News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



5. Sustainment

TR 97–029, Sustainment. Capability to provide flexible, tailorable, modular, seamless, anticipatory systems, processes, and services to deliver combat and combat service support in all operations. Capability for early entry and follow–on forces to plan for and exploit host nation/or nearby nation support. Capability to provision and provide other support required to maintain personnel and equipment during prolong operations or combat until successful accomplishment or revision of the mission.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–010; AR 97–002, AR 97–008, AR 97–012; AV 97–009, AV 97–010; BCL 97–003, BCL 97–009; CS 97–001; CH 97–002, CH 97–006, CH 97–007; CM 97–005, CM 97–013; CS 97–003, CS 97–004; DSA 97–018; EEL 97–016; EN 97–014, EN 97–015, EN 97–019, EN 97–020, EN 97–023; FA 97–016, FA 97–030, FA 97–031; FI 97–003, FI 97–004, FI 97–005, FI 97–006, FI 97–008; IS 97–001; MD 97–001, MD 97–002, MD 97–003, MD 97–004, MD 97–005, MD 97–006, MD 97–007, MD 97–008, MD 97–009, MD 97–010, MD 97–011, MD 97–012; MP 97–015, MP 97–016; MSB 97–004; OD 97–001, OD 97–003, OD 97–004, OD 97–005, OD 97–006, OD 97–007, OD 97–008, OD 97–014, OD 97–016, OD 97–017; QM 97–001, QM 97–002, QM 97–003, QM 97–004, QM 97–005, QM 97–006, QM 97–007, QM 97–008, QM 97–009, QM 97–011; SP 97–001, SP 97–002, SP 97–003, SP 97–004, SP 97–005, SP 97–006, SP 97–007, SP 97–008, SP 97–009, SP 97–010, SP 97–012, SP 97–013, SP 97–014, SP 97–015, SP 97–016, SP 97–017, SP 97–019, SP 97–020; TC 97–001, TC 97–002.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–60; T.P. 525–63; T.P. 525–200–2; T.P. 525–200–5; T.P. 525–200–6; TRADOC Black Book No. 3; TRADOC Black Book No. 4; Joint Vision 2010; Mission Need Statement for ICS3; U.S. Army Transportation Corps Strategic Vision; Ordnance Corps Vision; Battery Modernization Strategy; Army Strategic Logistics Plan. CASCOM Pub—Vision of Combined Arms Support.

TR 97–030, Sustainment Maintenance. Capability to support the combat readiness and effectiveness of the Army in the field. Will provide anticipatory, real–time, and remote diagnostics and prognostics to provide efficient battle damage assessment and repair. The following areas of maintenance concern will employ and be dependent on developed capabilities in this area: maintenance aids, contact maintenance, recovery maintenance data, tools, operator maintenance, operator decontamination, host–nation support, and operations in all environments (NBC) during all operations.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–010; AR 97–002, AR 97–008, AR 97–012; AV 97–009, AV 97–010; BCL 97–003, BCL 97–009; CM 97–004, CM 97–005; CS 97–001, CS 97–003, CS 97–004; DSA 97–018; EN 97–014, EN 97–015, EN 97–019, EN 97–020, EN 97–30; FA 97–016, FA 97–030, FA 97–031; FI 97–003, FI 97–004, FI 97–005, FI 97–006, FI 97–008; IS 97–001; MD 97–001, MD 97–002, MD 97–003, MD 97–004, MD 97–005, MD 97–006, MD 97–007, MD 97–008, MD 97–009, MD 97–010, MD 97–011, MD 97–012; MP 97–015, MP 97–016; OD 97–001, OD 97–003, OD 97–004, OD 97–005, OD 97–006, OD 97–007, OD 97–008, OD 97–014, OD 97–016, OD 97–017; QM 97–001, QM 97–002, QM 97–003, QM 97–004, QM 97–005, QM 97–006, QM 97–007, QM 97–008, QM 97–009, QM 97–011; SP 97–001, SP 97–002, SP 97–003, SP 97–004, SP 97–005, SP 97–006, SP 97–007, SP 97–008, SP 97–009, SP 97–010, SP 97–012, SP 97–013, SP 97–014, SP 97–015, SP 97–016, SP 97–017, SP 97–019, SP 97–020; TC 97–001, TC 97–002.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–60; T.P. 525–63; T.P. 525–200–2; T.P. 525–200–5; T.P. 525–200–6; TRADOC Black Book No. 3; TRADOC Black Book No. 4; Joint Vision 2010; Mission Need Statement for ICS3; U.S. Army Transportation Corps Strategic Vision; Ordnance Corps Vision; Battery Modernization Strategy; Army Strategic Logistics Plan; CASCOM Pub—Vision of Combined Arms Support.

TR 97–031, Sustainment Services. Capability to execute and manage all personnel–related matters and contribute to the morale and welfare of the soldier in the field by providing the most benefit to the maximum number of personnel. Will provide near real time strength accounting, replacement operations, religious support/pastoral care operations, medical support operations, casualty reporting, finance services, postal services, morale support activities, and legal services. These services share equal importance with the requirement for availability of materiel on the battlefield.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–010; AR 97–002, AR 97–008, AR 97–012; AV 97–009, AV 97–010; BCL 97–003, BCL 97–009; CH 97–011; CM 97–005; CS 97–001, CS 97–003, CS 97–004; DSA 97–018; EN 97–014, EN 97–015, EN 97–019, EN 97–020; FA 97–016, FA 97–030, FA 97–031; FI 97–003, FI 97–004, FI 97–005, FI 97–006, FI 97–008; IS 97–001; MD 97–001, MD 97–003, MD 97–004, MD 97–005, MD 97–006, MD 97–007, MD 97–008, MD 97–009, MD 97–010, MD 97–011, MD 97–012; MP 97–015, MP 97–016; OD 97–001, OD 97–003, OD 97–004, OD 97–005, OD 97–006, OD 97–007, OD 97–008, OD 97–014, OD 97–016, OD 97–017; QM 97–001, QM 97–002, QM 97–003, QM 97–004, QM 97–005, QM 97–006, QM 97–007, QM 97–008, QM 97–009, QM 97–011; SP 97–001, SP 97–002, SP 97–003, SP 97–004, SP 97–005, SP 97–006, SP 97–007, SP 97–008, SP 97–009, SP 97–010, SP 97–012, SP 97–013, SP 97–014, SP 97–015, SP 97–016, SP 97–017, SP 97019, SP 97–020; TC 97–001, TC 97–002.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–60; . T.P. 525–63; T.P. 525–200–2; T.P. 525–200–5; T.P. 525–200–6; TRADOC Black Book No. 3; TRADOC Black Book No. 4; Joint Vision 2010; Mission Need Statement for ICS3; U.S. Army Transportation Corps Strategic Vision; Ordnance Corps Vision; Battery Modernization Strategy; Army Strategic Logistics Plan; CASCOM Pub—Vision of Combined Arms Support.

TR 97–032, Sustainment Logistics Support. Capability to provide responsive, flexible, and precise field services support to soldiers during any environmental or tactical situation. Will be able to perform graves registration, airdrop, fuel dispensing, water production and delivery, food preparation, clothing exchange and bath, laundry, light textile and clothing renovation, unit reconstitution, decontamination, and salvage. Will provide less continuous support with a smaller logistics footprint, decreasing the vulnerability of the Army’s logistics lines of communication.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–010; AR 97–002, AR 97–008, AR 97–012; AV 97–009, AV 97–010; BCL 97–003, BCL 97–009; CH 97–003; CM 97–004, CM 97–005; CS 97–001, CS 97–003, CS 97–004; DSA 97–018; EEL 97–016; EN 97–004, EN 97–008, EN 97–010, EN 97–018, EN 97–014, EN 97–015, EN 97–019, EN 97–020; FA 97–016, FA 97–030, FA 97–031; FI 97–003, FI 97–004, FI 97–005, FI 97–006, FI 97–008; IS 97–001; MD 97–001, MD 97–003, MD 97–004, MD 97–005, MD 97–006, MD 97–007, MD 97–008, MD 97–009, MD 97–010, MD 97–011, MD 97–012; MP 97–015, MP 97–016; MSB 97–012; OD 97–001, OD 97–003, OD 97–004, OD 97–005, OD 97–006, OD 97–007, OD 97–008, OD 97–014, OD 97–016, OD 97–017; QM 97–001, QM 97–002, QM 97–003, QM 97–004, QM 97–005, QM 97–006, QM 97–007, QM 97–008, QM 97–009, QM 97–011; SP 97–001, SP 97–002, SP 97–003, SP 97–004, SP 97–005, SP 97–006, SP 97–007, SP 97–008, SP 97–009, SP 97–010, SP 97–012, SP 97–013, SP 97–014, SP 97–015, SP 97–016, SP 97–017, SP 97019, SP 97–020; TC 97–001, TC 97–002.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–60; T.P. 525–63; T.P. 525–200–2; T.P. 525–200–4; T.P. 525–200–5; TRADOC Black Book No. 3; TRADOC Black Book No. 4; Joint Vision 2010; Mission Need Statement for ICS3; U.S. Army Transportation Corps Strategic Vision; Ordnance Corps Vision; Battery Modernization Strategy; Army Strategic Logistics Plan; CASCOM Pub—Vision of Combined Arms Support.

TR 97–033, Sustainment Transportation. Capability to move personnel, equipment, materiel, and supplies to sustain operations and move the forces which execute those operations. Will provide for all elements of moving forces and their logistics requirements to the locations required by operations. Will encompass the load–carrying capacity of mode operators, terminal operations, and movement control. Materiel must be transferred from one mode of transportation to another at sea ports of debarkation, rail and air–heads, inland waterways, and truck terminals. Air and sea ports of debarkation must be cleared expeditiously to make way for follow–on cargo. Sustaining supplies and replacement personnel will flow over the same routes required by maneuver units and will compete for limited main supply routes in the theater.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–010; AR 97–002, AR 97–008, AR 97–012; AV 97–009, AV 97–010; BCL 97–003, BCL 97–009; CH 97–009; CM 97–004, CM 97–005; CS 97–001, CS 97–003, CS 97–004; DSA 97–018; EEL 97–016; EN 97–014, EN 97–015, EN 97–019, EN 97–020; FA 97–014, FA 97–016, FA 97–021, FA 97–026, FA 97–030, FA 97–031; FI 97–003, FI 97–004, FI 97–005, FI 97–006, FI 97–008; IS 97–001; MD 97–001, MD 97–002, MD 97–003, MD 97–004, MD 97–005, 97–006, MD 97–007, MD 97–008, MD 97–009, MD 97–010, MD 97–011, MD 97–012; MP 97–015, MP 97–016; OD 97–001, OD 97–003, OD 97–004, OD 97–005, OD 97–006, OD 97–007, OD 97–008, OD 97–014, OD 97–016, OD 97–017; QM 97–001, QM 97–002, QM 97–003, QM 97–004, QM 97–005, QM 97–006, QM 97–007, QM 97–008, QM 97–009, QM 97–011; SP 97–001, SP 97–002, SP 97–003, SP 97–004, SP 97–005, SP 97–006, SP 97–007, SP 97–008, SP 97–009, SP 97–010, SP 97–012, SP 97–013, SP 97–014, SP 97–015, SP 97–016, SP 97–017, SP 97019, SP 97–020; TC 97–001, TC 97–002.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–60; T.P. 525–63; T.P. 525–200–2; T.P. 525–200–5; T.P. 525–200–6; TRADOC Black Book No. 3; TRADOC Black Book No. 4; Joint Vision 2010; Mission Need Statement for ICS3; U.S. Army Transportation Corps Strategic Vision; Ordnance Corps Vision; Battery Modernization Strategy; Army Strategic Logistics Plan; CASCOM Pub—Vision of Combined Arms Support.

TR 97–034, Enemy Prisoner of War/Civilian Internee (EPW/CI) Operations. Capability to conduct EPW and CI evacuation, medical support, accountability, and sustainability operations. EPW accountability is mandated by the Geneva Convention Agreements and by International Committee of the Red Cross rules. Military police units conducting internment or resettlement operations require the capability to rapidly recall and forward personnel data to facilitate accountability. This capability should be compatible with emerging information exchange and processing systems and would capture and report costs associated with EPW and CI pay. Capability to translate (to and from) is required to expedite the information gathering process, including human intelligence collection, translation, and document exploitation and interrogation capability. The capability for quick access to EPW/CI information enables the timely availability of comprehensive information and identification of EPW/CI within compounds, during transit, turnover to a third party, and during repatriation. Military Police require the capability to execute the expeditious evacuation of EPW/CI to retain freedom of maneuver for combat forces and control of personnel within compounds. This can only be attained through early planning and prioritization of sustainment resources on the battlefield.

Branch FOCs: CH 97–004; CS 97–004; FI 97–003; IS 97–001, IS 97–002, IS 97–003, IS 97–004, IS 97–005; MD 97–001, MD 97–002, MD 97–003, MD 97–004, MD 97–005, MD 97–006, MD 97–010, MD 97–011; MI 97–003; MP 97–009; MSB 97–0010.

Reference: T.P. 525–75.

TR 97–035, Power Source and Accessories. Capability to provide a small, lightweight, long–lasting, high–energy density, maintenance–free, low–signature, high–quality power source for electronics communications, weapons, individual soldiers, vehicles, air and water craft, and medical equipment, which will be cost effective, operate in any environment, and will be environmentally safe. For the individual soldier the objective capability will be a universal power source that provides simultaneous power to any/all soldier carried systems/subsystems without degradation.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–007, AR 97–008; CH 97–006; CS 97–001; MI 97–010; MMB 97–006; SP 97–012, SP 97–017, SP 97–019.

Reference: Battery Modernization Strategy.

TR 97–036, Nonprimary Power Sources Combat Vehicles/Support Systems. Capability to provide a small, lightweight, and low–signature nonprimary power sources for combat vehicles or support systems. This will allow the operation of combat vehicle electro–optics communications, weapons, life support, and protection or survivability devices or accessories while the primary vehicle power source is shut down.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–008; CH 97–007; FA 97–018; MMB 97–006.

Reference: T.P. 525–5.

TR 97–037, Combat Vehicle Propulsion. Capability to provide high power and fuel efficient propulsion for combat vehicles. Capability must be small, lightweight, reliable, maintainable, safe, low signature, multifuel capable and environmentally safe. Capability to provide energy on demand for propulsion, life support and weapon system functions.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–005; AV 97–009; FA 97–017; DSA 97–019; MMB 97–004.

Reference: T.P. 525–5.

TR 97–038, Casualty Care, Patient Treatment, and Area Support. The Army requires the capability for level I and II medical treatment and area support. Rapid casualty location and application of improved treatment modules will provide focus toward reducing the historically recalcitrant killed–in–action (KIA) rate. The capability requires improved methods of physiological resuscitation, improved diagnostic and treatment capabilities at both unit– and area–level treatment facilities. All health care providers will require advance trauma management training and sustainment training and organizations must provide communications between providers and mentors to optimize reductions in the KIA rate. Medical personnel require the ability to treat patients under all conditions and require night vision capability. Combat health support providers require the ability to initiate and continue casualty treatment under NBC conditions. The combat medic will require improved ability to function while in individual protective gear. All forward deployed medical modules will require collective medical protection to ensure continued patient care under NBC conditions. NBC casualties will require improved methods of rapid decontamination and emergency treatment followed by protection and continued medical management to ensure survival. Digitized patient records, beginning prior to deployment and continuing throughout casualty management are required to ensure seamless medical treatment. Automated read/write devices and database software for medical status, patient tracking, and reconstitution are required for use before, during, and after operations to ensure soldier readiness for combat and to allow timely transmission of location and status to health providers, commanders, and family members. Capability to track casualty emergency ministrations and pastoral care information to data collection points for use by casualty assistance offices and notification of next of kin. Capability would provide notification officers and accompanying chaplains with vital battlefield pastoral care information.

Branch FOCs: CH 97–002; CM 97–004, CM 97–006; MD 97–003.

Reference: T.P. 525–50; T.P. 525–78, paragraph 3–3c; T.P. 525–200–5.

TR 97–039, Lines of Communications (LOCs) Maintenance and Repair. Capability to assess, repair, and maintain LOCs in a vast spectrum of environments. Includes repair, refurbishment, or construction of ports, airfields, roads, bridges, and other transportation conduits. This includes preparation and installation activities for logistics over the shore (LOTS) operations.

Branch FOCs: EN 97–004, EN 97–005, EN 97–006, EN 97–007, EN 97–008, EN 97–009, EN 97–012, EN 97–015, EN 97–016, EN 97–017, EN 97–018, EN 97–019, EN 97–020, EN 97–021, EN 97–022.

References: T.P. 525–5; TRADOC Black Book No. 4.

6. Lethality

TR 97–040, Firepower Lethality. Capability to provide responsive overmatching lethal combat power against current and future threats throughout the battlespace. Capability should be impervious to countermeasures and all environmental conditions to include battlefield clutter. Capability should include overmatching range, probability of hit and kill, and accuracy that minimize resources expended, maximize effects, and minimize collateral damage.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–003, AD 97–009, AD 97–012; AR 97–001; AV 97–006; DBS 97–10, DBS 97–011, DBS 97–012, DBS 97–013, DBS 97–014, DBS 97–015, DBS 97–016, DBS 97–017, DBS 97–018, DBS 97–61; DSA 97–001, DSA 97–002, DSA 97–003, DSA 97–014, DSA 97–023, DSA 97–024, DSA 97–026, DSA 97–028; EEL 97–001, EEL 97–004; EN 97–010, EN 97–011; FA 97–001, FA 97–002, FA 97–017, FA 97–020, FA 97–021, FA 97–026, FA 97–029, FA 97–032; IN 97–100, IN 97–110, IN 97–111, IN 97–112, IN 97–119, IN 97–120, IN 97–130, IN 97–140, IN 97–150, IN 97–160; MI 97–008; MMB 97–001; MP 97–002; MSB 97–002, MSB 97–014; SP 97–001, SP 97–002, SP 97–003, SP 97–006, SP 97–007, SP 97–009, SP 97–010, SP 97–011, SP 97–012, SP 97–014, SP 97–015, SP 97–016, SP 97–020; TC 97–001.

Reference: T.P. 525–200–5.

TR 97–041, Operations in an Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)/Mine Threat Environment. Capability of land forces to safely conduct in–stride breaching and assure tempo of operations when facing mines and UXO threats. The capability must support rapid and accurate remote standoff surveillance, reconnaissance, detection and location of mines, UXO components, materials, and neutralize or destroy identified devices. Capability must limit munitions and submunitions dud rates to eliminate UXO hazards. Capability must relay tactical data through strategic systems during employment of contingency forces. Capability must meet joint countermine and Army criteria and must support battlefield dominance while minimizing any decrease of operational tempo.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–009; DSA 97–006; EEL 97–007; EN 97–002; FA 97–034; OD 97–009, OD 97–013; MMB 97–005; MSB 97–006.

References: T.P. 525–5, p. 3–9; Joint Vision 2010 p.13, 20–21, 22–24, 25.

TR 97–042, Firepower Nonlethal. Capability to safely engage or control personnel and degrade or immobilize equipment using nonlethal means throughout the battlespace during combat or stability and support operations.

Branch FOCs: CM 97–007, CM 97–011; IN 97–400, IN 97–410, IN 97–420, IN 97–430; MP 97–014; FA 97–033; EN 97–010, EN 97–011; SP 97–012, SP 97–020; EEL 97–006; DBS 97–040, DBS 97–041, DBS 97–042, DBS 97–043; MMB 97–005, MMB 97–016; MSB 97–013, MSB 97–014; SP 97–001, SP 97–002, SP 97–003, SP 97–006, SP 97–007, SP 97–009, SP 97–010, SP 97–011, SP 97–013, SP 97–014, SP 97–015, SP 97–016, SP 97–020.

Reference: T.P. 525–73.

7. Survivability

TR 97–043, Survivability—Materiel. Capability to survive against the full spectrum of battlespace threats (directed–energy weapons, NBC weapons, thermal and ballistic weapons, corrosives, environmental effects). Integration of an optimized suite of detection, warning, hit, penetration, and kill avoidance measures is necessary to achieve this. Capability of surviving against threats attacking at any aspect around, above, or below the system. Sensor, information systems, and countermeasure combinations providing this capability must be able to operate autonomously, while retaining semiautomatic and manual modes. Optimization of the suite requires the proper combination of signature management, sensors, countermeasures, such as smoke/active protection/obscurants, and armors, all developed and integrated as part of the system’s basic design, to reduce cost, maximize effectiveness, and minimize system–level burdens. Capability required to protect facilities, information systems, and equipment by minimizing risks associated with acts of terrorism and sabotage, including sympathetic detonations of ammunition stores, terrorist attacks, or direct and indirect fires. This includes the capability to rapidly construct and repair fortifications, protective shelters/positions, forward operating bases, landing strips and pads, and combat roads and trails. Capability to enhance aircraft and aircrew survival. Capability to survive through the use of active and passive defense measures.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–008, AD 97–009; AR 97–003, AR 97–015; AV 97–007; CM 97–004, CM 97–007; DSA 97–003, DSA 97–004, DSA 97–028, DSA 97–030; EEL 97–007, EEL 97–008, EEL 97–009, EEL 97–010; EN 97–005, EN 97–006, EN 97–009, EN 97–012, EN 97–013; FA 97–003, FA 97–004, FA 97–011, FA 97–034; FI 97–008; IN 97–230; MI 97–003, MI 97–004, MI 97–007; MMB 97–008, MMB 97–013, MMB 97–014; MP 97–001, MP 97–010; OD 97–017; MSB 97–003, MSB 97–004, MSB 97–006, MSB 97–008; SP 97–001, SP 97–002, SP 97–003, SP 97–004, SP 97–005, SP 97–006, SP 97–007, SP 97–008, SP 97–009, SP 97–010, SP 97–012, SP 97–014, SP 97–015, SP 97–016, SP 97–017, SP 97–019, SP 97–020.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–60; T.P. 525–63; T.P. 525–75, paragraphs 3–3b, 3–3c, 4–5c, 3–3e, and 4–5e; T.P. 525–200–2; T.P. 525–200–5; TRADOC Black Book No. 4; Joint Vision 2010; Ordnance Corps Vision; Maneuver Support Enduring Battlefield Function.

TR 97–044, Survivability—Personnel. Army forces operating throughout the battlefield will be highly survivable. This survivability will be achieved through the integration of overmatching lethality, situational awareness, state–of–the–art sensors and countermeasures, a full complement of directed energy, ballistic, NBC, endemic disease, thermal, and environmental protections. Army forces will derive their survivability from the amalgamation of the individual soldier and combat vehicle survivability (including crash–worthiness to protect crew members and passengers from injury during accidents), its redundant force structure and the density of distribution of its combat power within the battlespace. Personnel survivability is comprised of both active and passive survivability capabilities.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–008; AR 97–012; AV 97–007; CM 97–003, CM 97–004, CM 97–006, CM 97–007; EEL 97–008; EN 97–009, EN 97–012, EN 97–013; FA 97–003; FI 97–008; IN 97–200, IN 97–210, IN 97–220; MD 97–001, MD 97–003, MD 97–004, MD 97–005, MD 97–006, MD 97–007, MD 97–008, MD 97–009, MD 97–010, MD 97–011, MD 97–012,; MP 97–001, MP 97–010; MMB 97–014; MSB 97–003; MSB 97–004, MSB 97–006, MSB 97–008; SP 97–001, SP 97–002, SP 97–003, SP 97–004, SP 97–009, SP 97–010, SP 97–011, SP 97–012, SP 97–014, SP 97–015, SP 97–016, SP 97–017, SP 97–020.

Active Capabilities—Army forces will have active capabilities to ensure overmatching survivability, including soldier–to–soldier/vehicle–to–vehicle/soldier–to–vehicle combat identification, combat life saving, battle injury treatment and prevention, nonbattle casualty prevention and treatment, physiological monitoring and battle stress, and selected nonbattle injuries prediction. Vehicle capabilities will include maneuverability, low observability, and active protection. When forces are operating independently, in war or sustainment and support operations, it will be augmented with veterinary services.

Passive Capabilities—Soldiers require passive capabilities to ensure overmatching survivability, including timely intelligence, and low observability, lightweight protection from ballistic, directed–energy (to include agile vision protection throughout the electromagnetic spectrum), tactical and industrial chemicals, and environmental stresses, and medical protection from disease.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–63.

TR 97–045, Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception. Capability to reduce the probability of being detected, acquired, ranged, engaged, and hit by the threat. This capability is needed to protect the force and reduce or eliminate visual, electromagnetic, acoustic, infrared, and radar signatures. Capability to mask friendly intentions, protect forces, shape the battlespace, and conduct decisive operations by reducing or eliminating operational signatures and employing decoys.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–008; AR 97–002, AR 97–003; AV 97–007; CM 97–007; DBS 97–024; DSA 97–030, DSA 97–004; EEL 97–009; EN 97–13; FA 97–003, FA 97–018, FA 97–029; MI 97–009; MP 97–001, MSB 97–008, MSB 97–009; MMB 97–009; SP 97–012; IN 97–210, IN 97–240.

References: T.P. 525–200–3; T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–75; paragraphs 3–3g and 4–5g; T.P. 525–200–2; Black Book No. 4; CAC&FLW Pam 525–05; Mission Need Statements for Multispectral Camouflage.

TR 97–046, Battlefield Obscuration. Capability to selectively deny enemy observation, target acquisition, sensing, and signaling capability through the use of visible and invisible obscurants.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–002, AR 97–003; CM 97–007; EEL 97–010; FA 97–003, MMB 97–010, MMB 97–011; MP 97–001; MSB 97–005.

References: T.P. 525–5, T.P. 525–3.

8. Training

TR 97–047, Leader and Commander Training. Capability to train leaders and commanders to be versatile and adaptive to varied mission requirements. Future commanders and their staffs will face a technologically advanced, information–rich, operationally diverse, and fast paced battle staff environment. Trainers must fully understand the impacts of this environment on leaders and commanders. Training systems must provide capabilities needed to:

Develop and exercise cognitive skills and knowledge to enable them to handle the ambiguity of combat with confidence, and adjust and adapt in real time to quickly changing task demands, operational situations, and conditions.

Train leaders and commanders to make optimal use of battle staffs as problem solving resources through improved teamwork and collaboration. Commanders must have training and team building strategies at their disposal to use in team integration. Training developers need a thorough understanding of the factors influencing effective teams in order to design training and training support products that promote effective teamwork. Both must understand the factors influencing high and low performing teams and how these factors may vary with different missions and mission conditions. Commanders must also be able to choose soldiers for units, task forces, special team assignments, and duty assignments based on a soldier’s proven performance and training on mission–relevant skills and tasks.

Provide leaders and commanders ample opportunities, both at homestation and during deployment, to gain essential experience in battle command decision making through training. This must occur through training/mission rehearsal in simulators (e.g., individual battle staff trainers, incorporation of battle staff decision processes into battle simulations) or other training media that are reconfigurable to match training scenarios to battlefield function or operational mission.

Train leaders and commanders in the interpersonal skills needed to work effectively with diverse groups of people. Future leaders must be able to shape units into cohesive teams, work effectively with joint, coalition and interagency personnel, and nongovernmental organizations and private volunteer organizations and the media, and serve as effective intermediaries between the Army and U.S. and foreign civilians.

Train leaders and commanders to comprehend the organization, structure, capabilities, and limitations of Force XXI C4I architectures (organic and split–based).

Train leaders and commanders to either exploit or react to the influence of the media on operations. Commanders need to be schooled on the capabilities of the media in all its forms—electronic, written, and audio. Commanders must be constantly aware of the changing global information environment, its effect on the opinions, attitudes, and beliefs held by the American public, political leaders, soldiers and their families, allies, adversaries; and other important audiences, and the impact of these opinions, attitudes, and beliefs on the Army and its operations.

Train leaders and commanders to serve as the Army’s basic environmental stewards and to take a professional and personal responsibility for understanding and supporting the Army’s environmental program. In order to develop effective training for commanders and leaders, training developers need information that describes the situations leaders will encounter during specific types of operations and while rapidly transitioning from one type of operation to another. Essentially, the Army needs the capability to model leadership requirements in future operations. Once trainers identify the most essential leadership capabilities for the future, they must be able to determine the best mix of training strategies and tools to train and assess competencies throughout leaders’ careers.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–013; BCL 97–016, BCL 97–017, BCL 97–020; CH 97–011; DSA 97–029; EN 97–006, EN 97–027; FI 97–007; MI 97–011; MMB 97–020; MP 97–012; SP 97–005, SP 97–18; TRD 97–002, TRD 97– 005; TRD 97–017.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–75.

TR 97–048, Performance Support Systems. Capability to provide soldiers enhanced performance support on the job to enable them to adapt effectively to quickly changing missions and equipment technologies, and adapt to a wider array of tasks and responsibilities. Advanced performance support capabilities will blur the lines between training and operational tools. Many performance support technologies will be deployed during conflict to help soldiers sustain their skills and do their jobs on the battlefield. The following types of capabilities are needed:

Learning/job–aid environments that, for example, put the digitized expertise of senior officers and noncommissioned officers (NCOs) on a soldier’s desktop.

Smart tutors and embedded diagnostics systems that assist soldiers in diagnosis and repairs, as well as other types of problem solving and decision making.

Guided, goal–oriented simulations that enable soldiers to interact with and get advice from computerized experts while working through situations they encounter on the job.

Decision aids that support mission planning, preparation, and execution. Soldiers will need the capability to move around freely to perform their duties while interacting with performance support systems via visual and auditory or other hands–free, user–friendly interfaces. Systems will need to be embedded within equipment or organic TOE assets. Selected systems will need to be man portable. Training and materiel developers need the capability to identify those tasks and conditions where development of performance support systems will have the most payoff for the Army. Information regarding the perceived performance support needs of soldiers and officers in TOE units is needed to assist training developers in identifying requirements.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–005; AV 97–003, AV 97–014; BCL 97–003; EN 97–006, EN 97–011; FA 97–015; IS 97–003; MI 97–011; MMB 97–020; MP 97–012; SP 97–005, SP 97–18; TRD 97–003.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–60, paragraph 3.2.e.2; T.P. 525–70; T.P. 525–75; T.P. 525–200–4; T.P. 525–200–5.

TR 97–049, Battle Staff Training and Support. Capability of battle command support teams (BCST) to support the commander in controlling current operations and adjusting plans for future operations. The staff must be an extension of the commander. The staff must provide the critical information necessary for the commander to make informed, timely decisions to best effect the action/mission requirements. Skilled staffs work within the commander’s intent to direct and control units and allocate the means to support that intent. They assist the commander in anticipating the outcome of the current operation and developing the concept for the follow–on mission. They understand, and can apply, a common doctrine. The battle staff must also understand what information the commander deems important for making decisions and provide it in an accurate and timely manner. It is the product of staff work that serves the needs of the commander. Battle staffs must be organized to ensure the command process is sustained during any absence of the commander. Underlying this capability is the requirement to recruit, develop, and retain quality people. Recruiting programs must be developed and employed to determine early the capabilities and potential of commanders and staffs. Training programs must be developed and harness new technologies to improve the comprehension and retention of key leadership and staff skills. BCSTs are desirable to reduce strategic lift requirements, present smaller targets enhance mobility, and reduce sustainment requirements. In order that BCSTs be reduced in size, but still perform the same functions, technologies must be applied that will reduce the workload on soldiers. Enabling technologies include decision support software and planning aids, user–friendly systems that optimize work performance, systems that automate staff functions, allow workload sharing, and predict high workload periods and miniaturized hardware. Deployed BCSTs may also be made smaller through the use of virtual staffs. Using advanced command, control, and communications (C3) systems, small BCSTs could be linked to larger staffs in the rear, in a sanctuary, or even the continental United States (CONUS). Using a shared, relevant common picture, rearward staffs could provide timely and accurate planning, operational, and administrative support to the forward located BCST. Other actions required to make BCSTs smaller are more efficient and effective man–machine information interface, reorganization of staff structure around information flows that reduce fragments, stovepipes, and handoffs. Staffs should be internetted, and at least partially nonhierarchical, to conduct cross–BOS processes.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–013; BCL 97–010, BCL 97–016; CM 97–001, CM 97–008; FA 97–015; FI 97–009; SP 97–005, SP 97–018, SP 97–020; TRD 97–004.

Reference: T.P. 525–5.

TR 97–050, Joint, Combined, and Interagency Training. Capability to conduct training and mission rehearsals for joint, combined, or interagency operations. Army units need the capability to reconfigure virtual, constructive, and live simulations to train/mission rehearse joint, combined, and interagency operations. Commanders and individual battle staff members must be able to practice problem solving and decision making skills in mission relevant, joint, combined, and interagency scenarios prior to their participation in exercises or use on the battlefield. They must understand the differences in the Army’s tactical decision making process and the joint deliberate and crisis action planning process. Soldiers need the ability to train–up rapidly on a variety of potential topics, including foreign cultures and foreign language skills, and the doctrine and standing operating procedures or terminology used by other services, coalition forces, or agencies. Units need the capability to link up via distance learning technologies with joint, combined, and interagency personnel for common training/mission rehearsal. Other services resources must be integrated into battalion– and brigade–level simulations to train other service’s combat capabilities on a regular basis. Commanders also need capability to bring together Army units, including Reserve Components, with joint, combined, and interagency forces for training/mission rehearsal through linkage of synthetic distributed environments, including common, datalinked terrain databases.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–013; BCL 97–018; CH 97–011; EEL 97–021, EEL 97–022; EN 97–003, EN 97–005, EN 97–006, EN 97–009, EN 97–030; FA 97–024; FI 97–009; MI 97–011; MP 97–015; SP 97–005, SP 97–018, SP 97–020; TRD 97–007.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–75.

TR 97–051, Training Infrastructure. Capability to deliver required training, throughout a soldier’s career, how, when, and where it will be most training and cost effective. Soldiers must be able to learn and practice the basic job–oriented physical and mental skills and gain required knowledge at their primary duty station, receive advanced individual training at homestation distributed training centers, and learn and practice hands–on skills on the job. Only the most difficult hands–on skills and selected courses taught using small group instruction will require training onsite at the school. To achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency, training must be self–paced and individualized to a soldier’s needs. Soldiers must have easy access to individualized sustainment training and Army training doctrine at homestation and post–mobilization. The training infrastructure must be designed to fully support this evolution to phased–in, individualized, distributed "soldier–oriented" training. Training developers at the schools must be linked to unit commanders in order for them to do integrated and coordinated training development, delivery, and testing. Training developer–unit linkages, as well as training developer–unit–combat training center (CTC) linkages, will also enable school and unit training developers to receive timely feedback on new and emerging training requirements as well as feedback on soldier performance. Training developers at both unit and school sites must have ready access to easy–to–use training authoring tools and training doctrine. Authoring tools must be capable of quickly building training programs with minimal input from a unit or school developer. Linkages between the services’ training developers and training development systems will support identification of tasks for which common training can be developed. Linkages between the services’ televideotraining and Internet–based training systems will support joint training delivery. Training infrastructure must also be capable of:

Developing and delivering training/mission rehearsals, on demand, to meet contingency mission requirements. Training developers need capability to develop new or reconfigure existing training for a variety of media on short notice. Units must be capable of rapid planning, desktop/online development, and delivery of training /mission rehearsals for contingency missions. Training developers and units must also be able to rapidly develop performance evaluation tools tailored to present level of unit performance and requirements of the immediate mission.

Providing commanders knowledge and decision aids necessary to select best mix of training and performance support option from the suite of available alternatives (e.g., live, virtual, and constructive simulations or a combination thereof, individual and collective training support packages, paper–based training/job aids, training devices and simulations, distance learning products, field exercises, electronic performance support systems, embedded training). Commanders must have capability to factor need for multiservice, multinational, and interagency training into equation for determining best training mix. Commanders also must be able to select from a suite of individual and collective performance evaluations to build an overall evaluation strategy that provides them essential feedback on unit readiness for the immediate mission.

Providing training developers/unit commanders ability to employ valid performance enhancing techniques appropriately to optimize soldier performance.

Providing soldiers the means to identify training and skill requirements for various unit and duty assignments. Soldiers also must be able to assess their status relative to these skill requirements and to other soldiers, for purposes of self–development.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–013; DBS 97–070; FA 97–037; IN 97–990; MI 97–011; MP 97–012; SP 97–005, SP 97–018, SP 97–020; TRD 97–001, TRD 97–006, TRD 97–011, TRD 97–010, TRD 97–018.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–75, paragraph 4–2(a–f); T.P. 525–200–3.

TR 97–052, Training Aids, Devices, Simulators, and Simulations (TADSS) Fidelity Requirements. Capability to employ the minimum essential level of fidelity in TADSS to support attaining and sustaining individual and collective warfighting skills. Commanders need capability to conduct and assess training and rehearsals, using a variety of tools, appropriate for the training audience and the commander’s training objectives. The Army and joint forces must determine how much fidelity is required for a given simulation, how to maximize training transfer from the simulated to real world, and how best to balance TADSS fidelity requirements with fiscal constraints (i.e., increased fidelity = increased program costs). The Army must develop and institutionalize design principles, protocols, and common operating environments for TADSS.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–013; AV 97–014; BCL 97–003; EN 97–003, EN 97–030; SP 97–005, SP 97–018, SP 97–020; TRD 97–012.

Reference: T.P. 525–5.

TR 97–053, Embedded Training and Soldier–Machine Interface. Capability to design training systems into or add training systems to operational systems to enable soldiers to train using organic equipment while in the field or at homestation. The objective embedded training system(s) will provide the cues necessary to train individual and collective skills; allow the system to participate in force–on–force exercises through embedded tactical engagement simulation and instrumentation; and interoperate with Army Battle Command System (ABCS) platforms and CTC instrumentation systems. Near–term requirements include integrating embedded training functions within current warfighting systems. Capability to provide soldiers with new equipment systems designed to optimize human performance. Soldiers must be able to use new equipment systems quickly, easily, and effectively with only the minimum essential new equipment training, sustainment training, experience using the equipment, or performance support systems. Capability must extend to operation of equipment under high workload and high stress conditions (i.e., noise, motion, sustained operations), when performance problems often occur. Training and performance support systems must also be human–engineered for ease of use by soldiers.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–005; AR 97–013, AR 97–016; AV 97–015; CM 97–001, CM 97–008; DBS 97–099; EN 97–003, EN 97–006, EN 97–030; FA 97–015; SP 97–005, SP 97–018, SP 97–020; TRD 97–013, TRD 97–008.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–60; T.P. 525–70.

TR 97–054, Virtual Reality. Capability to use advanced simulation as a means of providing cost–effective, safe, realistic, versatile, and accessible training to achieve proficiency in critical combat skills. Numerous factors influence the requirement for this capability, including:

Environmental constraints on training.

Reduced range and exercise areas.

Training safety concerns, pressure to trim OPTEMPO and ammunition budgets.

The need to rehearse missions on the terrain and under the conditions that simulate the next deployment as closely as possible.

The need for training to be versatile enough to change in response to quickly changing individual and collective task performance requirements.

When highly realistic training is needed to produce adequate training transfer, but field training or on–the–job training is not feasible, trainers need the capability to provide training with the required level of realism through other means. Similarly, when field training or on–the–job training can not adequately replicate the operational environment/situation soldiers are facing, trainers must have a viable alternative for provision of truly realistic training/mission rehearsal. Realistic, advanced simulation capabilities are also critical to train/mission rehearse tasks that require multiple repetitions to achieve proficiency when repetitions would not otherwise be possible. The capability to provide highly realistic training through means other than on–the–job or field training is needed in numerous areas of individual and collective skills training, including training for dismounted soldiers, maintenance training, training of equipment operation, battle staff, and small group leader training. Trainers must be capable of easily reconfiguring advanced simulations to meet training/mission rehearsal requirements of the immediate contingency. Capability to train/mission rehearse tasks realistically within advanced simulation also requires realistically simulated friendly and opposing forces.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–013, AR 97–016; AV 97–016; CH 97–003, CH 97–010; CM 97–001, CM 97–008; DSA 97–029; EN 97–003, EN 97–030; FA 97–015, FA 97–037; MI 97–011; MMB 97–020; SP 97–005, SP 97–018, SP 97–020; TRD 97–014.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–75, paragraph 4–2 (a–f).

TR 97–055, Live, Virtual, and Constructive Simulation Technologies. Capability to provide commanders homestation and deployable training systems providing targetry, tactical engagement simulation, and training, analysis, and feedback capabilities, similar to those provided at the Army’s CTCs. These systems must interoperate with CTC instrumentation systems, virtual and constructive simulation systems, and ABCS systems. Tactical engagement simulation and future CTC instrumentation systems must leverage current capabilities provided by Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES), SAWE–RF, and MILES II; and incorporate current and future systems that must be represented in the live simulation environment (i.e., embedded training systems, electronic warfare systems, future weapons systems, and future munitions).

Branch FOCs: AR 97–013, AR 97–016; AV 97–017; CH 97–010; DSA 97–029; EN 97–003, EN 97–030; FA 97–015; MMB 97–020; SP 97–005, SP 97–018, SP 97–020; TRD 97–015.

Reference: T.P. 525–5; TRADOC Black Book No. 4, pp. 9–24.

TR 97–056, Synthetic Environment. Capability to provide training, at different levels (i.e., platoon through brigade) at different geographic locations using different simulation systems on an interactive basis. Future simulation systems, instrumentation systems, and ABCS platforms must be developed that operate (and interoperate) using common terrain, weather, and object databases; accurately represent atmospheric effects; and provide visual displays that are consistent with user requirements at all levels.

Branch FOCs: AR 97–013, AR 97–016; AV 97–018; DSA 97–029; EN 97–003, EN 97–030; MI 97–011; MMB 97–020; SP 97–005, SP 97–018, SP 97–020; TRD 97–016.

References: T.P. 525–5; 525–70; T.P. 525–75, paragraph 4–2(a–f); Black Book No. 4.

TR 97–057, Modeling and Simulation. Capability to model/simulate existing and future Army and joint forces organizations, doctrinal concepts, training systems and approaches, weapons systems, and other entities for use in training, training development, mission planning and rehearsal, combat development, materiel development, and experiments.

Branch FOCs: AD 97–013; AR 97–013, AR 97–016; AV 97–013; CM 97–001, CM 97–008; EEL 97–021; EN 97–003, EN 97–030; FA 97–015, MMB 97–018, MMB 97–020; SP 97–005, SP 97–018, SP 97–020; TRD 97–015, TRD 97–019.

References: T.P. 525–5; T.P. 525–60; T.P. 525–70; T.P. 525–200–2; TRADOC Black Book No. 4.

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