearing augmentation to overcome cockpit noise, criteria for the Aircrew Uniform Integrated Battlefield (AUIB) to prevent dehydration and heat stress, and determination of criteria for seats that prevent back pain and are crashworthy in vertical descents. By FY98, complete implementation of findings from the Aviator Epidemiological Data Registry (AEDR) to optimize medical screening and retention criteria for Army aviators. FY99, reduce low visibility accidents by as much as 50 percent with CM to Army–unique spatial disorientation problems encountered during night and reduced visibility flight.

Supports: Medical CM to aviator fatigue performance degradation; Program Apache, Program Manager Comanche, Program Manager Aviation Life Support Equipment, Aviation Center and School; Conduct Precision Strikes: enhance soldier imaging capabilities without spatial disorientation.

STO Manager

TSO

TRADOC POC

Dr. Fred Hegge
MRMC
(301) 619-7301
DSN: 343-7301
LTC Bill Pratt
SARD-TM
(703) 695-8443
DSN: 225-8443
LTC Dunham
CSS-BL
(405) 442-5647
DSN: 639-5647

 

IV.Q.12—Warfighter Readiness and Sustainability Assessment.  Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring. Commanders are concerned with detailed intelligence on enemy forces and are usually well informed of the status of their own materiel; however, they lack tools to access basic information on the physiological readiness of their own soldiers. In the fog of war, it is especially difficult to rapidly assess available human assets. A family of physiological sensors will be developed into a research tool kit needed to gather useful data on soldier status. These data, organized and reduced through a system of knowledge management, will be used to iteratively refine predictive models, and to guide the development of a wear–and–forget, soldier–acceptable Warfighter Status Monitor (WSM). Information commanders want to have about predicted and current status of soldiers will be provided. The communication and computation platform for the WSM will be the DARPA–developed Personnel Status Monitor (PSM), or its equivalent. All systems will be coordinated with soldier systems command to assure compatibility with 21st Century Land Warrior and follow–on programs. By FY98, a miniaturized accelerometry system will provide a personal assessment of cumulative sleep deficit and predicted level of psychophysiological performance. By FY 98, the MERCURY model system of environmental hazards will be complete, predicting soldier performance in specific real–time locations. By FY99, a sensor suite consisting of technologies such as accelerometry, ausculation, spectroscopy, electrical impedance, and force and temperature sensing technologies will be connected through a wireless body local area network (LAN) system, with remote passive data interrogation capabilities. By FY01, a knowledge management system will be developed to reduce information obtained through the WSM system and predictive performance and health risk models to provide essential information that commanders want to have. By FY03, enabling technologies will provided additional sensors for special environments, such as bioelectronic toxic hazard sensors, to detect imminent physiological threats in the immediate environment, as well as minute embedded sensors that will bring automation and reliability to physiological sensing.

STO Manager

TSO

TRADOC POC

Dr. Fred Hegge
MRMC
(301) 619-7301
DSN: 343-7301
LTC Bill Pratt
SARD-TM
(703) 695-8443
DSN: 225-8443
Chris Kearns
DBL
(706) 545-6391
DSN: 835-6391

 

IV.Q.13—Prevention of Heat Injuries.  Assurance of U.S. Army capability to operate in hot environments lies at the heart of the Force Projection concept now guiding strategic planning. This program establishes the scientific foundation for Army doctrinal development governing operations in thermal extremes and identifies and refines effective strategies to sustain health and performance following rapid deployment to environmentally challenging operational settings. This research will demonstrate the efficacy of strategies to sustain and enhance performance and to prevent and treat thermal illnesses. By FY98, develop and implement new cellular, organ, and animal models to assess mechanisms of thermal injury. By FY98, determine if antilipopolysaccharide is a key protective factor that explains the lower susceptibility of female, compared to male, Marine recruits to exertional heat illness. By FY99, develop acclimatization strategies using heat shock protein–70 as a biomarker of heat tolerance to improve immediate heat tolerance and accelerate heat acclimation. Determine effect of estrogen supplementation on heat acclimatization in servicewomen. By FY00, develop strategies for 21CLW ATD to modify skim blood flow to maximize the effectiveness of microclimate cooling and heating. By FY01, determine the feasibility of immunoprophylaxis in preventing thermal injury.

Supports: Supports medical CM to environmental threats, PM soldier, and AR 40–10. Supports the Army Modernization Plan objectives to Project, Sustain and Protect the Force – prevent and minimize environmental injury.

STO Manager

TSO

TRADOC POC

Dr. Fred Hegge
MRMC
(301) 619-7301
DSN: 343-7301
LTC Bill Pratt
SARD-TM
(703) 695-8443
DSN: 225-8443
LTC Dunham
CSS-BL
(405) 442-5647
DSN: 639-5647

 

IV.Q.14—Optimization of Physical Performance.  This research will lead to the optimization of training programs to reduce injury of physically mismatched individuals to military tasks and to maximize physical readiness through nonmateriel ("skin–in") solution. By FY98, establish a database of energy requirements and activity patterns for men and women in a variety of military jobs to predict and plan for voluntary energy requirements. Demonstrate a reduction in training injuries through improved physical training programs during basic training.. Develop physical training strategies and alternatives to prevent stress fractures in susceptible individuals. By FY99, establish medical criteria to optimize efficiency and ensure safety of individual soldier equipment (combat boots, body armor, load carriage systems) for use by the equipment developers. Develop state–of–the–art scientifically based training programs to improve performance of elite units, for special occupational requirements, and to increase opportunities for all soldiers in jobs with specific physical standards. By FY00, identify biochemical mechanisms and functional consequences of the effects of sudden increases in physical training volume and prolonged physical exertion (overtraining) for soldiers. Identify high–risk–for– injury groups using existing outcome data. By FY01 develop strategies involving antioxidants, ergogenic aids, and physical training techniques to counter reductions in physical capacity produced by overtraining. By FY02, develop strategies including training and other fitness and nutrition habits to optimize bone mineral accretion in young women to reduce stress fracture, and later osteoporosis.

STO Manager

TSO

TRADOC POC

Dr. Fred Hegge
MRMC
(301) 619-7301
DSN: 343-7301
LTC Bill Pratt
SARD-TM
(703) 695-8443
DSN: 225-8443
LTC Dunham
CSS-BL
(405) 442-5647
DSN: 639-5647

 

IV.Q.15—Laser Bioeffects and Treatment.  No single factor is more certain to compromise soldier effectiveness than the knowledge of battlefield threats against which there are no proven medical CM. No organ is more vulnerable to the directed energy of laser than the unprotected eye, and blindness, temporary or permanent, can occur in an instant and without warning. Medical research has demonstrated that not all forms of laser energy are equally harmful to the eye; thus, system developers can be guided away from harmful frequency/power mixes by medical exposure standards based on new research, which do not needlessly deny developers options to raise power levels or exploit frequencies that pose less threat. Understanding of the bioeffects must be translated into effective field treatment interventions. By FY97, demonstrate efficacy of early phase antiinflammatory therapy in nonhuman primate model for treatment of laser retinal trauma, and identify other early phase treatment candidates. By FY97, determine hazards of fast optical switch for tank sights and establish analytical methods for prediction of the degree of ocular protection. By FY97, refine eye tracker model to simulate laser injury and correlate performance with human laser accident case results. By FY98, resolve discrepancies in bioeffects database for subnanosecond exposures and update hazards assessment and exposure limits based on operational performance criteria. By FY98, determine bioeffects of broadband diodes used in advanced military display systems. By FY98, develop high resolution ophthalmoscopic imaging technology for use in telemedical assessment of laser eye injuries, and provide laser injury database for inclusion in smart far–forward medical information systems. By FY98, establish performance–based models characterizing levels of visual impairment pertinent to battlefield laser injury. By FY99, develop and test field therapy kits for laser retinal injury. By FY99, develop in vivo photoreceptor imaging in primate models to enhance assessment of laser retinal injury and repair mechanisms. By FY00, refine operational exposure limits. By FY02, refine methodologies to assess and treat laser retinal injuries. By FY02, convolve high resolution retinal imaging technology with photoreceptor transplant technology to evaluate autologous photoreceptor transplant methodology. By FY02, begin evaluation of electronic retinal implants for treatment of laser scotoma.

STO Manager

TSO

TRADOC POC

Dr. Fred Hegge
MRMC
(301) 619-7301
DSN: 343-7301
LTC Bill Pratt
SARD-TM
(703) 695-8443
DSN: 225-8443
LTC Dunham
CSS-BL
(405) 442-5647
DSN: 639-5647

 

IV.Q.16p—Deployable Exposure Assessment System for Environmental Contaminants.  This research is being conducted to protect soldiers deploying into environments contaminated with industrial and agricultural chemical wastes that pose either short–term threats to military performance or long–term threats to health such as may have been encountered from chemical mixture exposures during the Persian Gulf War. By FY98, demonstrate application of alternate toxicity test system (nonmammalian bioassay) to rapidly screen water supplies for toxicants such as disinfectant byproducts. By FY99, demonstrate the feasibility of near–real–time biological sentinel technologies for onsite assessment of health hazards from environmental contaminants, including heavy metals, industrial solvents, arsenicals, and cyanide. Validate a comprehensive neurobehavioral toxicity test battery that will be used to identify molecular endpoints associated with performance deficits and neurological pathology from exposure to complex chemical mixtures. By FY00, develop protocols and procedures for simple, nonmechanical exposure and hazard assessment of selected environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil. Identify key bimolecular markers of neurobehavioral toxicity and develop prototype physiologically based model (pharmacodynamic) of bimolecular events leading to performance deficits. By FY02, develop prototype neuromolecular toxicity assessment system that models (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic) outcomes of environmental toxicants on the central nervous system.

Supports: 21st Century Land Warrior; Warfighter Personal Status Monitoring technologies and ensembles; Chemical/Biological threat agent detection systems.

STO Manager

TSO

TRADOC POC

Dr. Fred Hegge
MRMC
(301) 619-7301
DSN: 343-7301
LTC Bill Pratt
SARD-TM
(703) 695-8443
DSN: 225-8443
LTC Dunham
CSS-BL
(405) 442-5647
DSN: 639-5647

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