News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



11. Civil Engineering and Environmental Quality

This technology area focuses on critical environmental and civil engineering problems related to training, mobilizing, deploying, and employing a force at any location at any time. The goal is to provide an environmentally sustainable, military–unique infrastructure at the lowest possible life–cycle cost.

The problems of meeting national and international environmental standards and of engineering affordable and sustainable facilities and infrastructures in a climate of reduced funding are common to all of our potential partners. Remediation of environmental pollution and maintenance of infrastructure are areas of considerable importance to the civil sector as well, and most industrialized nations have active programs in techniques, materials, and in M&S to support requirements analysis and design.

Table E–14 and the following paragraphs summarize the significant environmental and civil engineering capabilities and opportunities.

Table E–14.  International Research Capabilities—Civil Engineering and Environmental Quality

Technology

United Kingdom

France

Germany

Japan

Asia/Pacific Rim

FSU

Other Countries

Environmental Quality 1s.gif (931 bytes) Environmental protection; bioremediation; regulatory compliance 1s.gif (931 bytes) Environmental protection; bioremediation; demil of energetic materials 1s.gif (931 bytes) Environmental protection; bioremediation 1s.gif (931 bytes) Environmental protection; bioremediation     Nordic Group, Israel

1s.gif (931 bytes) Environmental protection; bioremediation

Civil Engineering 1s.gif (931 bytes) Lightweight bridging; response of conventional structures to blast 2s.gif (968 bytes) Survivable structures; high–performance construction materials 2s.gif (968 bytes) Response of hardened structures to conventional weapons        
Note: See Annex E, Section A.6 for explanation of key numerals.

a. Environmental Quality

Environmental quality subareas include cleanup of contaminated sites, compliance with all environmental laws, pollution prevention to minimize Army use and generation of wastes and to minimize adverse affects on the environment, and conservation of our natural and cultural resources. Technical challenges include a host of issues related to these areas. Items of current focus include developing technologies and applications such as:

Supercritical water oxidation, cold plasma reaction, catalytic decomposition, biodegradation, sorption/concentration, separation, and conversion to reduce costs and increase efficacy of treatment and disposition

Replacement materials for existing solvents, acids, bases, and oxidizers with more environmentally acceptable alternatives

New sensors for contaminated site characterization, integration of site characterization, ground water modeling, rate and effects predictions, and management techniques.

Among notable highlights, the United Kingdom has been a leading force in the development of international standards for environmental management systems. Many of the current draft International Standardization Organization (ISO) standards are patterned after existing British standards. Japan, the U.K., Germany, France, Israel, and the Nordic Group all have significant efforts in bioremediation (the use of biological organisms or their products (enzymes) to breakdown or neutralize a wide range of contaminants). The French in particular have had a longstanding interest and strong effort in biodegradation and demilitarization of energetic materials. Internationally there is growing concern for clean up of organophosphate insecticide contaminated sites. An effective enzymatic treatment for this purpose might also be adopted for decontamination of nerve agents. We can anticipate that growing awareness of environmental effects as regional and global issues, and the emergence of international standards for their effective management will lead to opportunities for increased cooperation to improve pollution prevention, environmental protection, techniques for monitoring and compliance, and remediation, particularly with EC countries and Japan, which are moving rapidly towards adoption of the ISO 14000 standard.

b. Civil Engineering

Civil engineering subareas include conventional facilities, airfields and pavements, survivability and protective structures, and sustainment engineering. The primary thrust of technologies for conventional facilities is to revitalize and operate DoD’s aging infrastructure at an affordable cost. In airfields and pavements, the major effort is to reduce life–cycle costs. Survivability and protective structures address reliable, affordable structural hardening, retrofit hardening, and camouflage, concealment, and deception (CC&D), to increase survivability and force protection from the foxhole to the deeply buried command structure against threats from conventional munitions, terrorist threats, and advanced precision penetrators. Sustainment engineering provides the civil engineering technologies required for successful execution of strategic, operational, and tactical force projection, employment, and sustainment.

Technical challenges in civil engineering cover a wide range of technologies and need. Developments of current interest include:

Collaborative automated environment to optimize facility life–cycle costs

Automated monitoring of facility components

Rapidly installed breakwaters for logistics–over–the–shore operations

Concrete admixtures, dynamic 3D models and viscoelastic material responses for airfields and pavements

Construction during winter and thawing conditions

Criteria, materials, and assessment techniques for constructible, survivability measures against a broad spectrum of increasingly lethal weapons and threats.

Foreign capabilities of most interest are in the areas of high performance construction materials (France), material systems and response of conventional structures to blasts (United Kingdom), and response of hardened structures to conventional weapons (Germany).

USACE POC: Mr. Jerry Lundien
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
CERD–M
20 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20314–1000
e–mail: jerry.lundien@inet.hq.usace.army.mil

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