News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



E. OPPORTUNITIES FOR TECHNOLOGY INFUSION

With the active participation of the SMDC, PEO–AMD is pursuing the identification and infusion of technologies that meet requirements of their core acquisition programs. Given their mission to develop, integrate, acquire, and field quality air and missile defense systems, the PEO–AMD is currently developing and testing core acquisition programs for TMD and NMD systems. The FY97 infusion efforts focused on the PATRIOT and THAAD programs; FY98 efforts are extended to include NMD. As other AMD programs proceed further in their life cycles, the technology infusion effort will be directed to them. Some of the specific technologies that are applicable to ARROW, PATRIOT, THAAD, and NMD may also be applicable to the other core acquisition programs such as CORPS surface–to–air missile (SAM)/Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS) and JTAGS.

The PEO–AMD also has the responsibility to carry out a coordinated program for the infusion of key technologies that are being developed under the guidance of BMDO. The development of technologies to support TMD and NMD systems is an ongoing and evolutionary process. This section is based on the core acquisition program requirements for the period FY99 through FY05 and provides a framework within which the technology developers and the PEO–AMD program/project/product offices can identify optimal decision points for infusing new technologies into the core acquisition programs and, when necessary, make program adjustments to maximize the effectiveness of limited funds.

1. Theater Missile Defense

a. PATRIOT Advanced Capability 3 (PAC–3)

PATRIOT is a long–range, mobile, field army and corps air defense system that uses guided missiles to engage and destroy multiple targets simultaneously at varying ranges. The design objective of the PATRIOT system was to provide a baseline system capable of modification to cope with the evolving threat. The PATRIOT missile system is modular in nature, characterized by high technology and intensive software enhancements. This approach minimizes technological risks and provides a means of enhancing system capability through planned upgrades of deployed systems. The PAC–3 growth program consists of radar and communication enhancements, software upgrades, and ground support improvements. The program upgrades are blocked into configuration groupings and procured with independent acquisition decision.

The PAC–3 missile provides essential increases in battlespace, accuracy, and kill potential required to counter the most stressing tactical missile and fixed wing threats of the future. The PAC–3 missile improves PATRIOT’s capability to counter advanced high–speed TBM threats, and provides a design capability against low RCS (LRCS) air breathing threat (ABT) targets in all operational environments. The PAC–3 missile engages TBMs at higher altitude, thereby increasing the defended battlespace. The lethality enhancements for the PAC–3 missile accommodate the most stressful conditions specified in the Operational Requirements Document (ORD) and Systems Threat Assessment Report; specifically, high–speed TMBs and LRCS targets in clutter.

Improved Thermal Batteries for Missile Interceptors. The applicable ORD requirements addressed by an improved lithium thermal battery technology program are range at target intercept, interceptor missile shelf life, and capability of a thermal battery interchangeable with the shape, size, voltage/power, and weight constraints of current PAC–3 thermal batteries. Improvements will enhance mission performance for any missile interceptor utilizing thermal batteries.

The PAC–3 missile uses thermal batteries for its power requirements prior to and after launch. The goal of this program is to improve significantly the thermal batteries used by PAC–3, and any other missile interceptor requiring thermal batteries. This program will specifically focus on increasing the relatively short discharge life of thermal batteries, particularly for high voltage and high discharge applications. An additional objective is to achieve an increase in the discharge life by a factor of 4–5 while maintaining both an adequate cell voltage and a large discharge current density. This technology program for improved lithium batteries for the PAC–3 missile (and any other missile desiring this upgrade) will result in longer battery power duration. This longer thermal battery lifetime implies increased range that can be greater or equal to the missile kinematic capabilities. Technology insertion can be accomplished at any time during missile production or even afterwards. [POC: Alan Pope, PATRIOT, (205) 955–1990]

Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyroscope. The TMD missiles must provide navigation accuracy consistent with the seeker FOV, divert capabilities, target uncertainties, and in–flight guidance updates within the engagement battle space. In order for PAC–3, THAAD, and CORPS SAM/MEADS to meet individual operational requirements, a low–cost, lightweight, high reliability, small, high–performance gyroscope must be developed. The interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG) is one of the gyro developments with the potential to meet the requirements.

IFOG represents an improvement over the current ring laser gyroscope (RLG) in the following technical areas: (1) the IFOG provides increased accuracy over the RLG, (2) the IFOG is all solid state, and (3) the IFOG is smaller and lighter, occupying about one third the volume and requiring less power for guiding the rotating PAC–3 missile as it closes on the target. For the IFOG, light from an external solid–state laser device is split into two waves traveling clockwise and counterclockwise, each of which propagates around many turns of a fiber coil before being interfered. The output, based on the Sagnac effect, appears as a well–known two–beam interference pattern. The path length difference due to rotation results in an optical phase shift between two waves. The most probable infusion period for the technology would be 3QFY00. [POC: Jim Putman, PATRIOT, (205) 955–1997]

Miniaturized Seeker Receiver Circuitry (MMIC, HYBRID). There is an operational requirement to increase the seeker dynamic range and reduce its size, weight, and cost. There is a need for a technology development program that will produce seeker receiver circuitry that provide all of the receiving functions for a Ka–band radar seeker in a miniaturized package that minimizes size, weight, and volume, with increased performance and reliability. The combination of reduced packaging size coupled with increased reliability would result in lower life cycle costs for these seeker receiver circuits.

The proposed technology is the miniaturized seeker circuitry (monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) modules that provide all of the receiving functions for a Ka–band radar seeker. The program to develop these MMIC or HYBRID modules will require direct interaction between the seeker contractor and the module developers. The use of this technology would result in lower manufacturing costs, lower life–cycle costs, and higher reliability. The earliest possible infusion point would be 4QFY99. The most probable and latest possible infusion points would occur in 1QFY00. [POC: Jim Putman, PATRIOT, (205) 955–1997]

Uplink Downlink Antenna System. The PATRIOT ORD has requirements for positive control, electronic countermeasures (ECM), and range among other system features. There is a specific need for an improved uplink/downlink antenna system.

The need for an improved antenna design is driven by the solid–state power amplifier that the PAC–3 missile uses to maintain a lightweight design. A series of design studies were performed to determine the antenna gain required to provide sufficient effective radiated power for transmission of the downlink signal at long ranges in ECM environments. Various missile flyout trajectories were considered during these studies. As a result of the above indicated studies, a need exists for an antenna system with the following characteristics:

C–band operation
Low development and manufacturing complexity
Low production cost
High gain (long ranges in ECM environments)
Wide FOV (0_ to 132_ in pitch; " 45_ yaw per quadrant)
Missile skin conformance
Low complexity beam directivity implementation
Lightweight
Small size
Capability of being integrated into a baseline radio frequency datalink (RFDL).

The RFDL antenna system will transmit downlink and receive uplink digital serial messages to and from the ground based PATRIOT radar throughout the flight of the missile. The RFDL system provides alignment uplinks for aligning the missile IMU with the PATRIOT radar coordinate frame, missile status downlinks to the PATRIOT system, target data uplinks (i.e., position, velocity, acceleration), and engagement data downlinks (i.e., target information transmitted to ground radar during endgame). The technology infusion period ranges from 4QFY99 to 1QFY00. [POC: Jim Putman, PATRIOT, (205) 955–1997]

Miniaturized Uplink/Downlink Transceiver Circuitry (MMIC, HYBRID). The PATRIOT ORD requires positive control, operation in ECM, and long range communications. There is a need for replacement of the current RFDL components in the PAC–3 missile midsection assembly with a lightweight compact RFDL with improved producibility and reduced unit production costs.

The value–added by this technology is better producibility, lower cost, smaller size, lower weight, and greater flexibility of design during development. There should also be reductions in the operations and support costs from the above improvements. The RFDL in the PAC–3 missile midsection assembly provides two–way C–band communications between the PATRIOT ground radar and the PAC–3 missile. It is a solid–state device composed of two main parts: the target data uplink receiver and the missile downlink transmitter. The technology infusion period ranges from 4QFY99 to 1QFY00. [POC: Jim Putman, PATRIOT, (205) 955–1997]

Radio Frequency Target Discrimination and Recognition. The Patriot ORD states a requirement for onboard target acquisition, tracking, recognition, discrimination, and homing. Key technology issues related to targets, measurements, and algorithms for TBM defense include threat complex assessment, discrimination, interceptor guidance, and aimpoint selection.

This programs provides support to the PAC–3 Project Office in meeting these critical technology requirements. This program provides unique abilities in the areas of radar data analysis, real–time algorithm evaluation, real–time architecture evaluation, and real–time LDS testing using real and simulated radar data. This program and the LDS testbed will provide a source of real–time radar algorithms and architectures for handling diverse TBM threats. The technology infusion period ranges from 1QFY99 to 1QFY01. [POC: Doug Deaton, PATRIOT, (205) 955–1923]

Improvement to Target Identification and Discrimination Technology. The Patriot ORD states a requirements for the discrimination of TBMs from debris and penaids, the discrimination of TBMs from non–TBM targets, the classification of TBMs and non–TBM targets, and the identification and classification of ABT targets for friend versus foe.

The PATRIOT Program Office is currently involved in development of a Classification, Discrimination, and Identification Phase III (CDI–3) capability to be integrated into the PAC–3 system. The CDI–3 subsystem will provide the discrimination of TBM reentry vehicles (RVs) from debris and penaids. It will also allow for the growth of the CDI–3 capability to encompass the classification and identification of non–TBM targets and ABTs. The subsystem is centered around a wideband waveform generation, receiver, and signal processor subsystem. This technology effort involves the analysis and modeling of candidate TMD system characteristics, surveyance of pertinent target data set to be measured and modeled, measurement of aspect dependent target RCS/range profiles, and participation in the XPATCH Code Consortium chaired by the U.S. Air Force Wright Laboratories for the development of a detailed target range profile simulation. The technology infusion period ranges from 3QFY97 to 4QFY98. [POC: Mike Eison, PATRIOT, (205) 955–4120]

Analog–to–Digital Converter Technology and Corresponding Signal Processor Throughput and Dynamic Range. For the PATRIOT radar, advanced signal process technology is required to support dynamic ranges while maintaining the throughput, size, weight, and prime power requirements. Applicable advanced signal processing techniques, such as maximum entropy method (MEM), are required for incorporation into PATRIOT, along with a concept for their utilization, signal processor hardware concepts, and an assessment of their performance improvement over pulse Doppler for various environments.

The PAC–3 radar signal processors currently use 12–bit A/D converters for narrow band actions. For radar performance in clutter, more dynamic range is needed—up to 14–16 bits for wide band. system/transmitter intermediate frequency (S/T–IF) receiver subsystem changes would require the incorporation of 16 bit A/D converters into the PATRIOT S/T–IF receive subsystem, along with the incorporation of the advanced signal processor hardware and processor resident software. Included in the proposed architecture and design is the removal or disabling of the current digital signal processor and the replacement of their functions in the advanced signal processor. The CDI–3 receiver subsystem was designed for later incorporation of 12 bit A/D converters when available. The incorporation of the 14–bit converter will require some redesign of the receiver. The value added for PATRIOT is improved fire unit search, track, and CDI capabilities in low altitude, high clutter or extensive antitactical missile debris environments. The technology infusion period is from 1QFY02 to 4QFY03. [POC: Rodney Sams, PATRIOT, (205) 955–3166]

Satellite Communications on the Battlefield. The PAC–3 ORD states that PATRIOT must be capable of using organic or nonorganic single–channel and multichannel tactical satellite systems for extended range data and voice communications. Additionally, PAC–3 must accept and process told–in intelligence data and declare identification at sufficient ranges. Also, the PAC–3 Information Coordination Central (ICC) and the engagement control station (ECS)/fire unit (FU) must be capable of interfacing with and processing (in combination as external data transmission mediums) the Improved Army Tactical Area Communications System (IATACS), the Army Common User System (ACUS), the Army Data Distribution System (ADDS), the High Frequency Combat Net Radios (HFCNR), Army troposcatter transmission system, satellite communications, and commercial–leased communications circuits.

PATRIOT uses the Tactical Information Broadcast System to support this requirement. No other satellite programs exist as part of the PAC–3 program. Currently there is a Commanders Tactical Terminal–Hybrid Receiver (CTT–HR) installed in the Battalion Tactical Operations Center (BTOC). The CTT–HR is a satellite receiver that received told–in intelligence data from a theater intelligence system. This information is sent to the BTOC communications processor where it is translated into PATRIOT’s data protocol, and then transferred from the BTOC to the ICC. Once in ICC, it is fused in the expanded weapons control computer with data provided by the battalion’s internal radars to provide enhanced classification and identification of potential targets. The information is then displayed to the operators in both the ICC and BTOC. A key goal of this technology program is to be able to extend PATRIOT’s defended area by extending PATRIOT’s communications range. Satellite technology could allow a PATRIOT battalion to be deployed over a larger area and provide coverage to more assets on the theater commander’s priority list. The technology infusion period is from 2QFY00 to 4QFY03. [POC: Gerald Skidmore, PATRIOT, (205) 955–3869]

Solid–State Transmitter. There is an operational need to improve missile seeker acquisition and tracking in a cluttered environment, reduce power and size, and improve its overall reliability. Performance improvements such as in solid–state transmitter will provide increased capabilities to PAC–3 and CORPS SAM/MEADS.

Solid–state transmitters offer a number of potential advantages for active radar seekers. The more significant advantages include low voltage operation, graceful degradation due to failures, and lower phase noise floor, approximately 15 decibel (dB) lower than current traveling wave tube transmitters. It also offers reduced phase noise and graceful degradation as components fail in millimeter wave radar seekers. These benefits should result in more reliable transmitter operation as well as improved seeker acquisition and track performance in severe clutter environments. Reliability has cost savings implications for the operations and support phase, and the improved performance has possible cost savings in reduction of requirements on other components or maybe even reduced deployment quantities. The technology infusion period is from 2QFY99 to 1QFY00. [POC: Jim Putman, PATRIOT, (205) 955–1997]

Radar Signature (Target Signature System). There is a need to optimize PATRIOT missile system’s engagement capability by providing positive target identification. Other technology is required to provide protection for friendly fixed wing aircraft, identify non–TBMs by specific platform, and provide ARM countermeasure support via ARM carrier identification.

Aircraft, TBMs, and cruise missiles become more difficult to detect and track with conventional radar because of the reduced RCS. Improvements or other adjunct technologies are needed to supplement radar tracking of these targets in more stressing environments. The proposed technology effort should identify available technologies, such as electronic support measure or IR, that are applicable to this problem for the PATRIOT system. For example, IR technology may be available but may not support the longer ranges required. Concepts for implementing the selected technologies into PATRIOT should be developed, considering the need to minimize impact on force structure, and to quantify detection, tracking, and identification performance. This is a P3I effort with an opportunity for insertion beyond PAC–3. [POC: Mike Eison, PATRIOT, (205) 955–4120]

Satellite Transmission of Recorded Battlefield Data. The PAC–3 ORD states a requirement for an in–theater capability of copying and validating software tapes, disks, or other such electronic or photonic storage media at each battalion. The originating source must be capable of copying data recording media and archiving selected portions in a master database and should have over–the–air transferring capability to other using locations. PATRIOT must be capable of using organic or nonorganic single channel and multichannel tactical satellite systems for extended range data and voice communications. The PAC–3 ICC and ECS–FU must be capable of interfacing with and processing in combination with the following external data transmission mediums: IATACS modified, ACUS, ADDS, HFCNR, Army troposcatter transmission system, satellite communications, and commercial–leased communication circuits.

PATRIOT needs a small organic satellite terminal such as the Lightweight Satellite Transceiver satellite terminal or the AN/USC–39 satellite terminal that would be dedicated to satellite communications. The terminal could be installed in the BTOC, which already receives the full tactical data stream from the ICC Expanded Weapons Control Computer and has the capability to record all data. This effort could reduce data transfer time during deployments to remote locations such as Southwest Asia or Korea. It could also translate into few interceptors required and significant cost savings. The technology infusion period is from 1QFY00 to 1QFY01. [POC: Gerald Skidmore, PATRIOT, (205) 955–3869]

b. Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)/Ground Based Radar (GBR)

THAAD comprises the upper tier of the Army’s planned two–tiered BMD architecture. Its long–range intercept capability will make possible the protection of wide areas, dispersed assets, and population centers against TBM attacks. THAAD’s high altitude intercepts will effectively defend against maneuvering RVs and greatly reduce the probability that debris and chemical or biological agents from a TBM warhead will reach the ground. Its HTK technology will provide high lethality against a broader range of threat missiles. The combination of higher altitude and longer range capability will provide multiple engagement (shoot–look–shoot) opportunities to kill incoming threat missiles. THAAD will be interoperable with both existing and future air defense systems and other external data sources. The THAAD missile, combined with the radar element, forms the THAAD system.

TMD Survivability Program. Technology Requirements Document (TRD) and ORD requirements state that TMD Systems, including THAAD, PATRIOT, and CORPS SAM/MEADS, are high–value assets and are required to have a high probability of survival on all TMD battlefield environments, including nuclear. The TMD systems are required to minimize the multispectral signatures and reduce the susceptibility to detection, recognition, and acquisition by RSTA systems.

The TMD Survivability (TMDS) program consists of eight interrelated tasks for TMD objective systems that require research and susceptibility assessment, exploitability evaluation, vulnerability assessment, solution development, and technology insertion. Those eight tasks are:

Top/down survivability and demonstrations
CCD technology engineering
Nuclear and natural propagation effects analysis and countermeasures development
E3
Antiradiation and cruise missile countermeasure evaluator (ACE) upgrades
ARM and smart weapons countermeasures analysis
Nuclear, natural, kinetic debris model development
Conventional munitions countermeasures and tests.

This program will provide enhanced battlefield survivability of the TMD systems. The emphasis is on providing solutions that are low–cost, easy to integrate into the system, and available in the near term. The technology infusion period is from 1QFY98 to 4QFY02. [POC: Bob Balla, (205) 895–3308]

Optical Data Analysis. The THAAD requirements document requires target characterization for seeker onboard optical discrimination to identify, track and kill the target accurately. Optical data analysis (ODA) will provide the analysis, algorithm development and evaluation, and the tools and models necessary for development of seeker discrimination.

The ODA program is managed by the Sensors Analysis Division of the SMDC. The ODA program’s focus is on data analysis, algorithm development and evaluation, defense sensor functional evaluation, and models and tools development. The key risk reduction goals for the ODA program are to provide ancillary sensor data analysis input to assist DEM/VAL test planning/evaluation, implement and evaluate algorithms as necessary to provide assessments of DEM/VAL success/issues, provide assessments of expected DEM/VAL target performance to assist pretest planning and post–test evaluation, and assist in the characterization of the THAAD system for user operational evaluation system capability and objective system requirements. The technology infusion period is from 1QFY98 to 4QFY99. [POC: Delois Ragland, THAAD, (205) 895–4058]

Kill Assessment Technology Program. The THAAD TRD places stringent discrimination, false alarm, and kill assessment performance requirements on the THAAD radar system. Critical kill assessment technology requirements include near–real–time algorithms for both unitary and separated warheads that can determine to what degree the target has been rendered nonlethal. Also required are near–real–time advanced algorithms to identify warhead and missile types. All of these technology products require thorough verification and validation testing on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratory LDS facilities.

A critical function required of the THAAD radar as part of the THAAD system is to perform near–real–time kill assessment of intercepts made during tactical ballistic missile engagements. The kill assessment technology is essential for implementing shoot–look–shoot capability for THAAD, as well as for supporting upper tier/lower tier proper cueing by BM/C3I. Critical technology development requirements for THAAD radar kill assessment include near–real time algorithms for both attached (unitary) and separated warheads of threat missile systems. First, these algorithms must determine and quantify effectiveness (i.e., whether and to what degree an interceptor has rendered the target nonlethal), thus ensuring accurate further response cues. Second, they must accomplish near–real time identification of warhead types (i.e., high explosive, chemical, biological, nuclear).

This technology effort will pursue extensive data/measurements collection from major flight demonstrations plus ground based tests for a comprehensive database and a broad–based development, test, verification, and validation activity towards advanced kill assessment algorithms and architectures. Additionally, the kill assessment program will support DEM/VAL flight testing through timely post mission intercept assessment, radar data reduction and analysis, and algorithm evaluation, which should demonstrate an operational kill assessment capability for key TMD elements such as THAAD. The technology infusion period is from 1QFY98 to 2QFY06. [POC: Joe Roberts, THAAD, (205) 895–3211]

Real–Time Discrimination Technology (RTDT). The ORD and TRD impose stringent discrimination and false alarm requirements on the THAAD radar system demanding separation of RVs from tankage, RV associated objects, closely spaced objects, and decoys.

To support successful engagements of TBMs, critical technology requirements and issues for the THAAD radar include missile system typing, discrimination, wideband tracking, target object map handover to THAAD, support for THAAD seeker aimpoint selection, and support for upper tier handover to the lower tier.

These requirements are supported by the RTDT program, including the LDS real–time testbed. The program supports the development of missile system typing, discrimination, and tracking algorithms through field data reduction and analysis in conjunction with real time algorithm design, testing, and validation. The capabilities of LDS allow for detailed testing of multi sensor system functions (i.e., radar to interceptor handover and upper tier/lower tier handover and fusion) using both field measurements and simulated data as required. This program also supports PAC–3 requirements for onboard target acquisition, recognition, discrimination, and homing. The technology infusion period is from 1QFY98 through 1QFY05. [POC: Joe Roberts, THAAD, (205) 895–3211]

Advanced Radar Component Technology. THAAD has stringent discrimination and engagement assessment requirements that necessitate wide bandwidth and improved range and Doppler resolution. The system also has traffic handling and simultaneous attack requirements demanding high processing speeds and a large processing capacity. The radar system must be able to operate in a severe ECM environment, must not have interference by other friendly radar systems, must be able to survive ARM attacks, and must be off–road and cross–country mobile and C–141 transportable.

An increase in performance combined with a decrease in size/weight of advanced radar components developed by the proposed program contribute to electronic counter–countermeasures (ECCM), discrimination, kill assessment, and mobility/transportability requirements. The initial effort of this program is the development of a concept for utilizing components from the current waveform generator to provide real–time simulated digital beamforming at the subarray level for X–band radars. In addition, an advanced waveform generator will be built that is capable of both analog and digital beamforming at twice the instantaneous bandwidth of the current waveform generator in one–half volume. This combination addresses ECCM, discrimination, kill assessment, and mobility/transportability requirements. The wideband waveform generator will be a major contribution to the down range simulator used in HWIL testbed, where the capability to test signal processing of wideband arbitrary waveforms exists. The acousto–optic processor may be inserted as and adjunct to the THAAD signal processor to perform wideband arbitrary signal processing. [POC: Bob Balla, (205) 895–3308]

Miniature Interceptor Technology. There is a requirement for interceptors to meet future threats using significantly less onboard power consumption, reduced size and weight, and improved control during divert maneuvering. The miniature interceptors are small and light, require less power, and provide increased guidance, control, stability, and kill effectiveness. Defending against the advanced submunitions threat is one example of future threat requirements.

Research goals in this area encompass the development of miniature interceptor components that will reduce size and weight, improve control, reduce onboard power consumption, increase accuracy of guidance and control, increase divert capability and increase reliability and ruggedness. The technology program will demonstrate a non–IMU spin stabilized homing projectile; will build a polarization sensitive sensor and measure polarization from strategic materials; and will fabricate and test a 9–centimeter path length ring laser gyroscope IMU (250 grams, 3.5 cubic inches). The goals include the concept that consists of simultaneous targeting and engagement of multiple objects (which would be encountered in an advanced submunitions threat) by spin–stabilized homing projectiles. Specific capabilities to be obtained from this technology effort include polarization technology that will provide discrimination capability, eliminate aim point ambiguity, identify and discriminate hard body from plume, and determine target orientation; a propulsion system that will provide 25 percent higher Isp (specific impulse) than the current THAAD propulsion system; IMUs that will be developed with milliwatt power consumption while reducing cost and size, and increasing accuracy; and HTK miniature interceptor properties that will be developed to enhance the THAAD kill mechanism. The technology infusion period is from 1QFY99 to 4QFY02. [POC: Peter Wright, THAAD, (205) 895–3720]

Optical Signatures Code (OSC). The THAAD TRD places a stringent requirement on optical discrimination. OSC provides a validated capability for simulation of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet (UV) signatures of missile targets applicable to both strategic and tactical missile defense scenarios. OSC is an analysis tool supporting mission planning, sensor and seeker design, data analysis, and threat missile signatures. A key goal of OSC is to provide credible optical signatures as required by BMDO programs. The OSC is considered the industry standard, a high fidelity signature simulation code to be used in ballistic missile scenarios. Current enhancements to the code capabilities include theater and cruise missile applications. Specifically, OSC contains improvements that allow it to provide accurate estimates of the aerothermal ascent and reentry heating of tactical and test targets. For the proposed effort, additional upgrades to the code are currently being designed to predict the behavior of a variety of threats more accurately.

Signature predictions from the OSC will be used by THAAD to predict target intensities. As the OSC is further refined to predict intensities of the full range of DEM/VAL, engineering manufacturing development (EMD) and objective system targets for the THAAD system, it will allow THAAD designers to tighten their requirements on seeker acquisition, resolution, optical discrimination, and endgame imaging performance. The code has been upgraded, both to predict behavior of targets with nonaxisymmetric shapes more accurately, and to provide capabilities for theater and cruise missile simulations. Other upgrades are needed to model complex targets with four conical sections, improve wake and debris models, and complete development of graphical user interfaces for PC Windows and workstations. The technology infusion period is from 1QFY98 through 1QFY05. [POC: Mike Butler, THAAD, (205) 895–4059]

Range Doppler Imager (RDI). The THAAD ORD requires that the radar design incorporate survivability features to permit operation in a severe ECM environment. The radar has stringent discrimination and engagement assessment requirements that necessitate wide bandwidth and improved range and Doppler resolution. The radar also has traffic handling and simultaneous attack requirements demanding high processing speeds and a large processing capacity. As the ECM environment becomes more severe, an advanced signal processor utilizing technology from the RDI may need to be incorporated into the THAAD radar.

The objective of the RDI development effort is to design, fabricate, test, and evaluate an advanced optical signal processing architecture. The proposed technology program provides instantaneous or real–time processing of wideband arbitrary waveforms. The technology developed in this program can be utilized in advanced acousto–optic signal processing hardware capable of real–time wideband signal processing of arbitrary signal modulations in dense target environments. Pseudorandom noise waveforms, which are difficult for ARMs to acquire and track, allow for a robust ECCM waveform suite to be developed for the THAAD radar. This additional waveform diversity capability enables the successful wideband tracking and accurate discrimination of targets in a severe ECM environment. The most probable technology infusion point is 3QFY99. A P3I insertion is possible after 2QFY02. [POC: Bob Balla, (205) 895–3308]

Resonant Fiber Optic Gyroscope (RFOG). The TMD missiles must provide navigation accuracy consistent with the missile seeker FOV, missile divert capability, target state uncertainties, and in–flight guidance updates within the engagement battle space. In order for THAAD, PAC–3, and CORPS SAM to meet their individual operational requirements, a low–cost, lightweight, high reliability, small, high performance gyroscope must be developed. The RFOG is one of the gyroscope developments with the potential to meet all the requirements.

RFOG represents an improvement over both the current RLG and IFOG. The resonance approach yields more sharply defined resonance peaks providing increased accuracy compared to the IFOG and the RLG. The resonance technique also requires many less turns of fiber providing one half the volume requirement compared to the IFOG and one third the volume of the RLG. This accuracy is required for guiding the THAAD missile as it closes on the target. In addition, an all solid–state RFOG has no moving parts, requires low voltage and power, and can be packaged in smaller volumes than either the RLG or the IFOG. The RFOG–driven IMU is being developed to provide enhanced THAAD terminal guidance accuracy. It is a fit, form, and enhanced function replacement for the RLG–driven IMU but requires less weight, space, and input power. The technology infusion period is from 3QFY00 through 4QFY02. [POC: Ray Noblitt, THAAD, (205) 955–1857]

Jet Interaction/Jet Reaction (JI/JR) Phenomenology. The expanded high–speed, high–altitude engagement requirements in which current and planned interceptors such as THAAD are employed necessitate the understanding of JI/JR phenomena. The unexpected flow of Attitude Control System (ACS) reaction products during interceptor maneuvers has the potential of affecting the IR transmission capabilities of the optical sensor window that, in THAAD, is in close proximity to the ACS. Testing and analysis of the JI/JR processes throughout the battlespace cannot only help understand and mitigate potential engagement and detection limitations, but also aid in product improvements and future design efforts on new weapon systems.

The knowledge and insight gained through a comprehensive test program, coupled with CFD code and model development, would not only significantly reduce the design and performance risks associated with new weapons systems, but also add to the basic understanding of the physical interactions of active control systems in high–speed, high–altitude atmospheric conditions. This knowledge will impact both the capabilities of DACS and the efficient design of optical sensors located near the ACS. In addition, the test program will examine new material developments and other technologies needed to develop low cost, high performance solid DACS for use in future programs. The successful performance of this risk reduction program requires access to advanced test facilities and state of the art CFD codes and models. The ability to use test data collected both at modeled and actual flight conditions to normalize and validate computational techniques and models will support extending the ability to optimize missile design and capabilities. This program will lead to the understanding required to maximize the capabilities of modern interceptors while reducing the design, development, and test risks associated with the programs. The most probable technology infusion point is 2QFY03, with a possible P3I insertion anytime afterwards. [POC: Dr. Don McClure, (205) 955–1952]

c. CORPS Surface–to–Air Missile/Medium Extended Air Defense System

The CORPS SAM will be a highly mobile, low–to–medium altitude air defense system, and will be a key element of the TMD in the PEO–AMD architecture. It will protect the maneuver forces with area and point defense capabilities against tactical ballistic missiles, air–to–surface missiles and ARMs; fixed and rotary wing aircraft; cruise missiles; and UAVs. CORPS SAM will be the implementation of the MEADS in the DoD infrastructure.

The system will consist of sensors, launcher, missile and Tactical Operations Center, and will be capable of standalone operational capability. However, as part of the PEO–AMD architecture, the system will be compatible/interoperable with other Army air defense systems (i.e., THAAD, PATRIOT, FAAD) and will interface with joint and allied sensors and BM/C3I networks.

The MEADS is a trilateral U.S.–Germany–Italy cooperative development program, now entering the project definition–validation phase and continuing through FY98. Two international contractor teams will compete during this phase, with the ultimate selection of a single winner for the design and development phase occurring in early FY99. Because MEADS is in this competitive phase, technology infusion is not appropriate.

Furthermore, because the MEADS is an international cooperative program, all PEO–AMD communications concerning U.S. technology capabilities and MEADS technology requirements are to be directed to the CORPS SAM National Product Office (NPO). The CORPS SAM NPO point of contact (POC) will monitor technology developments for consideration by CORPS SAM/MEADS for further technology infusion opportunities.

d. ARROW

The ARROW Continuation Experiments is a follow–on to the ARROW Experiment Program. ARROW is a joint United States–Israel program to assist the Government of Israel to attain critical performance objectives and obtain the test information to enable a decision to enter into production and deployment of the ARROW–centered Israeli Missile Defense System. The U.S. benefits from test and technology products of the program. FY93 efforts focused on conducting lethality flight tests using the ARROW I missile and completing the subsystem critical design reviews for the ARROW II tests, and the ARROW II system CDR. The initial ARROW II missile flight test was completed during the summer of 1995. The ARROW program will have five ARROW II system tests in FY98–99.

The ARROW Project Office has identified the technology programs suitable for application to ARROW II and possible for infusion within the current technology export restrictions. The ARROW Project Office will monitor future technology developments for consideration by ARROW for further technology infusion opportunities.

e. Joint Tactical Ground Station

The JTAGS is a transportable information processing system that can receive and process in–theater, direct downlinked data from DSP sensors and disseminate warning, alerting, and cueing information on TBMs and other tactical events of interest. JTAGS, an Acquisition Category III, nondevelopmental item program, is in the production phase. Five units were produced and fielded in 1997.

The current JTAGS P3I program includes the following system enhancements:

Phase I (FY97–99)
Joint Tactical Information Distribution System Integration
Sensor fusion
Sensor calibration (beacon)
Phase II (FY98–03)
Four SBIRS integration.

A tri–service MOA signed by all service executives in September 1996 agreed to pursue use of the Army JTAGS as the SBIRS common mobile ground processor. While no technology programs have been identified for potential infusion into JTAGS, the JTAGS Program management Office POC will monitor future technology developments and changes to the JTAGS mission for further technology infusion opportunities.

2. National Missile Defense

NMD is a strategic endeavor of all U.S. armed services to provide protection for national assets against an attack by various third world countries with an emerging delivery means for WMDs. NMD has entered the first year of a 3–year development period that will culminate in a decision to deploy. With an affirmative decision in FY99, NMD will enter a 3–year development period. The NMD program will continue to DEM/VAL technologies for possible development and production, should the threat worsen.

a. Ground–Based Interceptor/Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle

Pilotline Experiment Program. The NMD ground–based interceptor (GBI) ORD and segment specifications are now under revision. However, there will likely be tractability to the GBI–X TRD. According to the GBI–X TRD, the GBI element KV seeker will be capable of target selection by performing onboard discrimination in accordance with known target optical characteristics and exoatmospheric nonnuclear, HTK intercepts. The TRD has an implied requirement to incorporate margin in the operational seeker for any final threat variations, handover shortfalls, or more stressing environments.

The Pilotline Experiment Technology Program is an ongoing FPA technology program addressing a number of issues, including high–speed, on–chip readout electronics, radiation hardening, and on–chip hybrid FPA producibility, thereby demonstrating repeatable, reliable, and predictable performance with end–product deliveries. This program is developing critical component technology emphasizing NMD and TMD system applications, including CMD. Refer to subsection D.3a for more information. The most probable technology infusion point is 1QFY98, with the possibility of a P3I insertion afterwards. [POC: Janet Fuqua, NMD–GBI, (205) 722–1965]

Improved Thermal Batteries for Missile Interceptors. The applicable ORD requirements to be addressed by an improved lithium thermal battery technology program are range at target intercept, interceptor missile shelf life, and similarity of the shape, size, voltage/power, and weight constraints of the NMD–GBI design. Improvements to thermal batteries will enhance mission performance for any missile interceptor utilizing thermal batteries. See subsection E.1a for more information on the program. The earliest and most probable technology infusion points are 4QFY99 and 3QFY00 respectively. There is a possibility for a P3I insertion afterwards. [POC: Rick Bowen, NMD–GBI, (205) 722–1216]

Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyroscopes (IFOGs). The NMD–GBI must provide navigation accuracy consistent with the seeker FOV, divert capabilities, target uncertainties, and in–flight guidance updates within the engagement battle space. In order to meet operational requirements, a low–cost, lightweight, high–reliability, small, high–performance gyroscope must be developed. The IFOG is one of the gyroscope developments with the potential to meet the requirements. Refer to subsection E.1a for a description of the program. The earliest and most probable technology infusion points are 4QFY99 and 3QFY00 respectively. There is a possibility for a P3I insertion afterwards. [POC: Rick Bowen, NMD–GBI, (205) 722–1216]

Resonant Fiber Optic Gyroscopes (RFOGs). Refer to subsection E.1b for a description of the program. The earliest and most probable technology infusion points are 4QFY99 and 3QFY00, respectively. There is a possibility for a P3I insertion afterwards. [POC: Rick Bowen, NMD–GBI, (205) 722–1216]

Gel Propulsion. Gel propulsion technology is based on taking highly energetic, highly reactive, highly hazardous liquid hypergolic propellants and adding a gelling agent. This produces a gelled liquid propellant that retains its high energy characteristics but is much less hazardous. The total impulse of the gel propulsion unit meets or exceeds the solid rocket motor capabilities. The gel booster offers the option of improved performance in the same booster envelope. If preferred, the booster performance can be held equivalent to the baseline system, and the propulsion weight and volume can be reduced. The gel booster offers complete energy management flexibility and has an on–demand, on–off–on, adaptive thrust capability. The basic gel propulsion technology has been demonstrated in the THAAD gel DACS program. This program will package the components to NMD–GBI system requirements. The NMD–GBI design documents will be used to ensure that the gel booster is a form–fit–and–function equivalent of the baseline system. The gel booster development schedule will be tied directly to the NMD–GBI schedule. Environmental and system level tests will be conducted and a technical data package will be developed. The most probable technology infusion point is 3QFY00. [POC: Gene Lenning, (205) 722–1216]

b. Ground–Based Radar/Radar Technology Validation

Mosaic Array Data Compression and Processing (MADCAP) Module. There is a need for addition of transient filtering to improve the sensitivity of the GBI focal plane in a nuclear environment. The MADCAP technology will support this need. Refer to subsection D.3b for a description of the program. [POC: Dr. Virginia Kobler, NMD–PO, (205) 895–3836]

Discriminating Interceptor Technology Program (DITP). The DITP has the prime objective of demonstrating potential TMD and NMD interceptor seeker upgrades with a sensor data fusion capability. It will demonstrate, for the first time, data fusion from miniaturized, colocated, dissimilar sensors on an interceptor platform. During scheduled test flights, DIPT will demonstrate interceptor–based discrimination against simulated targets. The key technologies being developed in this program are the discrimination algorithms, and the intelligent processing algorithms and methodology for fusing the data from the various sensors.

The schedule for DIPT calls for flight tests to begin near the end of FY 00. To support this schedule, the discrimination algorithms and intelligent processing algorithms will be delivered in initial form near the end of FY98. This will include the algorithms configured to run on a massively parallel computer similar to that which would fly on an interceptor and a fused sensor discrimination tool to test and evaluate the algorithms against threat scenarios using real and simulated data. These algorithms and the testbed for evaluation and testing will be updated throughout the life of the program. The technology infusion period is from 4QFY98 through 4QFY04. [POC: Earl Deason, NMD–PO, (205) 895–1425]

Optical Signatures Code (OSC). OSC is utilized in this effort to predict signature intensities for ballistic missiles, targets, decoys, penaids, and missile fragments. Refer to subsection E.1b for a description of the program. The technology infusion period is from 1QFY98 through 4QFY05. [POC: Dave Lacy, NMD–PO, (205) 895–3208]

Optical Data Analysis. The GBI Office requires target characterization for its integrated flight test (IFT) and the accurate evaluation of performance as well as the evaluation of sensor/seeker algorithms to identify, track and kill its target accurately.

The ODA program will provide the tools and models necessary for the characterization of target signatures and the accurate evaluation of algorithm performance. The ODA Program’s focus is on data analysis, target modeling and signature generation, algorithm development and evaluation, defense sensor functional evaluation, and models and tools development.

The GBI Office’s expectation is that work by the ODA program will mitigate risk to GBI during the flight test phase, result in the delivery of better algorithms for insertion during the GBI development process, result in a better understanding of performance characteristics, and provide the basis for better algorithms for technology insertion in the EMD phase of development. Refer to subsection E.1b for more information on the program. The technology infusion period is from 1QFY98 through 1QFY99. [POC: Dave Lacy, NMD–PO, (205) 895–3208]

Innovative Radar Components Research. The NMD GBR has stringent requirements that require high overall sensitivity. The active radiator will provide a sensitivity enhancement of up to 6 decibels at potentially less cost per element than a T/R module architecture.

An active radiator proof of principle will be demonstrated in FY98 using the FY98 proof of principle demonstration results as a foundation. The proposed FY98/99 tasks will (1) extend the level of active radiator component integration; (2) perform tradeoffs and develop and test signaling element control methodology; (3) perform tradeoffs and develop and test a power distribution network; and (4) perform a pilot build of about 64 elements. This program will provide invaluable technology that will improve overall system performance and requirements for subarray cooling, power delivery, beam steering control, etc. Refer to subsection D.3i for more information on the program. The earliest and most probable technology infusion points are 1QFY00 and 3QFY00 respectively. P3I insertions are possible through 2010. [POC: Bill Dionne, (205) 722–1830]

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