News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



3. Technology Programs

A technology taxonomy has been developed to define the core technology capabilities in SMDC. Part of the command’s missions and goals is tied directly to the development of advanced technology, as well as the support of the FOCs of the warfighter and the demonstration of "bundled" technology capabilities to defeat the projected threats discussed in subsection C. These technologies have been broken into eleven technology areas and subareas, which are discussed below.

a. Kinetic Energy Weapons Technology

Hit–to–Kill (HTK) Miniature Interceptor. The advanced submunitions (AS) threat has received significant attention recently in the defense community as a potentially effective countermeasure to those TMD systems currently in development, such as theater high–altitude area defense (THAAD) and Navy upper tier. The AS countermeasure appears to be easy to implement (BMDO SM–2 experiment) and could be a validated threat by the year 2002. The submunitions could be either conventional, chemical, or biological. The HTK miniature interceptor is a multiple–kill vehicle concept intended to counter this threat. It is based on advanced component technologies under development with BMDO funding, which are integrated into extremely small kill vehicles, thereby allowing many to be carried aboard a single interceptor. The HTK miniature interceptor concept would be designed to be compatible with the baseline TMD concept of operation using the same radar, booster, launcher, and BM/C3. However, the conventional kill–payload would be replaced with a cluster of HTK miniature interceptors. A small fraction of the conventional interceptors in each fire unit would be replaced with interceptors filled with HTK miniature interceptor kill vehicles. The threat would be detected and tracked as in the conventional TMD scenarios. The TMD radar would determine the composition of the threat payload and, when needed, an interceptor with a cluster of HTK miniature interceptor projectiles would engage the submunitions in an exoatmospheric environment.

The current state of the technology and the technical innovations needed by the year 2002 and year 2015 is shown in Table D–3.

Table D–3.  Hit–to–Kill Miniature Interceptor Technology Plan

System Element

Current

By 2002

By 2015

Innovations Needed

Propulsion & Steering Impulsive diverters under development >5 g >40g More maneuverable, responsive, and robust divert systems, miniature, low cost
Sensor Single color passive sensor under development Single color Multicolor, multimode IR and RF with decoy resistance Miniature, low cost, high resolution, low loss optics, shock resistant
Tracking Star tracking experiment planned Passive Active/passive High power laser diode, small and low cost
Terminal Guidance Reticle based guidance under development Reticle/proportional FPA/advanced guidance (endoatmospheric) Higher accuracy guidance algorithms and high data rate processors.
Integrated Kill Vehicle/Dispenser No work to date Transition to materiel developer System fielded Lightweight, spin rate control, dispenser induced pointing error

Exoatmospheric Interceptor Technology (EIT). The EIT program will provide the only exoatmospheric interceptor technology testbed program for the development of fire–and–forget smart interceptors. This program will develop and integrate active and passive sensors, data fusion, lightweight avionics, high–sensitivity low background focal plane arrays (FPAs) with high–speed hardened electronics, high acceleration and divert propulsion, and sophisticated onboard target track and discrimination capability. The testbed will serve to demonstrate the technology goals without development of new interceptor kill vehicles (KVs).

The EIT program includes coordinating and maintaining a complementary interceptor technology base for relevant components and subsystems, correlating its core technologies to ongoing ATDs, ACTDs, and acquisition programs. It also includes working through BMDO to coordinate the users and acquisition programs to identify, develop, and mature the technologies further.

Fire–and–forget smart interceptors directly support the Joint Vision 2010 of precision engagement, dominant maneuver, and full–dimensional protection. The testbed demonstrations of fire–and–forget exointerceptor target kills will be performed against responsive threat complexes. A series of end–to–end, 6–degree–of–freedom (DOF), hardware–in–the–loop (HWIL) simulations, ground, and flight tests will be performed with the integrated KVs. After successful demonstration of the integrated KV capability, the technology will be available for transitioning to the appropriate interceptor ACTD or acquisition programs. [POC: Robert Franklin, (205) 955–5817, e–mail: franklinb@smdc.army.mil]

These technologies will enhance existing interceptor capabilities and add new ones such as advanced inertial measurement units (IMUs) and batteries enabling longer flyout times. Advanced LADARs, FPAs, algorithms, and signal/data (S/D) processors will enable longer acquisition ranges and better discrimination. Advanced divert and attitude control system (DACS) will enable a much greater divert capability. The current technology capabilities, projected capabilities for 2009 and 2015, and innovations needed to achieve these capabilities are listed in Table D–4.

Endoatmospheric Interceptor Technologies. The objective of AIT is to develop and demonstrate advanced lightweight technologies for hypersonic HTK intercept of threat missiles within the atmosphere and integrate these technologies into a small (130 cm3), lightweight (50 kg) KV. High velocity intercepts are essential to maintain sufficient battle space, lethality, and coverage/footprint performance. However, such conditions provide severe aero–optic, aerodynamic, aerothermal, and structural requirements. Jet interaction (JI) testing is providing insights into JI sensitivities to design

Table D–4.  Exoatmospheric Interceptor Technology Plan

Component

Today

2009

2015

Innovations Needed

IMU 0.4–kg IFOG with 4–deg/hr bias stability, 10–mg acceleration sensitivity 0.5–kg RFOG with 0.01 deg/hr bias stability, 100–mG acceleration sensitivity 0.4 kg RFOG with 0.001 deg/hr bias stability, 50–mG acceleration sensitivity Low loss optical connectors, low loss fibers, improved laser source, solid–state accelerometers, improved power management technology
LADAR No interceptor LADAR available 5–kg, 300–km range, solid state 4–kg, 500–km range, solid state Improved laser transmitters and receivers improved power management technology
FPA 2562 MCT, non–rad hard on FPA readout electronics 5122 , rad hard, multiwave band on FPA processing electronics 10242 , rad hard, tunable waveband, high temperature on FPA processing electronics Improved materials and processing techniques improved manufacturing techniques
Algorithms Basic discrimination algorithms Onboard active/passive discrimination, control system algorithms for maneuvering threats Algorithms promoting autonomous launch–and–forget operation Improved S/D processors
S/D Processors   Level–2 hardened, 1012 IPS, 1012 OPS Level–2 hardened, 1014 IPS, 1014 OPS Improved power management technology; improved chipset design and parallel processing technologies
DACS Army LEAP DACS subsystem 200–km divert capability, solid propellant, start/stop capability 400–km divert capability, solid propellant, start/stop capability Higher Isp propellants, faster response, high temperature hot gas valves, high temperature nozzles
Boosters Not available Booster with composite motorcase, thrust vector control Advanced composite integrated stage booster, thrust vector control Higher Isp propellants, faster response, high temperature injector valves, higher strength fibers
Warheads Conventional warhead, directionally fragmented Explosive reactant, counter early–release submunitions (CERS) warhead Directed energy warhead CERS and directed–energy design and development
Control Systems Not available Advanced actuator control system Adaptive learning control system for maneuvering threats Fast response controllers; innovative learning algorithms
Structures THAAD Composite airframe with integrated plumbing, wiring, and DACS Composite advanced materials airframe with integrated plumbing, wiring, and DACS Advanced materials; improved manufacturing techniques
Power PAC–3/THAAD/ ASAT batteries Long life (60 min), high current density, lightweight Long life (120 min), high current density, lightweight Improved materials, packaging, thermal management

parameters, data to develop engineering models, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation data. AIT provides significant technology advancements in the seeker, cooled window/forebody, and high performance solid DACS. AIT has a variety of multiservice applications of risk reduction opportunities and performance enhancements (P3I). [POC: Mike Cantrell, (205) 955–5968, e–mail: cantrellm@smdc.army.mil]

The current technology capabilities, projected capabilities for 2009 and 1015, and innovations needed to achieve these capabilities are listed in Table D–5.

Table D–5.  Endoatmospheric Interceptor Technology Plan

Component

Today

2009

2015

Innovations Needed

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Fiber Conventional Japanese fibers, 55 msi modulus, 650 ksi tensile strength Advanced composite fiber, 90 msi modulus, 800 ksi tensile strength Advanced composite fiber, 100 msi modulus, 1000 ksi tensile strength Research, improved materials development
Control Systems None available Advanced actuator control system Adaptive learning control system for maneuvering threats Fast response controllers; innovative learning algorithms
Structures THAAD Composite airframe with integrated plumbing, wiring, and DACS Composite advanced materials airframe with integrated plumbing, wiring, and DACS Advanced materials; improved manufacturing techniques
MMW Radomes PAC–3 Dual mode RF/IR radome Dual mode RF/IR, actively cooled, high strength/erosion resistance Advanced materials development; improved manufacturing and characterization techniques
MMW Transmitters PAC–3/THAAD 200–300 W average, 4.5 kg, 150 inch2 200–300 W average, 3.5 kg, 125 inch2 Improved components, power generation and management techniques
MMW Antennas PAC–3/THAAD Active conformal array Active conformal array, dual–mode antenna/aperture Improved manufacturing
Algorithms Basic discrimination algorithms Onboard active/passive discrimination, control system algorithms for maneuvering threats Algorithms promoting autonomous launch and forget operation Improved S/D processors
IMUS Army LEAP IMU, 0.4–kg IFOG with 4–deg/hr bias stability, 10–mG acceleration sensitivity 0.5–kg RFOG with 0.01–deg/hr bias stability, 100–mG acceleration sensitivity, high bandwidth (5x existing) Chip gyroscopes and accelerometers 0.01–deg/hr bias stability, 100–mG acceleration sensitivity, high bandwidth (5x existing) Low loss fibers; low loss optical connectors

Improved laser source; improved micromechanical fabrication techniques

Solid–state accelerometers

Improved power management technology

Power PAC–3/THAAD High current density, lightweight High current density, lightweight Improved materials, packaging, thermal management

Short–Range Air Defense (SHORAD) With Optimized Radar Distribution (SWORD). The SWORD advanced technology program will provide the Army with mobile, all–weather, close–in defense against cruise missiles and short–range ballistic missiles (SRBMs). Also, this system has capability against short–range rockets, air–to–ground missiles, and UAVs. This program will leverage an interferometric radar and gigahertz (GHz) signal/data fusion technologies, utilize existing infrastructure, and achieve point and area defense performance exceeding existing fielded capabilities.

The SWORD concept was conceived from a BMDO initiative for NMD point defense. An interferometric fire control radar capable of command guiding an HTK interceptor to impact a strategic ballistic missile warhead out to a range of 25 km was initiated in early 1991. A 10–meter (m) baseline X–band interferometric fire control radar and radio frequency (RF) transceiver was developed and demonstrated to perform this mission. This technology has demonstrated eight microradian angular accuracy at a 25–km range. A tactical version of this system can be deployed on wheeled or tracked vehicles operating with a 2–3–m baseline interferometric fire control radar. Specific advantages of SWORD include radar classification of hostile targets at ranges to perform intercepts at 10 km with optimized fusing, aimpoint, flight path, and divert firing techniques; providing 360–degree search/track, on–the–move (OTM) capability at 20 km; tracking 80 simultaneous targets; and controlling up to 5 intercepts every second. The estimated production cost goal of the missile is less than $15,000 and $8 million for the interferometric fire control radar. [POC: Ron Smith, (205) 955–1182, e–mail: smithr@smdc.army.mil]

Click here to go to next page of document